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SAE International - Government Affairs

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1 SAE International - Government Affairs
SAE International standards work, including communication protocols and connectors, fast charge, batteries Tim Mellon Director SAE International - Government Affairs

2 SAE History Established in 1905 First President – Andrew Riker
1910 Baker Model V Electric Victoria 1996 EV1 – General Motors 2011 Chevrolet PHEV Volt Established in 1905 First President – Andrew Riker First VP – Henry Ford Initial Membership – 30 Engineers Today SAE is the largest producer of consensus based ground mobility standards in the world. Founded in 1905 primarily as an automotive technical society. Notable SAE members were pioneers in their field including Henry Ford and Charles Kettering from the automotive area and Orville Wright and Glenn Curtiss from the aeronautics area. 1916, SAE merged with several other technical societies such as Tractor Engine, Boat Manufacturer & Gas Engine societies. In 1960 the SAE president transformed the SAE from a primarily American organization into an international organization with a global reach.

3 SAE International Today
128,000 Members From Over 100 Nations 40 standards referenced in Canadian regulations 111 standards referenced in US regulations 9 standards referenced in Japan’s regulations Since 1960 the global reach of SAE International has expanded to all regions of the world. Today, there are over 128,000 members from over 100 countries. SAE standards have been referenced in regulations in countries all over the world including the UNECE, Global Technical Regulations, and ISO standards. As an example of SAE’s global reach, more than 50% of technical committee meetings are held outside the USA. 37 SAE standards referenced in Australian standards 78 standards referenced in ISO standards 27 standards referenced in UNECE regulations 25 standards referenced in Global Technical Regulations

4 New era of mobility – connectivity
Vehicle-2-vehicle, Vehicle-2-infrastructure Vehicle-2-devices End of the era of stand alone vehicles – vehicles are quickly becoming interconnected with the web, satellites, call centers, phone systems, and the electrical grid. Vehicle Technology is changing rapidly. Examples of future vehicle connectivity include Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) where vehicles communicate to other vehicles and the infrastructure. Opportunity to have significant reduction in vehicle crashes through increased situational awareness (both other vehicles and roadway conditions). PEV and PHEV Connectivity and Interoperability to the Smart Grid Environment,

5 SAE Standards Development
Volunteer, consensus based standards development process Total Committees: 580 Total Committee Members: 8,064 Total Standards Published : 10, (Ground Vehicle 2,081) Active Standards: 8, (Ground Vehicle 1,681) Standards In Development /Review: 657 Vehicle Electrification EV, PHEV’s Batteries Smart Grid J1772™ Connector Leading SDO in NIST Roadmap for Smart Grid interoperability This slide shows the involvement by SAE and its members in standards development. What is important to note that even through the tough economic times in the automotive industry, there are still over 8000 volunteers sitting on almost 600 committees creating, or reviewing, 657 standards. This is testament to the commitment and importance our members place on standards development. 24 active committees 774 committee members 33 standards developed or in process

6 Charging Infrastructure
Public charging Expensive if under utilized Difficult to fully cover full driving patterns Workplace Corporate & Municipal Parking Residential Consumer-driven home installation process Includes single and multiple family homes, apartments and remote charge locations Current challenge: permits, electricians, inspections, meters, rates Need market pull to determine public infrastructure build-out – PHEVs are key to help initiate market pull for public infrastructure

7 Formula for success Policy + f(Infrastructure + Reliability + Affordability) (Standardization) = Customer Acceptance + Market Demand Committed long-term policy environment by industry and government Infrastructure: recharging infrastructure for electrically chargeable vehicles Customer acceptance + market demand Reliable, durable, affordable, vehicles for a variety of customer needs Standardization: Common interfaces (e. g. vehicle - infrastructure) New governmental incentives globally are projected to enhance EV adoption and technology development • US DOE spending $25B over 3 years to promote EV technology • Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007 mandates a 40% increase in fuel economy standards for automobiles and light trucks by 2020 For electric cars to achieve wide-scale deployment in the US, new battery service networks must be competitive with the existing gasoline fueling infrastructure in terms of price, range, and reliability. EV industry expects 3-5 M vehicles with rechargeable batteries on the road globally by 2020

