Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Genetic Engineering When most people hear of genetic engineering, they think of some new technology that is going to create a superhuman race that will.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Genetic Engineering When most people hear of genetic engineering, they think of some new technology that is going to create a superhuman race that will."— Presentation transcript:

1

2 Genetic Engineering When most people hear of genetic engineering, they think of some new technology that is going to create a superhuman race that will be able to perform miracles.

3 Genetic Engineering Misinformation Public perception of genetic engineering has also been strongly influenced by false information given out in the media and over the internet. Genetic engineering has been incorrectly portrayed as leading to the creation of monster like unnatural animals and plants.

4

5 Tiger Bunny Zebra-Ram-Kangaroo

6 In reality … genetic engineering has been going on for hundreds of years. People have genetically engineered their crops and livestock for years. They would try to improve the taste, size, disease resistance, and many other traits. The methods have ranged from simply picking out the best ones, to manipulating genetic material. We will look at some of the ways in which this is done.

7 What is Genetic Engineering? Genetic engineering is a process that enables scientist to create plants, animals and micro-organisms by manipulating genes in a way that does not occur spontaneously in nature.

8

9

10 What is Selective Breeding? 1.Animals or plants with desired traits are allowed to reproduce so that these traits are present in the following generations. 2.May take many generations for characteristics to show up with consistency. 3. Over thousands of years, humans have developed breeds of animals and plants that have desirable characteristics. 4. Most domestic animals are a result of selective breeding efforts.

11 Examples of Desirable Traits Dogs that are good hunters. Cows that produce a lot of milk. Crops that are resistant to disease. Horses that can run fast.

12

13 Genetic Engineering Genetic Engineering involves manipulating the DNA at the molecular level. Changes are actually made to the organisms DNA.

14 How are changes made to DNA? Many different techniques are used. One of the most common is known as the Recombinant DNA method. It involves taking genes from other organisms and inserting them into the DNA of a bacterium.

15 Special Feature of Bacteria In addition to their regular DNA many bacteria also have a ring-like structure made out of DNA. This is called a plasmid.

16 Recombinant DNA Process 1.A small piece of DNA is cut from a DNA molecule from one species. Special enzymes known as restriction enzymes are used to do the cutting. 2.The plasmid is removed from a bacterium and the restriction enzymes are used to cut open the plasmid. 3.The small section of foreign DNA is inserted into the plasmid.

17 4.Special enzymes known as DNA ligase joins the foreign DNA and the plasmid DNA together. 5.The plasmid is now known as a recombinant plasmid because it contains DNA from 2 species. 6.The recombinant plasmid is put back into the bacterium. 7. Cell division will quickly result in many identical transgenic bacteria.

18 Recombinant DNA Process

19 Common Products of Recombinant DNA Technology 1.Humalin, which is human insulin for diabetics. 2.Interferon, a protein that helps the human immune system. 3.Vaccines 4.Growth hormone 5.Antibiotics

20 What are Genetically Modified Organisms ? 1.They are organisms that have acquired one or more genes through artificial methods. 2.They are sometimes referred to as GMOs 3. They can be animals, plants or microorganisms.

21 Regents Practice Question # 1 Which statement would most likely be used to describe the procedure represented in the diagram below? ( 1) Enzymes are used to assemble an insulin gene, which is then attached to bacterial DNA. (2) Bacterial DNA is cut from a human DNA strand and inserted into a human cell to form an insulin gene. (3) The insulin gene is cut out of a human DNA strand using an enzyme and inserted into bacterial DNA, resulting in a combination of different DNA segments. (4) A gene is deleted from bacterial DNA to produce an insulin gene, which is then inserted into human DNA.

22 Regents Practice Question # 1 (Answer) Which statement would most likely be used to describe the procedure represented in the diagram below? ( 1) Enzymes are used to assemble an insulin gene, which is then attached to bacterial DNA. (2) Bacterial DNA is cut from a human DNA strand and inserted into a human cell to form an insulin gene. (3) The insulin gene is cut out of a human DNA strand using an enzyme and inserted into bacterial DNA, resulting in a combination of different DNA segments. (4) A gene is deleted from bacterial DNA to produce an insulin gene, which is then inserted into human DNA.

23 Regents Practice Question # 2 Plants in species A cannot fight most fungal infections. Plants in species B make a protein that kills many fungi. One possible way for humans to produce species A plants with the ability to synthesize this protein would be to (1) mutate fungal DNA and introduce the mutated DNA into species B using a virus (2) add DNA from species B into the soil around species A (3) insert the gene for the protein from species B into a chromosome in species A (4) cross species A and a fungus to stimulate the synthesis of this protein

24 Regents Practice Question # 2 (Answer) Plants in species A cannot fight most fungal infections. Plants in species B make a protein that kills many fungi. One possible way for humans to produce species A plants with the ability to synthesize this protein would be to (1) mutate fungal DNA and introduce the mutated DNA into species B using a virus (2) add DNA from species B into the soil around species A (3) insert the gene for the protein from species B into a chromosome in species A (4) cross species A and a fungus to stimulate the synthesis of this protein

25 Regents Practice Question #3 The pedigree of Seattle Slew, a racehorse considered by some to be one of the fastest horses that ever lived, includes very fast horses on both his mothers side and his fathers side. Seattle Slew most likely was a result of (1) environmental selection (2) alteration of DNA molecules (3) selective breeding (4) a sudden mutation

