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Regional Air Quality & Airport Impacts Larry Greene Executive Director/ Air Pollution Control Officer Larry Greene Executive Director/ Air Pollution Control.

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Presentation on theme: "Regional Air Quality & Airport Impacts Larry Greene Executive Director/ Air Pollution Control Officer Larry Greene Executive Director/ Air Pollution Control."— Presentation transcript:

1 Regional Air Quality & Airport Impacts Larry Greene Executive Director/ Air Pollution Control Officer Larry Greene Executive Director/ Air Pollution Control Officer Association of California Airports Annual Conference September 16-18, 2009

2 Our District Mission Achieve clean air goals by leading the region in protecting public health and the environment through innovative and effective programs, dedicated staff, community involvement and public education.

3 Health Effects – We know Air pollution kills people Lung Disease/Toxic effects/Heart attacks Air pollution hurts the most vulnerable Asthma (children) Shortens the life of the elderly Air pollution effects our economy Secondary effects and quality of life Air pollution kills people Lung Disease/Toxic effects/Heart attacks Air pollution hurts the most vulnerable Asthma (children) Shortens the life of the elderly Air pollution effects our economy Secondary effects and quality of life

4 Air Pollutants of Concern Ozone (ROG + NOx) Particulates (NOx, SOx, ROG, Ammonia) Greenhouse Gases – (CO2, Methane) Toxics Diesel particles, Benzene, Chromium, Asbestos Haze

5 Federal/State/LocalFederal/State/Local - Federal EPA - planes, trains, automobiles, large industrial sources, national standards. Federal Clean Air Act -California Air Resources Board - vehicles, fuels, consumer products, area sources, air toxic control measures. California Clean Air Act. - Local districts – permit industrial sources, inspect, respond to complaints, agricultural burning, asbestos, CEQA review, public education. District rules/Board resolutions resolutions/Policies - Federal EPA - planes, trains, automobiles, large industrial sources, national standards. Federal Clean Air Act -California Air Resources Board - vehicles, fuels, consumer products, area sources, air toxic control measures. California Clean Air Act. - Local districts – permit industrial sources, inspect, respond to complaints, agricultural burning, asbestos, CEQA review, public education. District rules/Board resolutions resolutions/Policies

6 District Background

7 35 Local Air Agencies Work for local Boards of Directors Unique focus on local air quality and issues

8 FederalOzoneNon-attainmentArea 120 miles

9 Were Geographically-Challenged Summer Ground-level Ozone (smog) NOX + VOC+Sunlight = 0zone +

10 Were Geographically-Challenged Winter Particulate Pollution Emissions + low wind + cold temperatures = High Particulate levels

11 Air Quality Trends - Ozone Concentrations, hour* 35% improvement 8 hour 16% improvement *2008 data adjusted for proposed exceptional events due to wildfires.

12 Regional Emissions

13 Current Sacramento Regional NOx – 167 TPD

14 Current Sacramento Regional VOC – 136 TPD

15 Emission Source Equivalents 1 TPD of VOC and NOx (Year 2019) 18,000 HD trucks 200,000 cars* 72 Locomotives (NOx only) 310 Gas Stations** 310 Gas Stations** (VOC only) * Base on average vehicle fleet mix ** No additional controls after Commercial Jet LTOs

16 Regional Airports Sacramento International Airport (SMF) Sacramento International Airport (SMF) –> 72,000 LTOs McClellan Airfield (MCC) McClellan Airfield (MCC) –> 5000 LTOs Mather Airport (MHR) Mather Airport (MHR) –> 50,000 LTOs Sacramento Executive Airport (SAC) Sacramento Executive Airport (SAC) –> 67,000 LTOS Franklin Field (F72) Franklin Field (F72) –> 18,000 LTOs

17 Airport Operations (LTOs) Source: FAA 5010 report (downloaded Aug 27, 2009).

18 Airport Emissions (VOC & NOx) Source: CARB 2009 Almanac (2008 Emissions) for aircraft & GSE by county and using ratio of LTOs from FAA 5010 report (downloaded Aug 27, 2009)

19 Airport Emissions (Particulate) Source: CARB 2009 Almanac (2008 Emissions) for aircraft & GSE by county and using ratio of LTOs from FAA 5010 report (downloaded Aug 27, 2009)

20 Airport Emissions (CO 2 ) Source: Estimated using BAAQMD 2007 GHG CO2 estimates for Aircraft in San Mateo & Alameda Counties (Source of Inventory of Bay Area Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Dec 2008)

21 Airport Emissions (CO) Source: CARB 2009 Almanac (2008 Emissions) for aircraft & GSE by county and using ratio of LTOs from FAA 5010 report (downloaded Aug 27, 2009)

