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Hardware and Software Using MIS 4e Chapter 4. This Could Happen to You: We Called It Strangle and Cram Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing.

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Presentation on theme: "Hardware and Software Using MIS 4e Chapter 4. This Could Happen to You: We Called It Strangle and Cram Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing."— Presentation transcript:

1 Hardware and Software Using MIS 4e Chapter 4

2 This Could Happen to You: We Called It Strangle and Cram Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall FlexTime scenario video Strangle and cram Cut off support to an older version of a product (strangle) and tell your customers that to get support they have to upgrade to the new version (cram). Neil suggest going to a thin client/server architecture using open source software 4-2

3 Like Neil, you might go into the computer industry and transition to some other business. If so, youll know how the game is played. However, you might not. You might become a department manager, or own your own small business, or be appointed to your law firms technology committee. Whatever direction your career takes, you dont want to be one of those professionals who waste a lot of money... and time. The knowledge from this chapter can help. You dont need to be an expert, a hardware engineer, or a computer programmer. You do need to know enough, however, to be an effective consumer. You need the knowledge and skills to ask important, relevant questions and understand the answers. We begin with basic hardware and software concepts, then discuss how you can use your knowledge to prepare a computer budget for your department and wrap up by forecasting trends in hardware and software in Chapter Preview 4-3 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

4 Q1: What do business professionals need to know about computer hardware? Q2: What do business professionals need to know about software? Q3: Is open source software a viable alternative? Q4: How can you use this knowledge? Q5:2021? Study Questions Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 4-4

5 Watch the video clip Q1:What Do Business Professionals Need to Know About Computer Hardware? Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 4-5 Hardware includes electronic components and related gadgetry that input, process, output, and store data according to instructions encoded in computer programs or software.

6 Input hardware includes: Keyboard, mouse, scanners, microphones, and handwriting for a tablet PC. Processing hardware includes: Central processing unit (CPU), which can be a dual-processor or a quad-processor, main memory, and special function cards.dual-processor Output hardware includes: Video displays, printers, audio speakers, overhead projectors, and special-purpose devices. Storage hardware includes: Magnetic disks, optical disks, and magnetic tape. Four Categories of Basic Computer Components Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 4-6

7 Binary digits (bits) Used to represent data Bit is either 0 or 1 Computer Data Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 4-7

8 Sizing Computer Data Bytes 8-bit chunk = 1 byte Storage Capacity Terminology Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 4-8

9 In Fewer Than 300 Words, How Does a Computer Work? Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 4-9

10 How Does a Computer Work? (contd) (click here for more info) (click here for more info) Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall CPU (Central Processing Unit) Transfers program or data from disk to main memory Moves instruction from main memory via data channel or busdata channel Has small amount of fast memory called cachecache 4-10

11 Program instructions Operating system instructions Main memory Main memory contains Program that controls computers resources and blocks of data Provides services to application programs and users Operating system (OS) How Does a Computer Work? (contd) Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 4-11

12 Occurs when RAM is too small to hold all open programs and data CPU loads new program segments into unused memory If none available, operating system will swap out existing instructions, or data, to a disk and copy requested program, or data, to freed space Swapping slows down your computer Memory Swapping Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 4-12

13 Too little means constant memory swapping Need more memory for processing many programs or large files Main memory size Expressed in hertz (Hz):hertz Electrical voltage that changes from low to high and back again at regular intervals Need more speed if handling large spreadsheets or database files 32-bit CPU 4 GB RAM32-bit CPU 64-bit CPU almost unlimited RAM64-bit CPU CPU speed Why Should a Manager Care How a Computer Works? Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 4-13

14 Slow personal computers have speed of 1.5 Gigahertz, fast ones have speed of 3+ GHz, with dual processing (2009) CPU speed (hertz) 64-bit CPU can address more main memory Effectively utilize more than 4 GB of memory More expensive than 32-bit processors CPUs classified as 32-bit or 64-bit Why Does a Manager Care How a Computer Works? Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 4-14

15 Simple tasks, such as word processing, do not need fast CPU; a 32-bit, 1.5 GHz CPU will be fine Processing large, complicated spreadsheets or manipulating large database files, or editing large picture, sound, or movie files needs a fast computer like a 64-bit, dual processor with 3.5 GHz+ speed Cache and main memory are volatile meaning their contents are lost when power is off Magnetic and optical disks are nonvolatile, meaning their contents survive when power is off Why Does a Manager Care How a Computer Works? Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 4-15