8 US Roadmap to Smart Grid
September 24, 2009 – US Commerce Secretary Gary Locke unveils an accelerated plan for developing standards to transform the U.S. power distribution system into a secure, more efficient and environmentally friendly Smart Grid 80 initial standards will support interoperability of all the various pieces of the system—ranging from large utility companies down to individual homes and electronic devices. Set of 14 “priority action plans” addresses the most important gaps in the initial standard set. SAE International identified as a leading standards organization identified in the Phase 1 NIST Framework and Roadmap for Smart Grid Interoperability Standards paragraph 5.13 for "Interoperability Standards to Support Plug-In Electric Vehicles." SAE – V2G communication, physical plug Zigbee – Home communications ANSI – Metering IEEE – Electric vehicle infrastructure NEMA/UL – Building and product

9 Simply connecting? EV or PHEV require multitude of standards:
Physical connectors Interfaces Power levels Battery standards Energy exchange protocols V2G communication protocols (between vehicles and the grid) J2847, J2836, J2293 – communication & energy transfer V2G/G2V Smart Energy 2.0 Many organizations are involved in the operation and development of the Smart Grid system and ensuring interoperbility. Organizations such as NEMA, ANSI and IEEE are involved in the power distribution aspect. UL, IEC, NFPA provide important standards to ensure safe residential and commercial power usage. The functionality to the right of the orange line and arrows is the area which SAE International is engaged in: SAE International has teamed with organizations such as ZigBee Alliance to develop standards for Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment to insure interoperability and communications to the Smart Grid system. SAE Electric Vehicle coupler standards provide harmonized methodology for the vehicle connection for energy transfer and smart charging communications. SAE International also provides the on-board vehicle standards for electric vehicle charging systems and battery storage. Batteries J1798 Performance J2929 Safety J537 Storage 1547 (Distributed energy interconnection) J1772 Electric Vehicle Coupler, V2G, G2V

10 Vehicle to Grid SAE AC Coupler
SAE J Title Scope Status SAE J1772™ SAE Electric Vehicle Conductive Charge Coupler General requirements for the electric vehicle conductive charge system and coupler for use in North America. Define a common electric vehicle conductive charging system architecture including operational requirements and the functional and dimensional requirements for the vehicle inlet and mating connector. Published January, 2010 Two charging levels: AC Level 1: 120 Volt single phase to 16 Amps AC Level 2: 240 Volt single phase to 80 Amps AC Line 2 or Neutral Pin AC Line 1 Power Pin The J1772 task Force is now working on higher voltage AC and fast-rate DC charging. LN1, LN2 – power pins: Provides the path for AC Level 1 and 2 power CP – Control Pilot Pin Electrical signal sourced by the EVSE. Serves as the primary control conductor and performs the following functions: a. Verifies that the vehicle is present and connected b. Permits energization/de-energization of the supply c. Transmits supply equipment current rating to the vehicle d. Monitors the presence of the equipment ground e. Establishes vehicle ventilation requirements PD – Proximity Detection Pin Provides a means to detect the presence of the connector in the vehicle inlet. Provide a signal to activate the EV/PHEV charge controller and engage the EV/PHEV drive interlock system. Provides a signal in the vehicle charge control strategy to reduce electrical arcing of the coupler during disconnect. GND – Ground Pin Control Pilot Pin Proximity Detection Pin Ground Pin