22 Airport Pb (Lead) Emissions Major sources Major sources –Industrial sources Smelters Smelters Boilers Boilers Waste incinerators Waste incinerators Glass & cement manufacturing Glass & cement manufacturing –General aviation (45 % national lead emissions) Gasoline (Avgas) Gasoline (Avgas) Source: Lead Emissions from the Use of Leaded Aviation Gasoline in the United States (PDF) (82 pp, 2.5MB, October 2008, EPA-420-R )

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24 Pb (Lead) Standard EPA strengthens NAAQS – October 15, 2008 EPA strengthens NAAQS – October 15, 2008 –Reduced from 1.5 ug/m3 to 0.15 ug/m3 Scientific evidence expanded dramatically since the 1970s Scientific evidence expanded dramatically since the 1970s –Over 6000 new studies on lead health effects –Children highly vulnerable to effects from lead –Exposure linked to effects on IQ, learning, memory and behavior Revision will yield substantial benefits Revision will yield substantial benefits –$3.7 – $6.9 billion expected increase in lifetime earnings as a result of avoiding IQ loss

25 Pb (Lead) Standard Improve existing monitoring network Improve existing monitoring network –Require monitoring in areas with sources that emit > 1tpy –Urban areas with populations greater more than 500,000 EPA reconsiders ambient monitoring requirements – July 22, 2009 EPA reconsiders ambient monitoring requirements – July 22, 2009 –Additional monitoring near sources –Review monitoring requirements for urban areas –Revised monitoring requirements expected late summer 2009 will discuss general aviation airports EPA expects to issue final rule Oct 2009 EPA expects to issue final rule Oct 2009

26 Toxics Airports provide multiple sources of pollution Airports provide multiple sources of pollution –Aircraft, ground equipment, facilities, vehicle traffic Studies raise concern about air toxics from airports Studies raise concern about air toxics from airports –Chicago OHare (2000) –TF Green Airport, Warwick, RI ( ) –Teterboro Airport, New Jersey (2006) –LAX Study by UCLA/CARB ( ) Pollutants of concern Pollutants of concern –Organics Acetaldehyde, Acrolein, Benzene, Toluene, Formaldehyde, Naphthalene, 1,3 Butadiene, PAHs Acetaldehyde, Acrolein, Benzene, Toluene, Formaldehyde, Naphthalene, 1,3 Butadiene, PAHs –In-organics & Metals Arsenic, Beryllium, Cadmium, Chromium, Copper, Manganese, Nickel, and Zinc Arsenic, Beryllium, Cadmium, Chromium, Copper, Manganese, Nickel, and Zinc More research needed More research needed –Ongoing efforts to identify, evaluate and reduce risk

27 Major Projects Sacramento International Master Plan Mather Field Master Plan

28 Sacramento International Airport Environmental Impact Report Environmental Impact Report –California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA) Assessment of Air Quality Impacts Assessment of Air Quality Impacts –Individual technical analyses emissions inventories emissions inventories dispersion modeling dispersion modeling analysis of potential CO hot spots analysis of potential CO hot spots human health risk assessment human health risk assessment Applicability analyses Applicability analyses NOx emission were predicted to exceed the CEQA significance threshold and required mitigation NOx emission were predicted to exceed the CEQA significance threshold and required mitigation

29 General Conformity Clean Air Act - federal departments may not engage, support, fund, or approve any activity that does not conform to an approved SIP. Clean Air Act - federal departments may not engage, support, fund, or approve any activity that does not conform to an approved SIP. Applies to non-attainment area pollutants Applies to non-attainment area pollutants –Ozone (NOx, VOC), PM10 –PM2.5 (under new standard) Examples: Examples: –leasing of federal land, –private construction on federal land, –airport construction and expansions, –reuse of military bases, and –construction of federal office buildings Airport emissions inventory included in SIPs. Airport emissions inventory included in SIPs.

30 Aircraft Operations + Ground Support Equipment Emissions Year of Operations VOC(tons/day)NOx(tons/day) 2011 Projected Emissions Inventory Aircraft Operations Aircraft Operations Ground Support Equipment Ground Support Equipment Projected Emissions Inventory Aircraft Operations Aircraft Operations Ground Support Equipment Ground Support Equipment Projected Emissions Inventory Aircraft Operations Aircraft Operations Ground Support Equipment Ground Support Equipment Projected Emissions Inventory Aircraft Operations Aircraft Operations Ground Support Equipment Ground Support Equipment

31 Master Plan Mitigation Master Plan Mitigation Construction Emissions Construction Emissions –Standard Construction Mitigation: Construction must meet a 20% NOx and 45% PM10 emissions reduction compared to the CARB fleet average. Construction must meet a 20% NOx and 45% PM10 emissions reduction compared to the CARB fleet average. Exhaust cannot exceed 40% opacity for more than 3 minutes 1 hour period. Exhaust cannot exceed 40% opacity for more than 3 minutes 1 hour period. –Off-site mitigation fee paid for NOx emissions that exceeded 85 pounds/day threshold: Received credit for implementing Standard Construction Mitigation. Received credit for implementing Standard Construction Mitigation. ERCs used to offset a portion of the off-site mitigation fee. ERCs used to offset a portion of the off-site mitigation fee.