16 CacheCache and main memory are volatile Contents lost when power is cut off Stores frequently used instructions Large cache makes computer fast, but more expensive Why Should a Manager Care How a Computer Works? (contd) Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Magnetic and optical disks are nonvolatile Saved contents survive after power is off Used for secondary storage 4-16

17 What Is Difference Between a Client and a Server? Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 4-17 Clients used for word processing, spreadsheets, database access, connecting to a network

18 Computers used by an individual for word processing, spreadsheets, database access, and so forth Most client computers have software that enables connecting to a private network at work or school, or public Internet Client computers Provide service (such as ; serving pages on a website; processing large, shared databases; or other functions) to multiple users Server computers Clients and Servers Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 4-18

19 Must be fast and have multiple CPUs Need lots of main memory, at least 4GB Require very large disksoften a terabyte or more Servers almost always accessed from another computer via a network Have limited video displays, or no display at all Many have no keyboard A typical server: Clients and Servers Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 4-19

20 Large collection of coordinated servers Amazon can process 110 order items per second. Server farm 4-20 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Google Data sites Inside a Google Data Center (video)

21 A network of computers that operates as an integrated whole; grid appears to be a single computer May support a server farm, or some other computing need Organizations lease time on a grid from other organizations that create, support, and manage that grid IBM leases time on a grid for applications that require intensive arithmetic computing IBM leases time on a special-purpose grid to archive medical records (See www-03.ibm.com/grid)www-03.ibm.com/grid Grid computing Grid Computing Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 4-21

22 Cloud computing Cloud Computing 4-22 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall A form of hardware or software leasing in which organizations obtain server resources from vendors that specialize in server processing

23 Mark suggests a conspiracy between hardware and software vendors Hardware vendors create new, faster computers Software vendors create products with more features Time-consuming to learn Features only needed by some users Ethics Guide: Churn and Burn 4-23 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

24 Products have defects Viruses as example Vendors turn these into a sales advantage Should users accept these problems? Should they rise up in protest? What should vendors do? Ethics Guide: Churn and Burn (contd) 4-24 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

25 Run only on particular types of hardware 32-bit Windows runs only on Intel 32-bit CPUs, 64-bit Windows runs only on Intel 64-bit CPUs Must conform to instruction set of CPU Windows works only on Intel instruction set CPUs Operating systems Written for a particular operating system Application programs Q2:What Do Business Professionals Need to Know About Software? 4-25 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

26 Four major operating systems Windows (95% of business users) Mac OS (graphic arts) Unix (scientific and engineering applications) Linux (open source community)open source community What a Manager Needs to Know about Software (Watch Video)(Watch Video) 4-26 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

27 What a Manager Needs to Know about Software (contd) 4-27 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

28 License Right to use specified number of copies of a program Limits vendors liability Site License Flat fee payment for right to install software product on all company computers or all computers at a specific site Own vs. License 4-28 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

29 Virtualization 4-29 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Guest Operating Systems WindowsLinux Virtualization Three types of virtualization PC virtualization Server virtualization Desktop virtualization Very easy to set up a virtual machine and configure it in a specific way Cloud vendors can add and remove instances of servers very quickly and cheaply

30 Windows Server Computer Hosting Two Virtual machines 4-30 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

31 PC virtualization, a personal computer, such as a desktop or portable computer, hosts several different operating systems. Server virtualization, a server computer hosts one or more, other server computers. Server virtualization makes cloud computing feasible. Virtual desktop can be accessed from any computer to which user has access. Thus, you could be at an airport computer and access what appears to be your own personal computer. Types of Virtualization 4-31 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

32 Performs a service or function Some are general purpose, such as Microsoft Excel or Word Others provide specific functions, such as QuickBooks (general ledger and other accounting functions) Application software What Types of Applications Exist and How Do Organizations Obtain Them? Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 4-32

33 Horizontal-market applicationHorizontal-market application software Vertical-market application software Vertical-market application What Categories of Application Programs Exist? Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 4-33

34 Off-the-shelf-software Off-the-shelf with alterations software Develop custom application software in-house or hire a development vendor Custom development difficult and risky Staffing and managing teams of software developers is challenging Managing software projects can be daunting. Development projects often take twice as long, or longer, to finish as planned. Cost overruns of 200–300% not uncommon Only used when no other option Tailor-made software or custom-developed software custom-developed software How Do Organizations Acquire Application Software? Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 4-34

