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Our Digital World Second EditionChapter 1 Our Digital World Second Edition Chapter 1 Digital Technologies: Exploring a Wealth of Possibilities From the desktop computer of a dozen years ago, the world of computing has exploded in recent years. Today it encompasses the many services available over the Internet, an array of computing devices, and a variety of computer-related careers. Sometimes it’s difficult to absorb all the changes and trends in computing, but at the heart is the ability of digital devices to process data and store information, which is what this chapter is about. Next slide © Paradigm Publishing, Inc. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc.
This chapter will help you be able to:Define what a computer is and identify computing devices. Describe the parts of a computer system and their role in turning data into information. Recognize the convergence of computing devices. Identify uses of computers and possible careers. Define information technology and the information processing cycle. Bullet 1: With devices like mobile phones and gaming devices offering a wealth of computing features, you may wonder what makes a computer a computer. Bullet 2: Every computer has certain features in common. Being able to identify them may help you when you need to buy, repair, or use a computer. Bullet 3: Sometimes computing devices take on features of other devices, such as when you browse the Web from a mobile phone. This is called technological convergence. In this chapter you will discover how that convergence is changing the way we compute. Bullet 4: If you think computers are mainly used to write letters with word processors or that computer careers are restricted to computer programming, think again. The many uses of computers today and the vast number of potential careers in computing discussed in this chapter may surprise you. Bullet 5: Once you know what a computer is and how people are using them, it’s time to understand how a computer processes data. Next slide © Paradigm Publishing, Inc. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.Chapter 1 Main Topics 1.1 Just What Is a Computer? 1.2 Computers in All Shapes and Sizes 1.3 Who Is Using Computers and How? 1.4 What Is Information Technology? The main topics covered in Chapter 1 are: Bullet 1: Just What Is a Computer? Bullet 2: Computers in All Shapes and Sizes Bullet 3: Who Is Using Computers and How? Bullet 4: What Is Information Technology? Next slide © Paradigm Publishing, Inc. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.Chapter 1 Why Should You Care? Computers are everywhere in various forms. Understanding computers gives you an edge in the job market. Bullet 1: Computers are everywhere. You’ll probably encounter them in your work and personal life frequently. Bullet 2: Employers look for people who know how to use a computer for a variety of tasks. Even if you only know the basic facts about computers and how they work, you’ll be better able to update your computer skills as the technology changes. Next slide © Paradigm Publishing, Inc. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.Chapter 1 1.1 Just What Is a Computer? Next slide © Paradigm Publishing, Inc. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc.
The Definition of a ComputerChapter 1 The Definition of a Computer An electronic, programmable device. Categories Analog computers. Digital computers. Computers for communicating. Bullet 1: At its basic level, a computer is an electronic, programmable device that assembles, processes, and stores data. Bullet 2: There are several categories of computers. Sub-Bullet 1: One type of simple computing device is the analog computer. This type of computer uses mechanical operations. A car speedometer is an example of an analog computer. Sub-Bullet 2: Our focus, however, is on digital computers. A desktop or laptop computer falls into this category. Digital computers have the ability to process words, numbers, images, and sounds. Sub-Bullet 3: Today the combination of digital computing and communications via the Internet have created new types of computing devices, such as mobile phones and GPS navigation systems. Next slide © Paradigm Publishing, Inc. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.Chapter 1 computer analog computer digital computer The section 1.1 terms to know are: computer: An electronic, programmable device that can assemble, process, and store data. analog computer: A computer that uses mechanical operations to perform calculations, as with an older car speedometer or a handheld calculator. digital computer: A computer that uses symbols that represent data in the form of code. Next slide Terms to Know © Paradigm Publishing, Inc. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.Chapter 1 Ask Yourself… What is not true of a digital computer? It can process words, numbers, images, and sounds. It can perform mechanical operations. It can represent data in the form of code. It can transmit sounds over the Internet. Next slide © Paradigm Publishing, Inc. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc.