32 Master Plan Mitigation Master Plan Mitigation Operational Emissions Operational Emissions -Expand use of low emission technologies when purchasing technologies when purchasing new mobile equipment and constructing terminal facilities Specific Examples in the Mitigation Monitoring and Reporting Plan: Specific Examples in the Mitigation Monitoring and Reporting Plan: Electric charging stations for Ground Service Equipment (GSE) Electric charging stations for Ground Service Equipment (GSE) Gate furnished A/C and power for aircraft Gate furnished A/C and power for aircraft Low emitting buses for on-site travel Low emitting buses for on-site travel Solar-energy cells for electricity Solar-energy cells for electricity Hydrant fueling system to reduce fuel truck trips Hydrant fueling system to reduce fuel truck trips

33 Sacramento County Airport Systems Emission Reduction Credits (ERCs) Four past ERC applications: Four past ERC applications: –Modification to jet fueling delivery system (2005) –Modernization of shuttle bus fleet (2006) –Modification to air bridges to reduce the use of APUs on aircraft (2007) –Electrification of some ground support equipment (2006)

34 Jet Fuel Delivery System Jet fuel pipeline eliminated the need to truck jet fuel Jet fuel pipeline eliminated the need to truck jet fuel –3.96 tons/year of NOx ERCs were generated for years ERCs were issued for a 10 – year life per SCAS request ERCs were issued for a 10 – year life per SCAS request ERCs are adjusted down over the credit life to reflect new lower state and federal emission standards for trucks: ERCs are adjusted down over the credit life to reflect new lower state and federal emission standards for trucks: –1.7 tons/year of NOx ERCs were generated for years ERCs enforced through permit conditions in the Permit to Operate for the new fueling terminal ERCs enforced through permit conditions in the Permit to Operate for the new fueling terminal –SCAS and company supplying fuel jointly hold permit ERCs have been surrendered for CEQA mitigation ERCs have been surrendered for CEQA mitigation

35 Shuttle Bus Modernization Replaced 12 diesel and 12 natural gas shuttle buses Replaced 12 diesel and 12 natural gas shuttle buses ERC issued for a 10 – year life per SCAS request ERC issued for a 10 – year life per SCAS request –0.5 tons/year of NOx and 0.1 tons/year of PM10 emissions credits generated (years 2007 – 2015) ERCs adjusted down over the credit life to reflect new lower state and federal emission standards for trucks: ERCs adjusted down over the credit life to reflect new lower state and federal emission standards for trucks: –0.4 tons/year of NOx and 0.06 tons/year of PM10 emissions credits were generated (year 2016) –0.2 tons/year of NOx and 0.03 tons/year of PM10 emissions credits were generated (year 2017) ERCs enforced by conditions in the ERC certificate ERCs enforced by conditions in the ERC certificate ERCs surrendered for CEQA mitigation ERCs surrendered for CEQA mitigation

36 Both ERC applications were withdrawn by SCAS Both ERC applications were withdrawn by SCAS –Electrification of Air Bridges ERC application did not meet the enforceability requirements Did not agree to require that airlines use the electrification at all times Did not agree to require that airlines use the electrification at all times –Airlines did not want to take conditions to use electrified equipment at all times –Emission reductions from ground support equipment could not be quantified due to lack of records Electrification of Air Bridges &Ground Support Equipment

37 Mather Field Master Plan Environmental Review and Assessment – –Sacramento County Department of Environmental Review and Assessment (DERA) Received approval from BOS, June 2007 Entered agreement with Camp Dresser & McKee Inc. (CDM) for preparation of the Mather Airport Master Plan Environmental Assessment and California Environmental Quality Act technical studies Environmental Assessment (EA) – –Will be prepared to meet federal NEPA requirements Environmental Impact Report (EIR) – –Will be prepared to meet State CEQA requirements Reports expected to be published in the Summer 2010

38 Contacts Air Resources Board Air Resources Board –John Taylor, Air Quality & Transportation (916) (916) –James Lerner, Transportation Analysis (916) (916) Sacramento Metropolitan AQMD Sacramento Metropolitan AQMD –Brigette Tollstrup, Program Coordination (916) – (916) – –Aleta Kennard, Emission Reduction Credits (ERCs) (916) – (916) – –Charles Anderson, Plan Coordination/CEQA (916) – (916) –

39 Questions?


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