35 Computer software installed into devices Printers, print servers, communication devices Coded like other software Installed into read-only memory Can be changed and upgraded What Is Firmware?Firmware 4-35 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

36 Thin client Requires nothing more than browser Does not require installation and administration of client software Thick client Has more code to run on it More features and functions More expense and administration Why Are Thin Clients Preferred to Thick Clients? 4-36 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

37 Client and Server Computers Can Run Different Operating Systems Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 4-37

38 These websites may be useful in your deliberations: Do not constrain yourselves to this list Using MIS InClass 4: A Group Exercise Choosing a Computer 4-38 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Form a team to identify most appropriate computer for three different scenarios. For each scenario, determine hardware and software requirements: Size and type of computer, processor speed, size of main memory and disk, operating system, application programs, maintenance and support agreements, and any other factors you deem appropriate.

39 Scenario 1: Political science major asks you to help her purchase a new laptop computer. Wants to use computer for , Internet access, and for note-taking in class, and spend less than $1,000. a. What CPU, memory, and disk specifications would you recommend? b. What software does she need? c. Shop for the best computer deal for her. d. Which computer would you recommend, and why? e. Present your answer to the rest of the class. May the best group win! Using MIS InClass 4: A Group Exercise Choosing a Computer (contd) 4-39 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

40 Scenario 2: Your father: , Internet access, downloading pictures from digital camera, uploading pictures to a shared photo service, and creating documents for members of his antique auto club. a. What CPU, memory, and disk specifications would you recommend? b. What software does he need? c. Shop for the best computer deal. d. Which computer would you recommend, and why? e. Present your answer to the rest of the class. May the best group win! Using MIS InClass 4: A Group Exercise Choosing a Computer (contd) 4-40 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

41 Scenario 3. Due to a budget reduction, your campus newspaper lost its university funding, and you and a group of five students have decided to replace it with your own newspaper. To do so, your group decides that it needs three computers; at least two of them need to be laptops. One can be either a laptop or a desktop. The university offers to sell you three Dell laptops for $2,100. Each laptop has 3MB of main memory, a 250GB disk, and a dual 1.7 MHz, 32-bit CPU. The laptops include Windows Vista and Office 2007 Ultimate (Access, Excel, Groove, InfoPath, OneNote, PowerPoint, Publisher, and Word). a. What CPU, memory, and disk specifications do you need? b. What software do you need? c. Shop for the best computer deal. d. Should you buy the universitys computers? Explain. e. Present your answer to the rest of the class. May the best group win! Using MIS InClass 4: A Group Exercise Choosing a Computer (contd) 4-41 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

42 GNU general public licenseGNU general public license (GPL) agreement Standard for open source software. Successful open source projects OpenOffice (Microsoft Office look-alike) OpenOffice FireFox (Web browser) FireFox MySQL (DBMS, see Chapter 5) MySQL Apache (Web server, see Chapter 8) Apache Ubuntu (Windows-like desktop operating system) Ubuntu Android (Mobile-phone operating system) Android Q3:Is Open Source Software a Viable Alternative? 4-42 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

43 Programming intense combination of art and logic Freedom to choose projects work on Exercise creativity working on interesting and fulfilling projects Exhibit ones skill in order to get a job Start a business selling services to support an open source product Why Do Programmers Volunteer Their Services Open Source Projects? 4-43 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

44 Proprietary Software Source codeSource code: Human readable computer code Machine codeMachine code: Source code is compiled into instructions executed directly by a computers CPU How Does Open Source Work? 4-44 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Closed-source or proprietary softwareClosed-source or proprietary software. Source code is not available to users or public. Only available to trusted employees and carefully vetted contractors. Open-source softwareOpen-source software available to users in source code form.

45 Source Code Sample Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 4-45

46 Depends on requirements and constraints of situation. You will learn more about matching requirements and programs in Chapter 10. Free open source software requires support and operational costs that could cost more than a licensing fee. So, Is Open Source Viable? 4-46 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

47 Most business professionals and managers have a role in: Specification of client hardware and software they use Specification of client hardware and software for employees In large organizations, IS department likely to set formal standards In medium to small organizations, managers need to take active role in setting specifications for computers What buying decisions do you make? Q4: How Can You Use This Knowledge? Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 4-47

48 Sources of System Costs Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 4-48 Goal is to select the hardware and software that will meet requirements at the minimum total system cost

