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Air Quality 101 Association of California Airports September 18, 2009.

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Presentation on theme: "Air Quality 101 Association of California Airports September 18, 2009."— Presentation transcript:

1 Air Quality 101 Association of California Airports September 18, 2009

2 Overview  Typical Air Quality Regulations  Common Definitions  Some Aviation Hot Topics  In the Air

3 HMMH Corporate Overview  Services Offered  Noise and Vibration Control  Airport and Airspace Planning  Air Quality  Renewable Energy  GHG Management  Practice areas  Aviation Services  Rail Noise and Vibration  Highway Noise  Industrial/Commercial/Entertainment  Climate and Energy

4 Air Quality Regulations  Federal  Clean Air Act Amendments (CAA)  National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA)  State  California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA)  Air Resource Board (ARB)  Local  Local Air Pollution Districts (35)

5 Federal Regulations Clean Air Act Amendments – Federal Law Regulating Air Quality  Clean Air Act 1970  Established the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS)  Established State Implementation Plans (SIPs) to achieve NAAQS  Others (control motor vehicle emissions, NESHAPs, NSPS)  1977 Amendments  Authorized Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD)  Established non-attainment areas with respect to NAAQS  1990 Amendments  Authorized Acid Deposition control  Control 189 toxic pollutants (hazardous air pollutants (HAPs))  Title V Permitting

6 Federal Regulations  NEPA  Enacted January 1, 1970  Consider environmental effects in the federal agency decision making  Established Environmental Assessment (EA’s) – Typically for projects with no significant impacts. Usually smaller less controversial projects.  Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) –Usually for larger more controversial projects, more beefier than EA.

7 State Regulations  California Environmental Quality Act  Established in 1970 to supplement NEPA  Applies to certain activities by state and local public agencies  Most development projects are subject to CEQA  Review of the project and its effects  Very similar to NEPA but must show compliance with state and local standards  Goal to avoid, minimize, and mitigate damage to environment

8 State/Local  Air Resources Board (ARB)  Sets and enforces emissions standards (mobile, fuels, consumer products)  Sets health based air quality standards  Monitors air quality  Conducts research  Oversees and assists local air quality districts permitting  Local Air Quality Districts  35 Air Districts  Regulate air permits and comment on CEQA

9 California Air Districts

10 Definitions  National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) – developed by EPA to protect public health (Primary Standards) and welfare (Secondary)  Contains six criteria pollutants  California Ambient Air Quality Standards – Similar to NAAQS but more restrictive in some areas (e.g. SO2, 1-hour NO2, 1-hour CO etc.)  Non-attainment  Area designated by EPA as not meeting the NAAQS  Attainment  Area designated by EPA which meets the NAAQS  Maintenance  Previously designated non-attainment subsequently redesignated to attainment  De-minimus Levels  Impacts above de-minimus levels are considered significant. Levels are set based on attainment status. Keep impacts below these levels.  Emission Inventory  Typically reported in tons per year (tpy). Rate of emission for a group of sources.  Dispersion Modeling  Typically estimated in mircrograms per cubic meter (ug/m3). Ground level concentration predicted through dispersion algorithms from emission sources.  General Conformity  Only apply in non-attainment and maintenance areas. If not on FAA Presumed to Conform List, then applicability analysis is conducted (i.e. emission inventory).  If net emissions below de-minimus levels, and not regionally significant, no further action. Otherwise;  Conformity determination conducted using dispersion modeling for NAAQS compliance.

11 EDMS  Emission Dispersion Modeling System (EDMS)  Preferred model by FAA for use at civil and military airports  Capabilities  Emissions Inventory  Air Dispersion Modeling  Aircraft emissions, GSE, APU, idle/taxi, combustion, mobile sources  LTOs emissions (i.e. below 3,000 feet)  For dispersion uses meteorological data from airport

12 Lead  EPA Lowered Standard January 2009  From 1.5 ug/m3 to 0.15 ug/m3. Three month average instead of quarterly.  Lead is still in General Aviation Gas (AvGas)  EPA currently conducting a follow up study at Santa Monica Airport.  Air and Soil emissions. Not a risk assessment.  Previous monitoring results below standard.  Purpose of study  Develop a model to regulate emissions in the future.  SMO chosen because there are no industry within a mile of the site to skew the results  Study will be available in 2010.

