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Focused (or Deliberate) Practice to Accelerate Skill-Learning in Swimming Rod Havriluk, Ph.D. Swimming Technology Research.

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Presentation on theme: "Focused (or Deliberate) Practice to Accelerate Skill-Learning in Swimming Rod Havriluk, Ph.D. Swimming Technology Research."— Presentation transcript:

1 Focused (or Deliberate) Practice to Accelerate Skill-Learning in Swimming Rod Havriluk, Ph.D. Swimming Technology Research

2 Traditional Focused (Deliberate) Type of Practice

3 Benefits for Coach Need Characteristics Focused/Deliberate Practice

4 Professional - Swimmer progress Social Environment - Retain swimmers Financial - New swimmers Benefits for Coach

5 Technique Improvement

6

7 Focus on Streamline Cues

8 Streamline

9 Streamline Cues 1.One hand on top of the other 2.Elbows locked 3.Upper arms squeezing ears 4.Looking straight down 5.Legs straight 6.Toes pointed 7.Feet together

10 Practice Effect

11 Deliberate Practice Effect Jefferies, et al 2012

12 Progress Issues Physiology - Quality vs Quantity

13 Energy System Contributions

14 Progress Issues Physiology - Quality vs Quantity Skill-learning - Reinforce limitations Anatomy - Injury potential

15 Shoulder Anatomy

16 Ineffective Arm Entry

17 Time of Exposure

18 Ineffective Entry

19 Time of Exposure

20 Physiology - Quality vs Quantity Skill-learning - Reinforce limitations Anatomy - Injury potential Progress Issues

21 Deliberate Practice Clear instructions Appropriate task difficulty Sufficient number of repetitions Immediate feedback Individualized supervision Variety of learning strategies Stay in cognitive and associative stages Replicate superior performance

22 Clear Instructions - Model

23 Clear Instructions - Cues KINESTHETIC VISUAL

24 Clear Instructions - Images

25 Clear Instructions - Guidance

26 Breaststroke Kick

27 Deliberate Practice Clear instructions Appropriate task difficulty

28 Appropriate Task Difficulty Course Distance Stroke Rate Breathing Frequency

29 Appropriate Task Difficulty Age (yrs)Course Distance (m)

30 Appropriate Task Difficulty Slow Stroke Rate for Complex Skill FL, BK, FR - Slow, Continuous Hand Motion BR - Interrupted Stroke Rate

31 Interrupted Stroke Rate

32 Nonbreathing

33 Breathing Frequency Nonbreathing Minimal breathing Breathing every other stroke cycle

34 Appropriate Task Difficulty Course Distance Stroke Rate Breathing Frequency Fatigue & Recovery Comfort & Attention

35 Rest Between Reps Long enough – to recover to avoid fatigue Short enough – to maintain attention to stay warm

36 Skill Isolation Drills Swim Drills Deck Drills

37 Breaststroke Arm Drill

38 Butterfly Arm Drill

39 Deck Drills Relay Take-off Arm Swing Wall Push-ups Breaststroke Kick on Deck

40 Wall Push-Ups

41 Breaststroke Kick

42 Cue-Focused Practice KINESTHETIC VISUAL

43 Cues for Key Positions

44 Synchronized Cues

45

46 Deliberate Practice Clear instructions Appropriate task difficulty Sufficient number of repetitions

47 Stroke Repetitions Sufficient Number Effective Technique Develop Permanency

48 Deliberate Practice Clear instructions Appropriate task difficulty Sufficient number of repetitions Immediate feedback

49 Immediate Feedback Group Individual

50 Deliberate Practice Clear instructions Appropriate task difficulty Sufficient number of repetitions Immediate feedback Individualized supervision

51 Individualized Supervision Reminders before swims Feedback after swims Frequent coach-swimmer dialog

52 Deliberate Practice Clear instructions Appropriate task difficulty Sufficient number of repetitions Immediate feedback Individualized supervision Variety of learning strategies

53 Variety of Strategies Poolside instruction & analysis Classroom instruction & analysis

54 Classroom & Pool Classroom Instruction Pool Instruction Pool Testing Classroom Analysis

55 Variety of Strategies Poolside instruction & analysis Classroom instruction & analysis Swims and drills that isolate focus Practice with mirrors

56 Practice with Mirrors

57 Variety of Strategies Poolside instruction & analysis Classroom instruction & analysis Swims and drills that isolate focus Practice with mirrors Simulated swimming motions Quantitative analysis

58 Quantitative Analysis

59 Wasted Motion

60 Effective Motion

61 Deliberate Practice Clear instructions Appropriate task difficulty Sufficient number of repetitions Immediate feedback Individualized supervision Variety of learning strategies Stay in cognitive and associative stages

62 Learning Stages 1. Cognitive 2. Associative 3. Autonomous

63 Maintain Focus Reminders before swim Questions after swim Dialog about perception

64 Deliberate Practice Clear instructions Appropriate task difficulty Sufficient number of repetitions Immediate feedback Individualized supervision Variety of learning strategies Stay in cognitive and associative stages Replicate superior performance

65 Freestyle Arm Synchronization Gaps in Propulsion = Negative IdC (Catch-Up Stroke) Overlaps in Propulsion = Positive IdC (Superposition)

66 Gaps & Overlaps in Propulsion

67

68 Freestyle Arm Synchronization Gaps in Propulsion = Negative IdC (Catch-Up Stroke) Seifert, 2010 Overlaps in Propulsion = Positive IdC (Superposition) When expert swimmers increase their speed... only the superposition mode is observed.

69 Deliberate Practice Clear instructions Appropriate task difficulty Sufficient number of repetitions Immediate feedback Individualized supervision Variety of learning strategies Stay in cognitive and associative stages Replicate superior performance

70 Total Involvement Coach Strategies Team Investments Swimmer Habits

71 Benefits Need Characteristics Summary

72 swimmingtechnology.com Thank you. Questions?


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