49 Figure 4-15 A Business Managers Role in Hardware and Software Specifications Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 4-49

50 Usually standardize on single client operating system because costs of supporting more than one unjustifiable. Most choose Microsoft Windows clients. Some arts and design businesses standardize on Macintosh, and some engineering firms standardize on Unix. Organizations with limited budgets might choose Linux with Ubuntu and Open Office on clients, but this is rare. Medium to Small Organizations Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 4-50

51 Specifying horizontal application software, such as Microsoft Office, or other software appropriate for their operating systems Specifying requirements for vertical market or custom applications Typically, no role in specifying server hardware, other than approving budget Business manager and users of a client-server application specify requirements for vertical and custom-server software Work with technical personnel to test and accept software Role of Managers and Employees Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 4-51

52 What Process Should I Use to Establish a Computer Budget? Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 4-52

53 Determine categories of workers and software needed to access company web portal, , minimal word processing Identify specialists and their hardware and software needs Determine computer workload requirements for each category of workers and managers Use previous experience as a guide What Process Should I Use to Establish a Computer Budget? Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 4-53

54 Forecast changes Price hardware and software Negotiate prices (usually IT does this) Add overhead costs to budget for networks, servers, and communications Accounting department can help with cost estimates Assess budget for feasibility and reasonableness Consider your organizations competitive strategy Prepare justifications for any increases What Process Should I Use to Establish a Computer Budget? Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 4-54

55 Substantial change in your departmental head count Important new departmental functions or responsibilities Upgrading to major new versions of operating system or other software Implementation of new systems that require additional hardware Change in the way overhead expenses are allocated to your department Reasons you may need more equipment What Process Should I Use to Establish a Computer Budget? Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 4-55

56 Review and revise budget Consider refurbished equipment Delay upgrades to new operating system Reallocate hardware among employees Document results Keep spreadsheet and notes used to prepare and justify budget What Process Should I Use to Establish a Computer Budget? Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 4-56

57 Will Microsofts three screens strategy dominate? Will Apple continue to out innovate Microsoft? PC Mules will be rare Large-screen computing/connectivity devices will be available everywhere Acceleration of thin-client versions of all applications Virtual desktop in the cloud Everything always synchronized for virtual client in the cloud Enormous change in hardware/software technologies, companies, industries, and users Q5: 2021? 4-57 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

58 If you dont keep up, you might not gain a competitive advantage Dont depend solely on experts or consultants Develop a competitive advantage in non- technology areas to compensate Be a technophiletechnophile Not a technophobe Guide: Keeping up to Speed 4-58 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

59 What can a manager do? Dont ignore technology Take seminars Read articles, ads C/NET, CIO.com Wall Street Journal technology articles Attend professional events Get involved as a user representative in technology committees Guide: Keeping Up to Speed (contd) 4-59 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

60 For business problems, most difficult and creative tasks are generating questions and formulating a strategy for getting answers. Once questions and strategy are set, rest is simply legwork. As a future consumer of information technology and services, you need to be able to ask good questions and effectively obtain answers. Rapidly changing technology will require you to learn about new IS alternatives and how you can apply them in your business. Guide: Questioning Your Questions Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 4-60

61 1.Irrelevant Answer wont tell you why 2.Dead Provides no insight into subject 3.Asked of the wrong source Dont ask What is it? questions of valuable or expensive sources How can I use it? Is it the best choice for our company or situation? Questions can be bad in three ways: Guide: Questioning Your Questions Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 4-61

62 As you progress in your educational career, you should be learning how to discern the quality of judgment and evaluative answers Learn to question your questions Guide: Questioning Your Questions Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 4-62

63 Active Review Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 4-63 Q1: What do business professionals need to know about computer hardware? Q2: What do business professionals need to know about software? Q3: Is open source software a viable alternative? Q4: How can you use this knowledge? Q5:2021?

64 Dell pays close attention to its suppliers and shares information with them on product quality, inventory, and related subjects via a secure website Provides basic technical support, deployment services, services to maintain and manage Dell systems Case Study 4: Dell Leverages the Internet, Directly, but for How Long? 4-64 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Video

65 2009, components of PCs seem to be selling, but not PCs themselves. What might this mean? Sept. 2009, Dell bought Perot Systems for $3.9 billion. Perot was a provider of information systems services to health care and governmental customers. Dell views some change in its corporate strategy. Dell Case Study (contd) 4-65 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

66 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Printed in the United States of America. Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall


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