1.2 Computers in All Shapes and SizesChapter 1 1.2 Computers in All Shapes and Sizes Next slide © Paradigm Publishing, Inc. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc.
Categories of ComputersChapter 1 Categories of Computers By operating system and manufacturer Windows- or Linux-based personal computers. Macintosh computers. By size Large: supercomputer, mainframe, server. Mid-sized: Personal, workstation, desktop, laptop. Mobile: smartphone, digital audio player, PDA. You can categorize computers in different ways. Bullet 1: Some personal computers run on the Windows or Linux operating system. These computers are manufactured by a variety of companies such as Dell, Gateway, and Hewlett Packard. Macintosh computers run on the Mac operating system. Apple Computers manufacture all Macintosh computers. Bullet 2: You can also characterize computers by size. Computers range in size from small, handheld computing devices, such as your cell phone, to huge supercomputers or clusters of computers mainly used for scientific and medical applications. Next slide © Paradigm Publishing, Inc. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.Chapter 1 Types of Computers Supercomputer Desktop Laptop Tablet PC Netbook Bullet 1: Supercomputers provide extreme computing power. Computing power refers to the amount of data that is processed and the speed at which it’s processed. Supercomputers can perform trillions of calculations per second and are often custom-built for a particular use, such as running a model of what happens when a star explodes. Supercomputers can be housed in a single mainframe computer. Or, they can be in a computer cluster, which is a group of computers that are connected to run processor-hogging functions such as moviemaking or hosting a large-scale, interactive gaming site. Bullet 2: If you have a computer sitting on your desk at home with a tower, you have a desktop computer. The tower contains the central processing unit, or CPU. Some desktop computers are designed to house the CPU within the monitor, as with the Apple iMac. A typical desktop computer includes a unit to house the CPU, such as a tower, a monitor, a keyboard, a mouse, and a battery. Bullet 3: Laptop computers typically weigh about 5 to 10 pounds, with a focus on portability. Laptops have the CPU, monitor, keyboard, mouse, and battery built into one package. Bullet 4: Tablet PCs are a type of laptop that uses a technology that allows you to write on the screen with a special electronic stylus. Ink technology can convert what you write into text or graphic objects that you can save in an electronic file. Bullet 5: Finally, netbooks are the smallest form of a laptop computer, weighing about 2 to 3 pounds and sporting a screen of about 8 to 10 inches. To save on size and weight, they do not include a CD or DVD drive. Netbooks originally came out for people who mainly wanted to browse the Internet and send and receive s, but they have caught on as an ultraportable computing option. Next slide © Paradigm Publishing, Inc. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.Chapter 1 Future of the PC How does Silverman define a personal computer? What does Silverman mean when he talks about a “VPC”? Why does Silverman say the need for a powerful device with a big screen will persist? What company is pushing the idea of a post-PC future? What four components make up Silverman’s concept of a personal computer ? Technology writer Dwight Silverman discusses the end of the era of the personal computer. Next slide © Paradigm Publishing, Inc. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc.
