2The architecture of the Philippines is a reflection of the history and heritage of the country. The most prominent historic constructions in the archipelago are from the Spanish Colonial period, though much Philippine architecture is also influenced by Japanese, Malay, Hindu, Chinese, and American cultures.
3The pre-colonial architecture of the Philippines consisted of the Nipa hut made from natural materials but there are some traces of large-scale construction before the Spanish colonizers came but not well documented. An example of this is the pre-colonial walled city of Maynilad although later after the Spanish colonization, dismantled by the Spaniards and rebuilt as Intramuros. There are also other minor pre-colonial walled cities like Betis and Macabebe.
4After the Spanish American War The architecture of the Philippines was dominated by the American style. In this period the plan for the modern city of Manila was designed, with a large number of art deco buildings, by famous American and Filipino architects.
5At the end of the 20th Century Modern architecture with straight lines and functional aspects was introduced. During this period many of the older structures fell into decay. Early in the 21st Century a revival of the respect for the traditional Filipino elements in the architecture returned
6Pre-colonialPrior to the arrival of the Spaniards, the main form of dwelling for a family in the Philippines was the nipa hut, a single room house composed of wood, bamboo or other native materials. Though the styles of the nipa hut varied throughout the country, most all of them shared similar characteristics including having it raised slightly above ground on stilts and a steep roof. Aside from nipa huts, other small houses were built on top of trees to prevent animal as well as enemy attacks.
9Colonial SpanishIn this era, the nipa hut or Bahay Kubo gave way to the Bahay na Bato (stone house) and became the typical house of noble Filipinos. The Bahay na Bato followed the nipa hut's arrangements such as open ventilation and elevated apartments. The most obvious difference between the two houses would be the materials that was used to build them. The Bahay na Bato was constructed out of brick and stone rather than the traditional bamboo materials.
10Bahay na BatoThe Bahay Na Bato, the Colonian Filipino House, is a mixture of native Filipino, Spanish and Chinese influences. In Vigan, Ilocos Sur, excellently preserved examples of the houses of the noble Filipinos can be admired. In Taal, Batangas, the main street is still ligned with examples of the traditional Filipino homes.
13Fort SantiagoFort Santiago (Fuerza de Santiago) is a defense fortress built for Spanish conquistador, Miguel López de Legazpi. The fort is part of the structures of the walled city of Intramuros, in Manila, Philippines.The location of Fort Santiago was also once the site of the palace and kingdom of Rajah Suliman, chieftain of Manila of pre-Spanish era.
15IntramurosIntramuros, located along the southern bank of the Pasig River, was built by the Spaniards in the 16th century and is the oldest district of the city of Manila. Its name, taken from the Latin, intra muros, literally "Within the walls", meaning within the wall enclosure of the city/fortress, also describes its structure as it is surrounded by thick, high walls and moats. During the Spanish colonial period, Intramuros was considered Manila itself.
17Paco ParkPaco Park was planned as a municipal cemetery for the well-off and established aristocratic Spanish families who resided in the old Manila, or the city within the walls of Intramuros during the Spanish colonial era.Most of the wealthy families interred the remains of their loved ones inside the municipal cemetery in what was once the district of Dilao (former name for Paco).
21Augustinian ChurchesThese magnificent structures can still be found all over the Phlippine Islands. The Augustinian historians Fathers Policarpo F. Hernández and Pedro G. Galende,coffetable book "Angels in Stone" documents all the churches built by the Augustinians throughout the Philippines over the centuries.
22It is the first European stone church to be built in the Philippines designed in Spanish architectural structure. The church also houses the legacies of the Spanish conquistadors, Miguel López de Legazpi, Juan de Salcedo and Martín de Goiti who are buried and laid to rest in a tomb, underneath the church.
30Philippine Architecture during American colonization After the Spanish American war in 1898 the Americans took over rule of the Philippines until after the second world war. During this period the Americans constructed many Art Nouveaux buildings in Manila. In 1902 Judge William Howard Taft was appointed to head the Philippine Commission to evaluate the needs of the new territory.
31Manila Metropolitan Theater The Manila Metropolitan Theater is an art deco building designed by the Filipino architect Juan M. Arellano, and built in During the liberation of Manila by the Americans in 1945, the theatre we totally destroyed. After reconstruction by the Americans it gradually fell into disuse in the 1960s.
35The National Monument to Dr. Jose Rizal The bronze and granite Rizal monument located in Rizal Park, Manila, has long been considered among the most famous sculptural landmarks in the Philippines. The monument is located near the very spot where Dr. Jose Rizal was executed December 30, 1896.
37Standalone movie theaters of the Philippines During the advent and continuous growth of Philippine cinema in the early 90's, came with the establishment of Philippine theaters in the Metropolitan Manila along with those in the Philippine provinces during the said period.
44Antipolo ChurchThe image of "Our Lady of Peace and Good Voyage" has been venerated in the church of Antipolo for centuries. The old church that housed the virgin was destroyed in February 1945 when the Americans bombed Antipolo as part of the liberation campaign of Manila. In 1954 a new church was build designed by the renowned Filipino architect Jose de Ocampo.
45This church is of a coupular design centered around the image of the Virgin. It functions as the center point of the pilgrimages to Antipolo.
