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WATER SUPPLY Murray Biedler July 09, 2012. WATER NEEDS Drinking Food Prep Hygiene / Washing Agric / Stock.

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Presentation on theme: "WATER SUPPLY Murray Biedler July 09, 2012. WATER NEEDS Drinking Food Prep Hygiene / Washing Agric / Stock."— Presentation transcript:

1 WATER SUPPLY Murray Biedler July 09, 2012

2 WATER NEEDS Drinking Food Prep Hygiene / Washing Agric / Stock

3 CHARACTERISTICS of WATER SUPPLY Quantity Quantity Quality Quality Access and Sources Access and Sources Treatment Treatment Not static… constantly changing

4 WATER QUANTITY Europe 150-litres/p/day average Europe 150-litres/p/day average Emergencies Emergencies 20-litres/p/day minimum20-litres/p/day minimum 5-litres/p/day: opening of emergency5-litres/p/day: opening of emergency Health centre: 1-2 litres/consultationHealth centre: 1-2 litres/consultation Hospital: litres/patient/day (100 for surgery)Hospital: litres/patient/day (100 for surgery) Therapeutic feeding centre: 30 litres / child / dayTherapeutic feeding centre: 30 litres / child / day Cattle: 30 l/animal/dayCattle: 30 l/animal/day Small animals: 5 l/animal/daySmall animals: 5 l/animal/day

5 WATER QUALITY Bacteriological quality linked to: Bacteriological quality linked to: Faecal contamination indicative of pathogens (e.g. cholera or typhoid)Faecal contamination indicative of pathogens (e.g. cholera or typhoid) (rapid assessment in field) (rapid assessment in field) Chemical quality linked to: Chemical quality linked to: Geological surroundings, agricultural or other industrial/commercial activitiesGeological surroundings, agricultural or other industrial/commercial activities (rapid assessment difficult lab required) (rapid assessment difficult lab required)

6 WATER QUALITY Good Quality: Contains no pathogens Contains no pathogens Low concentration of toxic products Low concentration of toxic products Clear (low turbidity) Clear (low turbidity) Is not too salty or mineralized Is not too salty or mineralized Colour, odour and taste acceptable Colour, odour and taste acceptable

7 WATER ACCESS: CHALLENGES TimeCost Distance & Security

8 WATER ACESS: SOURCES Surface water Surface water rivers, lakes, ponds (access seasonal)rivers, lakes, ponds (access seasonal) Ground water Ground water Difficult access but can be better qualityDifficult access but can be better quality Precipitation Precipitation Seasonal: rain, snow, fog captureSeasonal: rain, snow, fog capture

9 WATER ACCESS: SURFACE On site pumps to storage / tower Gravity network, pipes & taps

10 WATER ACCESS: GROUNDWATER Hand-dug wells: Hand-dug wells: hand pumps, buckets Boreholes ( shallow & deep ) Boreholes ( shallow & deep ) pumps: hand, motor, solar, wind…

11 WATER ACCESS: SPRINGS Springs: on site pumps or gravity into networks, pipes & taps

12 WATER ACCESS: PRECIPITATION Rainwater collection gravity to tanks networks, pipes & taps

13 WATER ACCESS: STORAGE Storage provides availability on regular basis Storage provides availability on regular basis Storage tanks provide: Storage tanks provide: Treatment of large volumesTreatment of large volumes Pressure with gravityPressure with gravity Dams: surface and subsurface; seasonal & precipitation constraints Dams: surface and subsurface; seasonal & precipitation constraints

14 WATER ACCESS DISTRIBUTION 1 tap/200 persons for displaced populations 1 tap/200 persons for displaced populations Health facilities: taps for staff, patients & visitors Health facilities: taps for staff, patients & visitors Container distribution Container distribution

15 WATER TREATMENT Chlorination simplest & most efficient way to kill micro-organisms Chlorination simplest & most efficient way to kill micro-organisms Residual chlorine necessary to attack further contaminations Residual chlorine necessary to attack further contaminations Chlorination becomes inefficient if the water is too dirty or turbid Chlorination becomes inefficient if the water is too dirty or turbid

16 SEDIMENTATION & FILTRATION Water stored until suspended particles settle Water stored until suspended particles settle Water can be filtered with sand or other designed materials Water can be filtered with sand or other designed materials Coagulation-flocculation for heavy turbidity using chemicals ( e.g.ferric chloride or aluminium sulphate ) Coagulation-flocculation for heavy turbidity using chemicals ( e.g.ferric chloride or aluminium sulphate )

17 DOMESTIC STORAGE Container lid or top (e.g: jerry can) or a narrow opening (transport) kept clean regularly dosed for residual chlorine (storage)

18 MAIN ISSUES TO BE CONSIDERED NEEDS ANALYSIS POTENTIAL SOURCES TECHNICAL OPTIONS ENSURING QUALITY SANITATION AND HYGIENE AVAILABLE QUANTITY ADAPTED WATER SUPPLY


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