11 SAE Charging Configurations and Ratings Terminology
AC level 1 (SAE J1772™) PEV includes on-board charger *DC Level 1 EVSE includes an off-board charger 120V, amp 120V, amp V DC, up to 36 kW (80 A) Est. charge time: Est. charge time (20 kW off-board charger): PHEV: 7hrs (SOC* - 0% to full) PHEV: 22 min. (SOC* - 0% to 80%) BEV: 17hrs (SOC – 20% to full) BEV: 1.2 hrs. (SOC – 20% to 100%) AC level 2 PEV includes on-board charger (see below for different types) *DC Level 2 240 V, up to 19.2 kW (80 A) V DC, up to 90 kW (200 A) Est. charge time for 3.3 kW on-board charger Est. charge time (45 kW off-board charger): PEV: 3 hrs (SOC* - 0% to full) PHEV: 10 min. (SOC* - 0% to 80%) BEV: 7 hrs (SOC – 20% to full) BEV: 20 min. (SOC – 20% to 80%) Est. charge time for 7 kW on-board charger PEV: 1.5 hrs (SOC* - 0% to full) *DC Level 3 (TBD ) BEV: 3.5 hrs (SOC – 20% to full) V DC (proposed) up to 240 kW (400 A) Est. charge time for 20 kW on-board charger PEV: 22 min. (SOC* - 0% to full) BEV (only): <10 min. (SOC* - 0% to 80%) BEV: 1.2 hrs (SOC – 20% to full) *AC Level 3 (TBD) > 20 kW, single phase and 3 phase *Not finalized Voltages are nominal configuration voltages, not coupler ratings Rated Power is at nominal configuration operating voltage and coupler rated current Ideal charge times assume 90% efficient chargers, 150W to 12V loads and no balancing of Traction Battery Pack Notes: 1) BEV (25 kWh usable pack size) charging always starts at 20% SOC, faster than a 1C rate (total capacity charged in one hour) will also stop at 80% SOC instead of 100% 2) PHEV can start from 0% SOC since the hybrid mode is available Developed by the SAE Hybrid Committee ver

12 Regional Differences DC coupler
V/50Hz V/60Hz V/60Hz V/50Hz Not every country has the same electrical system Charging needs differ for vehicle type (PEV/PHEV) Charging needs differ for charging locations US charge power: AC single phase - low & moderate DC for high power fast charge EU charge power: AC single phase - low AC 3 phase - moderate and high power fast charge DC charge strategy - unclear China charge power: AC single phase - low & moderate DC for high power fast charge Japan charge power: AC single phase - low to moderate DC for high power fast charge Aspects which affect the type of connector and capacity needed: Differences in the voltages and number of phases In the US: PHEV and EV home charging AC Level 1 & 2 is desirable EV public charging AC Level 3, DC Level 1, 2 & 3 is desirable (fast charge) Three phase AC power is available for charging in several countries in Northern Europe and Scandinavia DC “fast” charging will be used in other parts of the world The charging needs of the vehicle such as: Type of vehicle (i.e. Hybrid or pure EV) Size of the battery pack Normal parking location For PHEVs charged at home, AC level 1 and 2 charging systems will suffice. For EVs, higher AC and DC rates of charge may be desirable. In cities, where private parking is limited or unavailable, “fast” charging will be in demand US connector: AC J1772™ for Lev1 and Lev2 DC J1772™ (new revision) EU connector: AC single phase IEC "Type 1“ (J1772™) AC single/3 phase IEC "Type 2“ AC single/3 phase IEC "Type 3“ DC - IEC China connector: AC - Chinese unique version DC - Chinese unique version Korea connector: AC - J1772™ DC CHaDeMo system with unique DC coupler Japan connector: AC J1772™ DC ChaDeMo system and coupler Not to scale China AC China DC

