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Are there any principles governing the order and combination of affixes in Modern Greek parasynthetic verbs ? Angeliki EFTHYMIOU Assistant Professor Democritus.

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Presentation on theme: "Are there any principles governing the order and combination of affixes in Modern Greek parasynthetic verbs ? Angeliki EFTHYMIOU Assistant Professor Democritus."— Presentation transcript:

1 Are there any principles governing the order and combination of affixes in Modern Greek parasynthetic verbs ? Angeliki EFTHYMIOU Assistant Professor Democritus University of Thrace, Greece

2 Introduction (1) This paper discusses the principles governing the order and combination of affixes in Modern Greek parasynthetic verbs (MGPVs).This paper discusses the principles governing the order and combination of affixes in Modern Greek parasynthetic verbs (MGPVs). Parasynthetic derivation is generally described as a process of simultaneous affixation of a prefix and a suffix to a base (cf. Lieber 2010:202, Plag 2003: 40)Parasynthetic derivation is generally described as a process of simultaneous affixation of a prefix and a suffix to a base (cf. Lieber 2010:202, Plag 2003: 40) e.g. (MG) kse-floud-íz(o) peele.g. (MG) kse-floud-íz(o) peel Cf. also (English) decaffeinate, (Italian) decaffeinare, etc.

3 Introduction (2) MGPVs seem to be formed by an adjectival or nominal base and two derivational affixes (a prefix and a suffix), which are simultaneously added to the right and to the left of the base :MGPVs seem to be formed by an adjectival or nominal base and two derivational affixes (a prefix and a suffix), which are simultaneously added to the right and to the left of the base : MG Pattern: Derivational PREF- N/A- derivational SUFF- (inflectional SUF): e.g.MG Pattern: Derivational PREF- N/A- derivational SUFF- (inflectional SUF): e.g. kse-floud-íz(o) peel : floúd(a) hull, skin,kse-floud-íz(o) peel : floúd(a) hull, skin, *floud-ízo, *kseflouda *floud-ízo, *kseflouda kse-dond-jáz(o) to take ones teeth out : dond(i) tooth, *dondjazo, *ksedondikse-dond-jáz(o) to take ones teeth out : dond(i) tooth, *dondjazo, *ksedondi

4 Previous analyses for MGPVs Following Scalise (1994), Ralli (2005) adopts a binary structure for MGPVs: 1. the noun/adjectival base is combined with the derivational suffix (-iz-, -iaz-, -on-, etc. ) in order to produce a possible but non-existing bound verbal stem. 2. the prefix is added to this stem. 3. the inflectional affix –o transforms the stem into an actual word. Following Corbins (1987) model, Efthymiou (2002), and Anastassiadis-Symeonidis & Masoura (2009) characterize the segments –iaz(o), iz(o), -on(o) in such cases as class markers serving to indicate verbal category.

5 Data Corpus : a list of 300 parasynthetic verbs in ízo, –iázo and –óno extracted from Anastassiadis- Symeonidis (2002) Reverse Dictionary of Modern GreekCorpus : a list of 300 parasynthetic verbs in ízo, –iázo and –óno extracted from Anastassiadis- Symeonidis (2002) Reverse Dictionary of Modern Greek The investigation of MGPVs reveals that the distribution of prefixes and suffixes in these verbs is not arbitrary, but governed by some general principles.The investigation of MGPVs reveals that the distribution of prefixes and suffixes in these verbs is not arbitrary, but governed by some general principles.

6 MGPVs: preliminary remarks : e.g. aristotel-izo imitate Aristotle, ritid-jazo to wrinkle, become wizened, vutir-ono to butter, karf-ono to nail, kse-dheno untie, apo-vutir-ono skim, ek-fort-ono unload, etc.All derivational prefixes and suffixes that participate in MGPVs also exist outside parasynthesis (or verb formation): e.g. aristotel-izo imitate Aristotle, ritid-jazo to wrinkle, become wizened, vutir-ono to butter, karf-ono to nail, kse-dheno untie, apo-vutir-ono skim, ek-fort-ono unload, etc.