Convergence of Computing DevicesChapter 1 Convergence of Computing Devices Technological convergence. Convergence devices. Role of accessing services online. Bullet 1: Technological convergence is the tendency of technical devices to take on each other’s functions. That describes what happened to computers as cell phones, GPS devices, and other devices began to offer computer-like features. Bullet 2: These devices are called convergence devices. For example, a digital camera allows you to take pictures, but some also allow you to those pictures. One survey indicated that 34% of all smartphone users play games, record video, play music, and access the Internet with their devices.* Bullet 3: The fact that computing devices can access services online, such as navigation maps and online radio stations to play music, has blurred the lines between them. Even smart appliances can be controlled from your mobile phone or computer to turn them off and on. What devices do you use that you’d consider convergence devices? *Source: Pew Internet Mobile Access 2010, July 7, Next slide © Paradigm Publishing, Inc. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.Chapter 1 supercomputer petaflop computer cluster render farm desktop computer laptop The section 1.2 terms to know are: supercomputer: A computer with the ability to perform trillions of calculations per second, usually custom-made for a particular use or used as a large server. petaflop: A measure of supercomputing power representing a thousand trillion operations per second. computer cluster: A group of computers joined together to provide high computing power. render farm: A custom-designed connection between groups of computers joined in a computer cluster. desktop computer: A non-portable computer whose central processing unit (CPU) might be housed in a tower configuration or in some cases within the monitor, as with the Apple iMac. laptop: A portable computer with a built-in central processing unit (CPU), monitor, keyboard, mouse, and battery. Laptops are also called notebooks. Next slide Terms to Know © Paradigm Publishing, Inc. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.Chapter 1 tablet netbook technological convergence convergence device The section 1.2 terms to know continue with: tablet: A portable computer that includes a special electronic stylus used to write on the screen. Ink technology allows you to use programs to convert your writing to text or graphic objects. netbook: Designed as devices for people who mainly want to browse the Internet or use . This style of computer is small, usually with screen sizes ranging from eight to ten inches, and weighing only two to three pounds. technological convergence: The tendency of technical devices to take on each other’s functions, such as a cell phone performing tasks traditionally performed by a computer. convergence device: A type of device that combines several technologies, such as the ability to calculate, store data, and connect to the Internet. Examples of this type of device include your cell phone, a GPS navigation system, a digital camera, or an appliance that you can program remotely to perform tasks at a certain time. Next slide Terms to Know © Paradigm Publishing, Inc. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.Chapter 1 Ask Yourself… What factor(s) differentiates a netbook from a laptop? size weight lack of optical drive All of the above Next slide © Paradigm Publishing, Inc. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc.
1.3 Who Is Using Computers and How?Chapter 1 1.3 Who Is Using Computers and How? Next slide © Paradigm Publishing, Inc. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc.
Computers in Various SettingsChapter 1 Computers in Various Settings Business, home, education, law enforcement, arts, medicine, entertainment. Unique uses. Bullet 1: It might be quicker to list where computers aren’t being used. Hardly an industry isn’t affected by the computer revolution. This revolution hasn’t just made people’s work easier. It’s revolutionized how they work. For instance, computers are used to connect with customers and to gain insight into industries by tracking and compiling data on everything from sales to the price of materials or labor. They are used by surgeons to make exacting cuts, by pharmacists to check for drug interactions, and by medical insurance companies for billing. In science, computers are used to track the orbit of the space shuttle and help our astronauts return home safely. Architects create blueprints of homes that can be scaled to desired sizes. Photographers use computers to touch-up pictures. The list is endless. Bullet 2: It’s fascinating to discover unique uses of computers. Here are two interesting uses: A program has been developed to analyze nurse workflow scenarios to help ensure that a nurse can spend the maximum amount of time at patients’ bedsides. And, a science museum in the Netherlands uses a computer system that allows kids to create trees based on their bodies to understand how water is diverted in nature. Next slide © Paradigm Publishing, Inc. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.Chapter 1 Computing Careers Computer engineering (CE) Computer science (CS) Information systems (IS) Information technology (IT) Software engineering (SE) Careers focused on computing are strong, even in a depressed economy. Some of the major focuses include: Bullet 1: Computer engineering, abbreviated CE, involves studying computer hardware and software systems and programming how devices interface with each other. Bullet 2: Computer science, or CS, is the field that involves designing software, solving computer security problems, and improving on methods of data storage. Bullet 3: Information systems (IS) workers like to design systems for solving business problems. These folks think about what data is needed to get the job done and how to deliver that data to users. Bullet 4: Information technologists ensure there’s a technological infrastructure in place to support users. They recommend hardware and software and solve computer-related user issues. Bullet 5: Software engineers write software programs either for sale to people like you and me, or for internal use in a company. Next slide © Paradigm Publishing, Inc. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc.