13 Common control signals
Harmonization Harmonizing Type 1 core Adding DC contacts Type 2 core Common control signals Aspects which affect the type of connector and capacity needed: Differences in the voltages and number of phases In the US: PHEV and EV home charging AC Level 1 & 2 is desirable EV public charging AC Level 3, DC Level 1, 2 & 3 is desirable (fast charge) Three phase AC power is available for charging in several countries in Northern Europe and Scandinavia DC “fast” charging will be used in other parts of the world The charging needs of the vehicle such as: Type of vehicle (i.e. Hybrid or pure EV) Size of the battery pack Normal parking location For PHEVs charged at home, AC level 1 and 2 charging systems will suffice. For EVs, higher AC and DC rates of charge may be desirable. In cities, where private parking is limited or unavailable, “fast” charging will be in demand

14 Harmonization – what if we don’t?
Vehicle OEMs will need to package different charge receptacles and have different vehicle controls Number of vehicle sheet metal openings will be different for different regions Infrastructure cannot be shared Vehicle and infrastructure costs will be higher - with no benefit to customers

15 Connector Standards Timing
US– SAE 1772™ AC L1 & L2 ublished January 2010 China – draft published. Final publication unknown. US– SAE J1772™ AC L1 & L2, DC L1 & L2 publication 1 qtr 2012 IEC Part 1, 2 publication March 2012 IEC DC publication December, 2013 Japan - AC and DC (defacto) available IEC Part 1 - available ISO/IEC Part 1,2,3 IEC Part 21, 22 IEC Part 23 IEC Part 24

16 Summary of SAE Communication Standards
J2836™ – General info (use cases) Dash 1 – Utility programs * Dash 2 – Off-board charger communications ** Dash 3 – Reverse Energy Flow Dash 4 – Diagnostics Dash 5 – Customer and HAN Dash 6 – Wireless charging/discharging J2847– Detailed info (messages) Dash 1 – Utility programs * Dash 2 – Off-board charger communications ** Dash 3 – Reverse Energy Flow Dash 4 – Diagnostics Dash 5 – Customer and HAN Dash 6 – Wireless charging/discharging J2931– Protocol (Requirements) Dash 1 – General Requirements ** Dash 2 – In-Band Signaling (control Pilot) ** Dash 3 – NB OFDM PLC over pilot or mains ** Dash 4 – BB OFDM PLC over pilot or mains ** Dash 6 - RFID J2953– Interoperability Dash 1 – General Requirements Dash 2 – “Gold” standard Dash 3 – Testing and Certification As an example of the complexity of the communication protocol in a EV charge connector system, the DC charging connector currently in the development phase will have: A total of 33 signals / channels 3 categories: Status Command Requests Limit Information * Two have initial versions published ** Six are expected to ballot 1Q 2011

17 V2G – Critical SAE Standards
SAE J Title Scope Status SAE J2293/1 Energy Transfer System for Electric Vehicles--Part 1: Functional Requirements and System Architectures Describes the total EV-ETS (Energy Transfer System) and allocates requirements to the EV or EVSE for the various system architectures. Published July, 2008 SAE J2293/2 Energy Transfer System for Electric Vehicles--Part 2: Functional Requirements and System Architectures Describes the SAE J1850-compliant communication network between the EV and EVSE for this application (ETS Network). SAE J2758 Determination of the Maximum Available Power from a Rechargeable Energy Storage System on a Hybrid Electric Vehicle Describes a test procedure for rating peak power of the Rechargeable Energy Storage System (RESS) used in a combustion engine Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV). April, 2007 SAE J1711 Recommended Practice for Measuring the Exhaust Emissions and Fuel Economy of Hybrid-Electric Vehicles Sets recommended practices for measuring the Exhaust Emissions and Fuel Economy of Hybrid-Electric Vehicles, Including Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles. June, 2010 SAE J2841 Definition of the Utility Factor for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles Using National Household Travel Survey Data Describes the equation for calculating the total fuel and energy consumption rates of a Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV). WIP

