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Northeast Association of State Transportation Officials Delaware Center for Transportation Alternative-Fuel Technology for Fleet June 2010 Arde Faghri,

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Presentation on theme: "Northeast Association of State Transportation Officials Delaware Center for Transportation Alternative-Fuel Technology for Fleet June 2010 Arde Faghri,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Northeast Association of State Transportation Officials Delaware Center for Transportation Alternative-Fuel Technology for Fleet June 2010 Arde Faghri, Professor, Civil Engi. Director, Delaware Center for Transportation University of Delaware Amir Shahpar Research Assistant, Delaware Center for Transportation

2 Northeast Association of State Transportation Officials Delaware Center for Transportation Outline Introducing DART Fleet Expansion Considerations Alternative-Fuel Transit Buses Data Collection Results – Life-Cycle Cost – Emissions Future Works

3 Northeast Association of State Transportation Officials Delaware Center for Transportation Delaware Authority for Regional Transit: DART Delawares bus, train, and intermodal transportation provider Services include contracted SEPTA commuter trains, intercounty bus, fixed route bus and paratransit 10.2 million passenger trips system wide ridership Revenue sources: 18% fare – 77% State – 3% Federal – 2% bus advertising One of the 43 transit agencies chosen to reduce energy consumption and GHG Emissions

4 Northeast Association of State Transportation Officials Delaware Center for Transportation 69 fixed bus routes 430 buses all types – 40-foot buses config. 132 Diesel 15 Hybrid Diesel- Electric Fleet expansion Plan – 9 in 2011 – 12 in 2012 New Castle County Fixed Bus Routes

5 Northeast Association of State Transportation Officials Delaware Center for Transportation Fleet Expansion Considerations Serious funding problems Life-Cycle Cost (LCC) APTA Strategic Plan – Economic Sustainability – Environmental Sustainability Latest EPA Standards State Implementations Plans (SIP)

6 Northeast Association of State Transportation Officials Delaware Center for Transportation EPA Emission Standards Source: Generated based on the EPA web site (2010)

7 Northeast Association of State Transportation Officials Delaware Center for Transportation EPA Emission Standards Source: Generated based on the EPA web site (2010)

8 Northeast Association of State Transportation Officials Delaware Center for Transportation Ozone Level in Delaware

9 Northeast Association of State Transportation Officials Delaware Center for Transportation Alternative-Fuel Buses Clean Air Act 1990 – Ethanol, Methanol, Biodiesel, CNG, LPG, LNG, Hybrid, Pure Electric, Fuel cell 2009 APTA database (40-foot standard transit bus)

10 Northeast Association of State Transportation Officials Delaware Center for Transportation Other Technologies weaknesses Ethanol & Methanol: – High maintenance cost and reduced engine life LPG: – Lack of suitable commercially available engine – Practical option for small- to medium-sized transit buses Fuel Cell: – Very pricy with an average price of $1.3M (zero emission) Pure Electric: – Prototype design stage (very promising)

11 Northeast Association of State Transportation Officials Delaware Center for Transportation Other Technologies weaknesses Source: University of Delaware Center for Fuel Cell Research

12 Northeast Association of State Transportation Officials Delaware Center for Transportation Dominant Technologies Ultra-Low-Sulfur Diesel (ULSD) Biodiesel (B20) Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) Hybrid Diesel-Electric

13 Northeast Association of State Transportation Officials Delaware Center for Transportation Data Collection DART: – Annual average mileage = 30,000 mile/year – Average speed = 12.7 mph – Bus life span = 12 years – Fuel economy Delaware Air quality Reports: – key emissions: PM2.5 & ozone – non-attainment areas: Wilmington for PM2.5 & Delaware for ozone

14 Northeast Association of State Transportation Officials Delaware Center for Transportation Data Collection Federal reports including: – Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) – Federal Transit Administration (FTA) – Department of Transportation (DOT) – National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) – Department of Energy (DOE) – American Public Transportation Association (APTA) Two major public transportation conferences: – BUSCON 2009, Chicago, IL – APTA 2009, Orlando, FL

15 Northeast Association of State Transportation Officials Delaware Center for Transportation Life-Cycle Cost Items Capital Cost – Vehicle Cost – Refueling Station (infrastructure) – Depot Modification Operating Cost – Fuel Cost – Total Maintenance Cost – Facility Maintenance – Compression Electricity – Battery Replacement Infrastructure and depot modification cost were justified based on DART current facilities

16 Northeast Association of State Transportation Officials Delaware Center for Transportation Major Assumptions Direct Cost That DART Pays 12-Years Life Span 50 New Buses Purchased in 2009 Type of Buses: 40 feet, low floor, 39 seats Buses Operated at Average National Conditions – 12 mph Speed – 35,000 miles per year 80% Federal subsidy for bus procurement Mechanic Time ($50/hr) in maintenance costs

17 Northeast Association of State Transportation Officials Delaware Center for Transportation Capital Costs per Bus (50 Bus Fleet)

18 Northeast Association of State Transportation Officials Delaware Center for Transportation Operating Costs per Bus (50 Bus Fleet, 12 years)

19 Northeast Association of State Transportation Officials Delaware Center for Transportation Fuel Economy & Projected Fuel Price Source: Department of Energy, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Federal Transit Association

20 Northeast Association of State Transportation Officials Delaware Center for Transportation The Life Cycle Cost per Bus (50 Bus Fleet, 12 years) ULSDBiodieselCNGHybrid Total Capital Cost (CC) $68,682$87,820$218,158$110,068 Total Operating Cost (OC) $642,032$673,200$523,788$592,881 Total CC+OC$710,714$761,020$741,946$702,949 Total CC+OC ($/mile) $1.69$1.81$1.77$1.67 Total CC+OC ($/mile/seat) $0.043$0.046$0.045$0.042

21 Northeast Association of State Transportation Officials Delaware Center for Transportation Life Cycle Cost $/mile

22 Northeast Association of State Transportation Officials Delaware Center for Transportation Reliability Index ULSDBiodieselCNGHybrid Total MBRC3,1973,6325,7385,847 Propulsion MBRC 5,0008,2118,8858,673 Cumulative Miles Between Road Calls (MBRC) NYCTA Standard MBRC = 4,000 miles

23 Northeast Association of State Transportation Officials Delaware Center for Transportation Emission Estimation (gram/mile) TechnologiesPMNOxNMHCVOCGHG ULSD Biodiesel CNG Hybrid

24 Northeast Association of State Transportation Officials Delaware Center for Transportation Future Works Multi-Criteria Decision Making Process Experts Survey – DelDOT Experts – DART-Management – DART-Bus operator – DART-Maintenance – DNREC – Passengers – UD researchers Qualitative Criteria – Vehicle Capability – Sense of Comfort – Energy Independence – Noise Pollution

25 Northeast Association of State Transportation Officials Delaware Center for Transportation You'll know the green revolution has been won when the word green disappears. - Tom Friedman, NYT Columnist

26 Northeast Association of State Transportation Officials Delaware Center for Transportation Acknowledgements Ralph Reeb Delaware Department of Transportation Brett Taylor Delaware Department of Transportation Stephen Kingsberry Delaware Transit Corporation Mark Glaze Delaware Department of Transportation


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