Preparing for Computing CareersChapter 1 Preparing for Computing Careers Analytical subjects. Associates degree with CS or IT focus. Professional certifications. According to CollegeGrad.com, computer professionals are in demand, and many more computer jobs are likely to be created between now and Here’s how to prepare for one of these careers: Bullet 1: In addition to learning about computers, consider taking classes in analytical subjects such as math and science. Bullet 2: You could obtain an associate’s degree in computer science or information technology as a good basis for any computing job. An associate’s degree is usually the minimum credential that employers look for. Bullet 3: Professional certifications are offered in various types of software, hardware, networking, and security. Passing these specialized exams may be helpful to career advancement. Next slide © Paradigm Publishing, Inc. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.Chapter 1 ubiquitous computing computer engineering computer science information systems The section 1.3 terms to know are: ubiquitous computing: Placing computing power in your environment as with, for example, a system in your house that senses and adjusts lighting or temperature. It is also called embedded technology. computer engineering (CE): The study of computer hardware and software systems and programming how devices interface with each other. computer science (CS): The study of designing software, solving problems such as computer security threats, or coming up with better ways of handling data storage. information systems (IS): A computer profession that bridges the needs of an organization and the way its information is handled to solve business problems. An IS professional considers who needs what data to get work done and how it can be delivered most efficiently. Next slide Terms to Know © Paradigm Publishing, Inc. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.Chapter 1 information technology software engineering web development geographic information system (GIS) expert webmaster Internet law web designer The terms for this section continue with: information technology (IT): The study, design, development, or management of computer systems, software applications, and computer hardware. software engineering (SE): A field involving writing software programs, which might be developed for a software manufacturer to sell to the public, or writing a custom program for a large organization to use in-house. web development: A career technology path from the World Wide Web that includes programming websites, developing text and visual content, explaining how clients can use tools such as a search engine optimization (SEO) to maximize site traffic, and using social media to promote goods and services. geographic information system (GIS) expert: A computer profession that helps users capture, manage, analyze, and display geographic data. webmaster: Someone who makes sure website content is delivered to users efficiently. Internet law: A legal specialty that includes writing the legal terms and policies for websites. web designer: Someone who designs the layout of websites. Next slide Terms to Know © Paradigm Publishing, Inc. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.Chapter 1 Ask Yourself… Which computer career involves writing software programs? information technology software engineering computer science None of the above Next slide © Paradigm Publishing, Inc. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc.
1.4 What Is Information Technology?Chapter 1 1.4 What Is Information Technology? Next slide © Paradigm Publishing, Inc. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc.
Information TechnologyChapter 1 Information Technology Involves Computer-based information systems. Software applications and computer hardware. Relationship to computer users. Bullet 1: According to the Information Technology Association of America, information technology is “the study, design, development, implementation, support, or management of computer-based information systems, particularly software applications and computer hardware.” Bullet 2: If you work in a company in which computers are used, you are likely to come into contact with IT workers. They will help you get connected to the company’s network, get your system up and running, or install new software. Next slide © Paradigm Publishing, Inc. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.Chapter 1 Computer-assisted translation software (CAT) Customized dictionaries. Memory programs store phrases. Playing It Safe Bullet 1: Computer-assisted translation software (CAT) is software used by people who translate books. If you have a flair for languages, you might want to learn more about CAT. Bullet 2: This software enables you to build customized dictionaries that help with more accurate translations from one language to another. Bullet 3: CAT can store common phrases or idioms, saving the translator from having to look them up. Next slide © Paradigm Publishing, Inc. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.Chapter 1 Data and Information Computers take data and turn it into information. Computers turn data into information by processing and organizing it. Bullet 1: Information systems, which IT supports, take raw data such as sales numbers or product prices, and turn it into useful information. For example, you might take sales numbers by month and turn them into an informative chart that helps you spot sales trends at different times of the year. Bullet 2: Computers turn data into useful information by processing and organizing it. Data is what you put into a computer, and information is what you get out of it. Next slide © Paradigm Publishing, Inc. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc.