18 Current work status (as of January 1, 2011)
SAE J Current revision status SAE J1772™ 2011 Current activity: Plan to re-ballot 1st Quarter 2012 Include interoperability to multiple suppliers (PEV & EVSE) Add DC (level 1 – up to 20 kW) back into document Detection circuit monitored by EVSE and PEV Require lock controlled by PEV 2012 Next Steps: Add DC (level 2 – up to 80 kW) connector Add temp sensor and other safety items Potential to add Reverse energy flow J2836/2™ DC Use cases and general info J2847/2 DC Messages and detail info Messages and signals mature, finalizing sequence and state diagrams J2931/1 Digital Communications for Plug-in Electric Vehicles Communication requirements and protocol (AC & DC) J2931/2 In-band signaling Communication for Plug-in Electric Vehicles J2931/3 PLC Communication for Plug-in Electric Vehicles

19 Future work (as of January 1, 2011)
SAE J Future scope J2836/5 J2847/5 Customer and HAN (J2836/5™ & J2847/5) Plan is to build on customer messages pulled from J2847/1 plus Open SG effort. J2847/4 J2836/4 Diagnostics Plans to build on effort presented to CARB plus vehicle diagnostics J2953 J2953/1 Plug-In Electric Vehicle (PEV) Interoperability with Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE) J2847/3 Communication between Plug-in Vehicles and the Utility Grid for Reverse Power Flow J2836/3™ Use Cases for Communication between Plug-in Vehicles and the Utility Grid for Reverse Power Flow Reverse Energy Flow (J2836/3™ & J2847/3) Developing use cases and reviewing architecture for both on-board and off-board conversion.

20 What About Safety? National Electric Code Article 625 – Electric Vehicle Charging System I – General II – Wiring Methods III – Equipment Construction IV – Control & Protection V – EV Supply Equipment Locations On Board Battery Charger UL Conductive and inductive charging system equipment for recharging the storage batteries of electric vehicles UL Personnel Protection Systems for EV Supply Circuits UL Protection Devices for Use in Charging Systems UL2594 Outline for Investigation for EV Supply Equipment J2929 EV and PHEV propulsion Battery System Safety Standard (Safety Performance Criteria) J1172 contains connector safety standards J2929 contains EV/PHEV Battery safety Standards Charging inlet UL Plugs, receptacles, vehicle inlets, and connectors intended for conductive connection systems, for use with electric vehicles Charging plug SAE J1772™

21 Wireless Charging of EV’s & PHEV’s
SAE J2954 standard in development Wireless connection and power transfer Inductive Charging Technologies Smart Grid Interoperability / Programmability Who’s Involved? Auto and Commercial Vehicle OEM’s (11) Automotive Suppliers Organizations (laboratories, government agencies, universities, SDO’s, power companies) SAE Standard will define: Performance Safety Testing Methodologies Charge Levels Location Communications Potential Charging Locations: Residential Public On-Road Static (parking lots, curb side) Dynamic (embedded in roadway) OEM’s include: BMW, Ford, GM, Chrysler, Honda, Nissan, Toyota, Mitsubishi, Fisker, Phoenix and Proterra Tier I Suppliers include: Delphi, Magna, Maxwell and Panasonic Organizations include: UL, Argonne National laboratory, EPA, EPRI, Univ. of Tennessee, TUV North America Both light and heavy duty vehicles Pilot program in Seoul Korea for embedded dynamic charging system in the bus lane UniServices - The University of Auckland

22 SAE Vehicle Battery Standards Committee
The future of battery electric vehicles depends primarily upon the cost and availability of batteries with high energy densities, power density, and long life. This will help alleviate range anxiety. Scope These new technology challenges, along with maintaining the past and present battery technology standards, is the essence of this newly formed Battery Standards Committee. The focus of much of the battery industry is on producing batteries with high energy and power at a cost most consumers will find compelling. A range of generic estimates for current battery costs centers on $600 per kWh. • The long-term goal for most market participants is closer to $200 per kWh. • The primary drivers of battery cost are high material costs and lack of scale. Reaching economies of scale will be a challenge. Standardization plays an important role in this initiative. Recent technology breakthroughs now enable more high performance electric vehicles Next-generation lithium-ion batteries are likely to employ advanced electrodes such as silicon-based nanostructured anodes (instead of graphite), and high capacity manganese-based cathodes, resulting in a significant increase in energy density and reduction in cost. Market size estimates for electric and hybrid vehicle batteries range widely, from $2.3 billion to $10 billion by the US will have the capacity to produce 20 per cent of the world’s advanced batteries by 2012 and up to 40 percent by 2015 (DOE)

