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Hypercar Pollution Prevention Michelle Bates. What is a Hypercar? Ultralight, Low-Drag, Hybrid-Electric Vehicle (HEV) 2 Sources of energy: –Fuel cells,

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Presentation on theme: "Hypercar Pollution Prevention Michelle Bates. What is a Hypercar? Ultralight, Low-Drag, Hybrid-Electric Vehicle (HEV) 2 Sources of energy: –Fuel cells,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Hypercar Pollution Prevention Michelle Bates

2 What is a Hypercar? Ultralight, Low-Drag, Hybrid-Electric Vehicle (HEV) 2 Sources of energy: –Fuel cells, gas turbines, diesels, lean burn gasoline engines –Flywheels, batteries, ultracapacitors 2 Drive trains –Internal Combustion Engine- gas or alt. fuels –Battery driven electric

3 Drivesystems Conventional –Internal combustion engine coupled to wheels through the transmission, driveshaft, etc. Hybrid-Electric –Engine (or other power source) generates electricity from fuel, which then powers electric motors that turn the wheels

4 Six Main Sources of Energy Loss in a Conventional Car:

5 Hypercar Strategies to Reduce Energy Losses Ultralight –1994 Average U.S. Passenger car 1439 kg –2000-2005 Hypercar (4-5 seat) 521 kg Low Aerodynamic Drag Hybrid-Electric Drivesystem Efficient Accessories

6 Ultralight Composites –Embed strong reinforcing fibers in a supporting "matrix" of polymer Advanced Composites –Long or continuous reinforcing fibers such as carbon or aramid (kevlar) in addition to glass

7 Advanced Composite Materials Advantages -50-65% reduction in weight -Crashworthy -Design Flexibility -Durability -Manufacturing Disadvantages -$

8 GMs 1991 Ultralite Concept Car

9 Mass Decompounding

10 Low-Drag Aerodynamic Design Smooth underbody Low-angle windshields Tapered rear end Minimized body seams Aerodynamically designed air intakes, suspension, and wheel wells Result: 40-50% decrease in drag

11 Rolling Resistance 1/3 engine output lost Solution –lightweight car –tire improvements –improved wheel bearing and brake design Reduction in rolling resistance by 50-80%

12 Hybrid-Electric Drive Series –Engine with generator to supply electricity for battery pack and electric motor –No mechanical connection –Power transferred electrically to wheel motor Parallel –Direct mechanical connection between hybrid power unit and wheels –Electric motor drives the wheels –Example

13 Hybrid-Electric Drive Series Parallel

14 Hybrid-Electric Drive Generate electricity from the fuel, powers wheel motors Electric motors can recover part of the braking energy Wheel Motor

15 Hybrid-Electric Drive Large decrease in engine size –reduces weight, cost, fuel consumption Drive system efficiency doubled

16 Efficient Accessories Avoid heat buildup by using: –Insulation, special heat-reflecting glass, solar- powered vent fans –Innovative cooling and dehumidification systems –Improved headlights and taillights More efficient electronics and interior lighting systems

17 Hypercar

18 Whole Systems Approach Optimizing parts individually results in inefficiency overall Hypercar is cost effective when the entire system is designed for efficiency

19 Hypercar Safety Advanced composites Smaller propulsion system –room at both ends of the car for materials dedicated to crash energy management Front and side airbags, harnesses with pretensioners and stress-limiters, padding, active headrests

20 Pollution Prevention Hypercars would go roughly 2-4 times farther on a unit of fuel –decreased overall carbon dioxide emissions –lower emissions per vehicle mile traveled Alternative fuels

21 Fuel Efficiency

22 Life Cycle Assessment Advanced Composites are durable –wont rust, dent or chip Total weight is much less, so there is less pure waste produced

23 Current Status Hypercars do not currently exist Hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs) do exist Chrysler, Ford and GM –Year 2000 prototype HEVs –Year 2003 release HEVs on the U.S. market Department of Energy HEV Propulsion Program –Funds 50% of development costs

24 Toyotas Hybrid-Electric Prius Sedan Japanese market for one year Not ultralight (weighs 330 lbs. more) 66 miles per gallon Emissions reduced to 1/10th the Japanese legal requirement U.S. market year 2000


26 Future Projections Zero-Emission Vehicles (ZEVs) –One tenth of new cars sold in five U.S. states by 2004 Half of all vehicles Hypercars by 2020 –Overall fuel consumption 25 percent less than today's level

27 Battery Electric Cars vs. Hybrid- Electric Cars Battery Electric –Run on electricity stored in onboard batteries –Gasoline contains 100 times more energy per pound than batteries –Several thousand pounds of batteries (mass compounding) –Range less than 150 miles

28 Battery Electric Cars vs. Hybrid- Electric Cars Battery-Electric –Batteries must be replaced every few years –Batteries cost $2000- $15,000 each –Batteries not recyclable –Emission shifting GMs EV1

29 Battery Electric Cars vs. Hybrid- Electric Cars Hybrid-Electric Cars –Wheels powered by electric motor or motors, convert fuel into energy as they go –Alternative fuel sources (Ex: renewable fuel cells) –Decrease carbon dioxide emissions –Increased engine and drive systems efficiency –Mass decompounding

30 Economic Impacts: The Winners Makers of power electronics, microelectronics, advanced electric motors and small engines, alternative power plants and storage devices, and software Composite materials, structures, and tooling and manufacturing equipment suppliers Providers of polymers, fibers, coatings, and adhesives for the composites industry Aerospace firms

31 Economic Impacts: Losers Iron and steel industries (a Hypercar has 92% less iron and steel) Heavy machine tools Oil for motor fuel Automotive fluids and lubricants

32 For More Information The Hypercar Center – Hybrid Electric Vehicle Program – Rocky Mountain Institute – Toyota Prius –

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