Information Processing CycleChapter 1 Information Processing Cycle The information processing cycle is what’s involved when your computer takes data and turns it into information. This cycle has four stages: Bullet 1: Input is putting data into your computer. Bullet 2: Processing involves manipulating that data in some way. Bullet 3: Output is the stage in which information is displayed, printed, or produced in some fashion for your use. Bullet 4: Storage is the final stage. Both the original data and the information derived from it are kept on a medium such as a DVD drive or flash drive. Next slide © Paradigm Publishing, Inc. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.Chapter 1 Input Many ways to input. Binary system. Bits and bytes. Bullet 1: You can use a wide variety of devices, such as a keyboard, scanner, mouse, or microphone, or the number pad on your mobile phone to enter data into your computer. Bullet 2: Data that is input is converted to binary digits – 0 and 1. The binary digits 0 or 1, form the binary system, which is understood by all computers. Bullet 3: Bit is a shortening of the phrase binary digit. When 8 binary digits are gathered together, you get a byte. Each byte can store one item, such as a number, color, or letter. Next slide © Paradigm Publishing, Inc. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.Chapter 1 Processing Role of the CPU. Microprocessors contained on chips. Processor speed measured in hertz. Temporary storage of data in RAM. Cache memory holds frequently used data. Bullet 1: The central processing unit in your computer, or CPU, is what interprets instructions sent to your computer and processes data. Bullet 2: CPUs consist of integrated electronic circuits, or microprocessors. These microprocessors are contained on small squares of silicon called chips. Microprocessors accept programming instructions that tell them how to process data. Bullet 3: Processor speed is measured in hertz. One hertz is one cycle per second. Your computer might have a processing speed of two gigahertz, for example, which represents two billion cycles per second. Bullet 4: While your computer is processing data, it temporarily stores the data and the instructions for processing it in random access memory, or RAM. When you turn your computer off, the data stored in RAM is gone. That’s why RAM is called volatile memory. Bullet 5: A temporary, high-speed storage area of the computer between RAM and the processor is called cache memory. Next slide © Paradigm Publishing, Inc. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc.
Cache Memory and Processing TimeChapter 1 Cache Memory and Processing Time Cache memory is a holding area for the most frequently used data. Your processor checks cache memory first. If what it needs is located there, that saves time and speeds up processing. If the data isn’t in cache memory, the CPU checks other locations. When the CPU finds what it needs, the data is moved from RAM into cache memory, so it’s there if needed again, and then into the processor. Next slide © Paradigm Publishing, Inc. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.Chapter 1 Output Information resulting from processing. Includes monitor display, printed copy, sound through a speaker, and more. Bullet 1: When your computer has processed data and turned it into information, it can produce the results in various forms. Bullet 2: For example, your computer might display a document on your screen at various resolutions (the higher the resolution, the crisper the image). If you need a hard copy of the information, you might send it to your printer. If the information is audible, you can play it back through your computer or mobile phone speakers. Next slide © Paradigm Publishing, Inc. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.Chapter 1 Storage Permanent storage. Storage capacity measurement. Storage devices include hard disk, DVD, USB flash, and external drive. Bullet 1: Temporary storage like RAM is lost when you turn your computer off. To save a permanent copy, you must save your information to a storage medium. The basic storage unit is a file. A computer file might contain a word-processed document, picture, or sound. Bullet 2: Storage capacity is measured in kilobytes, megabytes, gigabytes, or, for really big files, terabytes (approximately 1 trillion bytes). Bullet 3: You can store data and information in several places. The first one that may come to mind is your computer’s hard disk. Other storage media, useful for portability and backing up information stored on your hard disk, include CD or DVD discs, USB flash drives, or an external hard drive that you connect to your computer using a cable. Next slide © Paradigm Publishing, Inc. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.Chapter 1 Back It Up! Back up regularly. Some jobs require that backups be kept. Bullet 1: It’s good to get into the habit of backing up your files frequently in case your hard disk fails. The cost in your time to recreate lost work can be huge. You can use DVD or flash drives (also called USB sticks) for your backups, and then keep them in a safe place. Bullet 2: Depending on your industry, you may be required to keep backups of data and information. In some cases companies back up all the computers on their network every day, but it’s still a good idea for you to keep your own backup. Next slide © Paradigm Publishing, Inc. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.Chapter 1 data information information processing cycle binary system bit byte input The section 1.4 terms to know are: data: Raw facts; what you put into a computer. information: Raw facts that are processed, organized, structured, or presented in a meaningful way; what you get out of a computer. information processing cycle: A cycle of handling raw data and information that has four parts: input of data; processing of data; output of information; and storage of data and information. binary system: A system consisting of two possible values, 0 and 1, called binary digits, or bits. bit: The smallest unit a computer can understand and act on. An abbreviation for binary digit. byte: A collection of 8 bits. input: Data that is entered into a computer or other device or the act of reading in such data. Next slide Terms to Know © Paradigm Publishing, Inc. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.Chapter 1 central processing unit processing microprocessor computer memory random access memory (RAM) cache memory output resolution pixel The section 1.4 terms continue with: central processing unit (CPU): The part of the computer system that interprets instructions and processes data. Sometimes referred to as the processor or core. processing: The manipulation of data by a computer to create information. microprocessor: A computer chip that can accept programming instructions that tell a computer what to do with data it receives. computer memory: Temporary storage areas on the computer, including random access memory (RAM) and cache memory. random access memory (RAM): A holding area for data while your computer processes information. When you turn your computer off, data temporarily stored in RAM disappears. RAM is also referred to as volatile memory. cache memory: A memory area located on or near the microprocessor chip for the most frequently used data. output: The information that results from computer processing or the act of writing or displaying such data. resolution: A measurement of the number of pixels on a screen. pixel: A single point in an image; short for picture element. Next slide Terms to Know © Paradigm Publishing, Inc. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.Chapter 1 storage file cloud storage DRAM SRAM SDRAM machine cycle instruction register And there are still a few more terms to learn: storage: A permanent recording of information, data, and programs on a computer’s storage medium, such as a magnetic disk or optical disc, so that they can be retrieved as needed. file: A computer’s basic storage unit, which might contain a report, spreadsheet, or picture, for example. cloud storage: Services that allow users to store documents online. DRAM: Short for dynamic random access memory. The type of memory is most commonly found in computers. It works quickly and is compact and affordable. It requires electricity and is fragile, meaning that the data held in RAM must constantly be refreshed. SRAM: Short for static random access memory. This type of memory is about five times faster than DRAM. Though dependent upon electricity, it does not require constant refreshing and is more expensive than DRAM. It is therefore often used only in cache memory applications. SDRAM: Short for synchronous dynamic random access memory. This updated version of DRAM provides significant improvements in access speed. Most modern computer memory is some variation of SDRAM, including DDR-SDRAM, DDR2-SDRAM, and DDR3-SDRAM. machine cycle: A cycle a computer uses during which four basic operations are performed: (1) fetching an instruction, (2) decoding the instruction, (3) executing the instruction, and (4) storing the results. instruction register: A holding area on the computer where instructions are placed after the fetch portion of the machine cycle is completed. Next slide Terms to Know © Paradigm Publishing, Inc. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.Chapter 1 Ask Yourself… One stage not part of the information processing cycle is input. output. computing. processing. Next slide © Paradigm Publishing, Inc. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.Chapter 1 Our Digital World End of Show © Paradigm Publishing, Inc. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc.
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