23 SAE Vehicle Battery Standards Committee
SAE Battery Steering Committee Advanced Battery Concepts Battery Safety Battery Packaging Small Task Oriented Vehicle Batteries Battery Testing Battery Materials Testing Battery Labeling Battery Terminology Battery Electronic Fuel Gauging Battery Transport Starter Battery Battery Recycling Truck and Bus Batteries Started – Nov. 2009 Current Membership 216 Representatives 120 companies OEM’s, Suppliers, Government Academia Standardization helps drive costs down because it allows multiple battery manufacturers to make products of a similar form factor and rating so that vehicle manufacturers can produce lower-cost product, and that lower cost can be passed on to the consumer. The standards also will make it easier for automakers to evaluate one supplier‘s batteries against another‘s. SAE Committee is supporting ISO12405 Battery Safety Standards Development

24 Batteries – Critical SAE Standards
SAE J Title Scope Status SAE J1798 Recommended Practice for Performance Rating of EV Battery Modules (Revision) Common test and verification methods to determine Electric Vehicle battery module performance. Document describes performance standards and specifications. WIP SAE J537 Storage Batteries (Revision) Testing procedures of automotive 12 V storage batteries and container hold-down configuration and terminal geometry. SAE J2936 Vehicle Battery Labeling Guidelines (New) Labeling guidelines for any energy storage device labeling (such as: including cell, battery and pack level products). SAE J2929 Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Propulsion Battery System Safety Standard (New) Safety performance criteria for a battery systems considered for use in a vehicle propulsion application as an energy storage system galvanically connected to a high voltage power train. Published 02/18/11 SAE J2758 Determination of Max. Power from a HEV Rechargeable Energy Storage System Describes a test procedure for rating peak power of the Rechargeable Energy Storage System (RESS) used in a combustion engine Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV). SAE J2380 Vibration Testing of Electric Vehicle Batteries Describes the vibration durability testing of a electric vehicle battery module or an electric vehicle battery pack. Published 2009 SAE J2464 Electric Vehicle Battery Abuse Testing Describes a body of tests for abuse testing of electric or hybrid electric vehicle batteries. Nov., 2009 SAE J2288 Life Cycle Testing of EV Battery Modules Defines a standardized test method to determine the expected service life, in cycles, of electric vehicle battery modules. June 2008 SAE J2289 Electric-Drive Battery Pack System: Functional Guidelines Describes practices for design of battery systems for vehicles that utilize a rechargeable battery to provide or recover traction energy. July 2008 SAE J551/5 Magnetic and Electric Field Strength from EV’s Test procedures and performance levels describe the measurement of magnetic and electric field strengths. Jan., 2004 SAE J1113 Electromagnetic Compatibility—Component Test Procedure Defines a component-level test procedure to evaluate automotive electrical and electronic components for electromagnetic disturbances. 2006 SAE International is trying to limit the potential for danger by developing standards that cover everything from the design to the recycling of large advanced-technology batteries used in electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid-electrics of different kinds. Battery standards are useful for several reasons, but safety is paramount. SAE is also working with other organizations such as the National Fire Protection Association to recognize opportunities for improving EV battery safety knowledge, training, communications and vehicle designs for the First Responder community. J2929 which addresses Battery Safety Standards has been recently published. The committee is already working on version two which will expand and enhance the standards (Thermal propagation, flammability, toxicity, EMC, impact)

25 SAE Contact Tim Mellon SAE International 1200 G Street, NW
Washington, DC 20005 USA Tel. +1(202)

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