49Architectural styles classify architecture in terms of the use of form, techniques, materials, time period, region and other stylistic influences. It overlaps with, and emerges from the study of the evolution and history of architecture.
50In architectural history, the study of Gothic architecture, for instance, would include all aspects of the cultural context that went into the design and construction of these structures. Hence, architectural style is a way of classifying architecture that gives emphasis to characteristic features of design, leading to a terminology such as Gothic "style".
51The Victoria and Albert Museum maintains an interactive online microsite with an introductory overview of ten architectural styles grouped in four clusters:
52Modern, High-Tech and Postmodern East Asian, South Asian and Spanish IslamicGothic and Gothic RevivalClassical and Classical Revival.
54PostmodernPostmodern architects felt that buildings in the Modern style had been stripped of their symbolic character.
55In a desire to create striking and individual buildings, they ignored many traditional rules of architecture, such as the principles of proportion and scale. They used modern construction techniques but also stylistic elements from many different periods and styles. Some came from historical or local architecture, others from popular culture.
56Clash of scalesThin fa�adesClassical referencesStorm Water Pumping Station
58AT&T Building New York 1978-83 Philip Johnson and John Burgee Photo: Robert Elwall/RIBA
59High-TechHigh-Tech is the name given to a particular strand of modern architecture that developed from the 1970s onwards.As the name suggests, it is a highly engineered and technological style. Its character is expressed through industrial and factory-made materials and components.
60In the hands of skilled architects, High-Tech buildings are individual and dramatic. The style lends itself to public buildings, corporate offices and transport facilities worldwide.
61Tension structuresExposed structureGlassHong Kong and Shanghai Bank
63Hong Kong and Shanghai Bank Hong Kong 1979-86 Foster & Partners Photo: Alistair Hunter/RIBA
64ModernThe Modern Movement spread internationally from central Europe after the First World War. Modernists rejected historical styles in favour of clean lines and simple forms. Architects thought of buildings as machines and designed them to be efficient.
65They gave them flat roofs and used industrially produced materials like sheet glass, steel and reinforced concrete. Colours, decoration and shapes were reduced to a minimum. Inside, rooms were well lit but often clinically bare.
68East AsianArchitecture in East Asia is based on simple, timber-frame construction. This framework supports pitched roofs, using crossbeams placed one on top of the other in diminishing order of size. The size and choice of site show the status of important buildings like temples and palaces.
69Buildings extend laterally in a series of courtyards Buildings extend laterally in a series of courtyards. Ornament is often concentrated on the roof, using carved woodwork, paint, lacquer and brilliantly glazed tiles.
71Yomei-mon Shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu Mausoleum Nikko, Japan Photo: Japan Information and Cultural Centre, Embassy of Japan, London
72South AsianWith its climatic and cultural diversity, South Asia has developed great regional variety in its building traditions. During the long history of its civilisation, particular structures have evolved to suit the needs of its religions, including Buddhism and Hinduism.
73The region has also successfully synthesised foreign architectural traditions with its own, as seen in the Mughal style. This fused Islamic building types and elements imported from Iran and Central Asia with Indian features.
75Temple of Adinatha Ranakpur, Rajasthan, India 1439 Photo: Ian Dawson Grant/RIBA
76Spanish IslamicThe Islamic world has many architectural traditions. In the Muslim cities of Spain and Morocco, masonry walls and arcades support pitched roofs. Rooms range around internal courtyards, with arcades to provide shade. Mosques have arcaded halls and courtyards and are distinguished by minaret towers.
77Status is shown by a building's size and rich ornamentation Status is shown by a building's size and rich ornamentation. Interiors are often entirely covered with decoration, especially carved and painted stucco and glazed tiles.
81Gothic RevivalThe Gothic Revival began in England in the 1730s, in a mood of nostalgia for the past. By the 1840s it had become a style with moral values linked to an upsurge in Christian belief.It was also thought suitable for modern structures like railway stations and hotels, even though they were often built of iron and brick.At the same time, glass painters revived the medieval techniques of stained glass.
83Palace of Westminster London 1840-70 Sir Charles Barry and A. W. N Palace of Westminster London Sir Charles Barry and A. W. N. Pugin Photo: Joe Low/RIBA
84GothicThe Gothic style began in the great medieval cathedrals of France in the 1140s and lasted until about 1500.Gothic churches were triumphs of engineering in stone. Their style was based on the pointed arch and rib vault. These elements spread the physical load of the high walls, which were often shored up on the outside with elaborate buttresses.Their interiors were lit by large areas of stained glass.
88ClassicalThe classical style emerged in Greece about 2600 years ago. It used columns and capitals to support beams called entablatures. These were combined in a design system called the orders, with each element carefully proportioned using mathematics.
89The Greeks used three distinct types of order: Doric, Ionic and Corinthian. The Romans added two more: Tuscan and Composite. The Romans also exploited the use of the arch, vault and dome.
91The Parthenon Athens 447-432 BC Iktinos and Kallikrates Photo: Bernard Cox/RIBA
92Classical RevivalA vigorous revival of ancient classical forms began in Italy in the 1420s. They became the basis of most western architecture over the next 400 years. At first, the borrowed forms were Roman, but from the 1760s Greek models were used to create the revitalised style.
93This revived classical style was thought to have strength and dignity This revived classical style was thought to have strength and dignity. It was specially favoured for buildings of authority.