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NYCT OPERATING EXPERIENCE WITH HYBRID TRANSIT BUSES Gary LaBouff Director, Research & Development May, 2006.

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Presentation on theme: "NYCT OPERATING EXPERIENCE WITH HYBRID TRANSIT BUSES Gary LaBouff Director, Research & Development May, 2006."— Presentation transcript:

1 NYCT OPERATING EXPERIENCE WITH HYBRID TRANSIT BUSES Gary LaBouff Director, Research & Development May, 2006

2 Overview of NYCT Bus Operations

3 NYCT Bus Operations (2005) n Annual Bus Customers740,586,160 n Average Weekday Ridership2,361,299 n Total Buses in Fleet 4,512 n # of Bus Routes243 n # of Bus Stops12,693 n # Of Total Employees14,061 n Annual Mileage 119,495,228 n Gallons of Fuel Consumed è Diesel 41,116,861 è CNG 7,156,336

4 NYCT Bus Fleet

5 1. Reduce Bus Fleet Emissions - Achieve levels below current U.S. mandates 2. Improve Service - Improve equipment reliability - Achieve quieter operation 3. Reduce the Cost of Operations - Improve fuel economy - Reduce maintenance costs - Avoid infrastructure costs NYCT Goals

6 The Clean Fuel Solution - Hybrid Electric n Hybrid Electric buses combine a diesel engine and electric drive components n Improved performance è Significant emissions reduction è Increased fuel economy è Smooth and quiet operation n Avoids the infrastructure costs of CNG - no special fuel handling is required

7 BAE/Orion VII Hybrid System Lead Acid Battery Packs Diesel Engine Generator Electric Traction Motor Power Electronics Lead-Acid Batteries Diesel Engine Generator Power Electronics (PCS) Traction Motor

8 NYCT Hybrid Bus Programs

9 NYCT Hybrid Bus Programs - Overview n Successful prototype in 1996 (Orion/GE) n Pilot fleet of 10 Orion VI/BAE hybrid buses began revenue service in 1998 n 125 Production Orion VII/BAE Gen. I hybrid buses ordered - pilot bus in 2003, production deliveries in 2004 n 200 Production Orion VII/BAE Gen. II hybrid buses ordered - pilot bus in 2004, production deliveries in 2005 n 500 Additional Orion VII/BAE Gen. II+ ordered, (216 NYCT,284 MTA BUS) - Delivery by 6/07.

10 Revenue Service Experience - Orion VI n Hybrid buses in service since Sept. 1998 n Met standard performance specs n Approx. 700,000 revenue miles n Drivers and customers like the buses n Brake life approximately doubled n Very positive - for a brand new technology, have exceeded expectations

11 Orion VII/BAE Hybrid Buses - Gen. I n First of 125 into service in February, 2004 n As of 1 April 2006: è 125 Buses in service è Approx. 5.5 million revenue service miles to date è Two depots; Bronx & Queens n Used interchangeably with standard buses n Fuel economy and emissions better than Orion VI hybrid buses

12 Orion VII/BAE Hybrid Buses - Gen. I Design Improvements over Orion VI n Active Control of Generator è Variable engine speed n Improved Traction Motor è Planetary gear reduction è Redesigned bearing system n Redesigned Packaging n Particulate Filter with Active Control n Improved Diagnostic System n Improved Re-gen Control for Smoother Braking

13 Orion VII/BAE Hybrid Buses - Gen. II n First of 200 into service in December, 2004 n As of 1 April 2006: è 200 Buses in service è Over 3.5 million revenue service miles è Two depots, Brooklyn and Manhattan n Smoother and quieter than Generation I

14 Orion VII/BAE Hybrid Buses - Gen. II Design Improvements over Orion VII Gen. I n New Generator - Flywheel Mounted - (currently being redesigned) n New Design Coolant/Lube Pumps n Oil Cooled Propulsion Control System n Improved Accessibility n Software Upgrade n Updated engine - EGR with common rail fuel system

15 Orion VII Hybrid Bus Revenue Miles

16 NYCT Fleets Composite Fuel Economy

17 Emissions Comparison

18 EPA Regulated Emission Levels for Heavy Duty On-Highway Engines - PM & NOx 1988 1990 1991 1994 1998 2004 2007-2010

19 Hybrid Bus Reliability (MDBF) 01 6 Month Rolling Average 6 Month Rolling Average

20 Orion VI Lead Acid Battery Life n For the 36 months of testing ending in February of 2004: è 17,000,000 Battery-miles, 5% replaced è Replaced batteries did not appear to be end-of- life failures è Two buses in service for 40+months with no failures n Life goal of 3 years appears to be potentially achievable but not realized yet n Changes to software in Orion VII should reduce battery replacements

21 Hybrid Electric Costs

22 Life Cycle Costs - HEV vs Standard n Current differential in acquisition costs make justification of HEVs, based on costs alone, difficult at todays fuel prices è Current hybrid differential is $125-200K per bus è Series HEVs in NYCT high density duty cycle can achieve over 30% improvement in fuel economy over standard diesel/transmission systems è This can result in a savings of approx. 50,000 gallons of fuel over a 12 year life of the bus. è If todays fuel prices double, the savings can negate the initial cost differential.

23 Fuel Costs - Series HEV vs Std. Propulsion

24 Life Cycle Costs - HEV vs Standard n Other factors contribute to HEV cost savings è Brake life è Diesel Particulate Filter maintenance u HEV system can control regeneration process and reduce filter problems è Transmission overhaul n Other non-cost factors favor hybrids è Lower noise signature è More flexibility in vehicle energy management è Emissions

25 Lessons Learned from Hybrid Buses

26 Lessons Learned - Operational n Bus operators and passengers like hybrids è Quiet, smooth operation è excellent acceleration/smooth braking è feels like a standard bus è little or no operator training required n Able to be used on all NYCT routes n Bus does not roll back on hills

27 Lessons Learned - Maintenance n More advanced troubleshooting procedures and tools required è More components and subsystems/interfaces è More wiring and connectors n Long term, reliable, and cost effective energy storage solution still not clear è Lead acid batteries have limited life and can be reliability drivers due to the number required è NiMH still expensive and life unproven è Ultra capacitors, Lithium Ion batteries still in development.

28 NYCT Hybrid Bus - Future Plans n Evaluate alternative energy storage technologies n Evaluate alternative hybrid system technologies n Continue to develop integrated diagnostic/prognostic systems n Pursue goal of 10,000 hour MDBF for hybrid buses n Move toward all electric accessories

29 Hybrid Buses - Future Challenges n Component Optimization - HEV allows for the use of other electrically driven system components. n Electric components have inherent advantages: è Remote mounting - better packaging è More efficient è High reliability index è Reduced noise signature

30 Hybrid Buses - Future Challenges n Opportunities for Electrically Driven Accessories: è Short term u Compressors, air and HVAC u Steering u Cooling system è Long Term u Wheel motors u ZPE operation u Fuel cell integration

31 Additional Information n Speaker Contact: Gary LaBouff, Director - Research & Development MTA New York City Transit (718) 566-3535; n Hybrid/CNG/Diesel Emissions Report n NREL Reports: reports 6369 and 6383

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