13 PM2.5  What is it?  Mixture of extremely small particles and droplets  Regulated via NAAQS  Sources  Aircraft are primary emitters at airports, Combustion sources, mobile source, naturally occurring (i.e. forest fires, biological), others.  Health Implications  Premature deaths (heart and lung disease), children and elderly especially sensitive  EPA believes PM2.5 poses the greatest health risk  Airport studies have shown increases in (PM2.5 and benzene) concentrations at airports, but direct correlation to airport operations was inconclusive. Spikes and inconsistent patterns.

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15 Airport Emission Sources  Aircraft Operations  Ground Support Equipment, Auxiliary Power Units  Shuttles, Vans, Taxis  Passenger Vehicles  Cargo Trucks  Construction Equipment  Combustion equipment (i.e. boilers and egens)

16 General Conformity 101  Conduct emission inventory for Project (EDMS)  Airside  Construction  Direct and Indirect Emissions  Net emissions (Project emissions above baseline)  If total net emissions below de minimis and not regionally significant, then:  NEPA – action is considered insignificant  General Conformity – Analysis is complete, no General Conformity Determination needed.

17 Mitigation  Stay out of General Conformity (i.e. air quality dispersion modeling vs. NAAQS)  Stay below De Minimus (i.e. impacts are considered insignificant and analysis done)  Reduce air quality impacts (alternate fuels, electrification)  Plan ahead, develop a long–term air quality plan

18 In the Air  AEDT  GHG Cap and Trade  Proposed GHG Standard  Proposed 1-hour NO2 Standard  California AB-32

19 AEDT  Aviation Emission Design Tool  Currently being developed by FAA/DOT Volpe  Incorporate air quality and noise  Replace EDMS, INM, Noise Integrated Routing System (NIRS)  What’s new in AEDT  Multiple radar formats  Input trajectories from NextGen  Validation using flight recordings  Incorporate SAGE Data (fuel burn emissions data)  Scheduled Release 2011

20 Cap and Trade  American Clean Energy and Security Act of 2009 (aka Waxman-Markey Bill)  Aviation is not explicitly called out in the Bill  Jet fuel refining is part of cap and trade  Fuel more expensive  No viable alternative to Jet Fuel (biofuels?)  Applies to aircraft manufacturing sector (>25K TPY CO2 from fossil fuel combustion)  Main feature is the Cap and Trade program  Allocated Allowances (i.e. Cap)  Purchase additional allowances from other companies (i.e. trade)  Require high emitting industries to reduce there output to specific targets  Incentives to reduce (bank)  Basically it will cost the buyer for additional credits and reward the seller by reducing emissions  Current version does not include emission standards  2012 European Union preparing for Cap and Trade for aviation

21 Greenhouse Gas Standard  Newly Created Additional GHG Standard  EPA designated categories not covered by Cap and Trade  Airport stationary sources could be subject to this aggregate emissions category.  Unclear if EPA can or might aggregate stationary sources. Ex. Heating and cooling plants > 25,000 tpy of CO2 would exceed 10,000 tpy proposed threshold.  Bears watching

22 Proposed EPA 1-Hour NO2 Standard  Currently an annual standard  Proposing a new short-term standard  Proposal ranges from 150 ug/m3 to 188 ug/m3  Not new to CA under CEQA (current 1-hour NO2 is at 339 ug/m3)  Hourly monitored data at some airports > proposed standard (LAX, SAC, SAN, LGB)  Significant for airports since located near highways and aviation emissions are higher in NOx  Many airports could be located in 1-hour NA, thereby subjecting to General Conformity for NO2  Public comment closed Sep 14, rule by Jan Attainment designations by Jan 2012, conformity reviews by 2013.

23 AB-32  Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006  Cut GHG emissions to 1990 levels by 2020  Effective 2012  Only EPA and FAA have authority to regulate emissions from Aircraft  Recently reached settlement with San Diego Airport  Reduce emission from expansion  Green building certification  Alternate energy airport shuttles  Gate electrification  Electric or alternative Fuel vehicles  Future projects should think about mitigation (i.e. Massachusetts MEPA GHG Policy)

24 Thank You for your time… For more information, please contact:  Phil DeVita, CCM  


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