26 Regents Practice Question #3 (Answer) The pedigree of Seattle Slew, a racehorse considered by some to be one of the fastest horses that ever lived, includes very fast horses on both his mothers side and his fathers side. Seattle Slew most likely was a result of (1) environmental selection (2) alteration of DNA molecules (3) selective breeding (4) a sudden mutation

27 Regents Practice Question # 4 Which set of terms correctly identifies the procedure shown in the diagram below and a substance produced by this procedure? (1) selective breedinggrowth hormone (2) cloningantibiotics (3) genetic engineeringinsulin (4) replicatingglucose

28 Regents Practice Question # 4 (Answer) Which set of terms correctly identifies the procedure shown in the diagram below and a substance produced by this procedure? (1) selective breedinggrowth hormone (2) cloningantibiotics (3) genetic engineeringinsulin (4) replicatingglucose

29 Regents Practice Question # 5 If a gene is inserted into the DNA of a bacterial cell, every cell produced by that cell will have (1) DNA that is different from that of the other cells produced (2) a 50% chance of having a copy of the inserted gene (3) a copy of the inserted gene (4) a new type of DNA base

30 Regents Practice Question # 5 (Answer) If a gene is inserted into the DNA of a bacterial cell, every cell produced by that cell will have (1) DNA that is different from that of the other cells produced (2) a 50% chance of having a copy of the inserted gene (3) a copy of the inserted gene (4) a new type of DNA base

31 Regents Practice Question #6 In some people, the lack of a particular enzyme causes a disease. Scientists are attempting to use bacteria to produce this enzyme for the treatment of people with the disease. Which row in the chart below best describes the sequence of steps the scientists would most likely follow?

32 Regents Practice Question #6 (Answer) In some people, the lack of a particular enzyme causes a disease. Scientists are attempting to use bacteria to produce this enzyme for the treatment of people with the disease. Which row in the chart below best describes the sequence of steps the scientists would most likely follow? C

33

34 What is Cloning? 1.Cloning is the production of genetically identical cells from a single cell. 2. It is easy to clone single cell organisms. 3. Multicellular organisms more difficult to clone. 4. A twin is a natural clone.

35 Dolly the Sheep Born: July 5, 1996 Died: February 14, 2003 Place: Edinburgh, Scotland Dolly was the first mammal cloned from an adult body cell using the process of nuclear transfer. She lived until the age of six and then passed away from lung cancer. (

36

37 How to Clone a Sheep!

38 Cloning 1. A body cell is taken from a donor animal. 2. An egg cell is taken from a donor animal. 3. The nucleus is removed from the egg. 4.The body cell and egg are fused by electric shock. 6. The embryo is implanted into the uterus of a foster mother. 5. The fused cell begins dividing, becoming an embryo. 7. The embryo develops into a cloned animal.

39 1.Save endangered species by storing DNA and cloning 2. Make multiple copies of a useful gene (insulin for diabetics) 3. Clone spare parts, like organs or bone marrow 4. Create experimental groups for studying (animals) 5. Clone "special" animals, pets or horses How Can Cloning Be Useful?

40 Regents Practice Question # 7 The diagram below represents the process used in 1996 to clone the first mammal, a sheep named Dolly. Which statement concerning Dolly is correct? (1)Gametes from sheep A and sheep B were united to produce Dolly. (2) The chromosome makeup of Dolly is identical to that of sheep A. (3) Both Dolly and sheep C have identical DNA. (4) Dolly contains genes from sheep B and sheep C.

41 Regents Practice Question # 7 (Answer) The diagram below represents the process used in 1996 to clone the first mammal, a sheep named Dolly. Which statement concerning Dolly is correct? (1)Gametes from sheep A and sheep B were united to produce Dolly. (2) The chromosome makeup of Dolly is identical to that of sheep A. (3) Both Dolly and sheep C have identical DNA. (4) Dolly contains genes from sheep B and sheep C.

42 (Gel Electrophoresis)

43 What is DNA Fingerprinting? 1. It is a technique used to compare DNA samples from different sources. 2.It can be used to: solve crimes determine paternity establish evolutionary relationships.

44 DNA plus restriction enzyme Mixture of DNA fragments Gel Power source Longer fragments Shorter fragments Gel Electrophoresis Diagram DNA FINGERPRINTING

45 Gel Electrophoresis Photograph

46 DNA Fingerprinting Process 1.Each DNA sample is cut up using restriction enzymes. 2.A few drops of each cut up sample are placed in a well (hole) at one end of the gel material. 3.Electricity is run through the gel and it causes the DNA molecules to move along the gel. 4.Shorter DNA fragments travel farther through the gel and longer ones stay closer to the wells. 5.The gel is treated with a stain to make the DNA visible under ultraviolet light.

47 Regents Review Question # 8 DNA electrophoresis is used to study evolutionary relationships of species. The diagram below shows the results of DNA electrophoresis for four different Animal species. Which species has the most DNA in common with species A? (1) X and Y, only (2) Y, only (3) Z, only (4) X, Y, and Z

48 Regents Review Question # 8 (Answer) DNA electrophoresis is used to study evolutionary relationships of species. The diagram below shows the results of DNA electrophoresis for four different Animal species. Which species has the most DNA in common with species A? (1) X and Y, only (2) Y, only (3) Z, only (4) X, Y, and Z

49


Download ppt "Genetic Engineering When most people hear of genetic engineering, they think of some new technology that is going to create a superhuman race that will."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google