7 The crucial role of the prefix Prefixes seem to determine the argument structure and the meaning of the derived verb:Prefixes seem to determine the argument structure and the meaning of the derived verb: - non parasynthetic –ízo verbs derived from [+human] bases 1. are intransitive and 2. denote similative meanings : amerikanízo behave like an American, ellinizo imitate/behave like a Greek (cf. Efthymiou to appear) - parasynthetic –ízo verbs prefixed by ek(s)- are transitive and express causative meanings: ek-xristian-ízo christianize vs. °xristian-ízo behave like a christian (Xristianós Christian), cf. also eksellinizo turn into Greek and the synonymous neologism ellinopió turn into a Greek - parasynthetic –ízo verbs prefixed by ek(s)- are transitive and express causative meanings: ek-xristian-ízo christianize vs. °xristian-ízo behave like a christian (Xristianós Christian), cf. also eksellinizo turn into Greek and the synonymous neologism ellinopió turn into a Greek

8 The crucial role of the prefix (2) the majority of non-parasynthetic –iazo verbs:the majority of non-parasynthetic –iazo verbs: -are intransitive -their most representative meaning is be provided with usually unwanted endogenous x or become x : e.g. ritidjázo to wrinkle, become wizened, laspjázo become mash vs. parasynthetic –iazo verbs prefixed by kse- are usually transitive and express privative meanings: kse-dond-jáz(o) to take ones teeth out (cf. Efyhymiou 2010)parasynthetic –iazo verbs prefixed by kse- are usually transitive and express privative meanings: kse-dond-jáz(o) to take ones teeth out (cf. Efyhymiou 2010)

9 Correlation between transitivity and parasynthesis ? MGPVs extracted for RDMG (300)MGPVs extracted for RDMG (300) transitive 277transitive 277 intransitive 10intransitive 10 transitive/intransitive 13 transitive/intransitive 13 (Data from Tsakou 2010) e.g. kse-dond-jáz(o) to take ones teeth out (trans.), kse-port-izo [- learned go out/away from home (intr.), kse-fludh-izo peel, husk (+/-trans.) Based on the fact that the vast majority of the parasynthetic verbs of our corpus are transitiveBased on the fact that the vast majority of the parasynthetic verbs of our corpus are transitive we can assume that there is a strong correlation between transitivity and parasynthesis (in the verbal domain)

10 The crucial role of the prefix (3) Prefixes determine the register of the derived verb:Prefixes determine the register of the derived verb: Parasynthetic verbs prefixed by ek(s)- and epi- are [+learned] : e.g. Parasynthetic verbs prefixed by ek(s)- and epi- are [+learned] : e.g. epi-nikel-ono (nickel), ek-dimokrat- izo democatize whereas parasynthetic verbs prefixed by kse- are not learned: e.g. kse-parad-jazo take all the money from someone (paras money[-learned])

11 The register of the prefix The majority of [+learned] MGPVs prefixed by apo-, ek-, epi-, en- are used in formations of scientific sublanguages / terms translated from French/ English (cf. also Efthymiou 2002). e.g. apo-toxin-ono (detoxify), em-fial-ono bottle (embouteiller), ek-viomixan-izo (industrialiser), eks-islam-izo (islamiser), ipo-vathm-izo (downgrade), ipo-gramm-izo (souligner/underline), en-idat-ono (hydrater), en-armon-izo (harmoniser), epi-nikel-ono (nickeler)

12 The role of the suffix It seems that the combination of prefixes and suffixes is also influenced by the semantics and the selectional restrictions of the suffixes:It seems that the combination of prefixes and suffixes is also influenced by the semantics and the selectional restrictions of the suffixes: e.g. both parasynthetic and non parasynthetic verbs in –iázo tend to exhibit negative meanings (see Efthymiou 2010): ritidhjázo to wrinkle, become wizened, kse-dond-jáz(o) to take ones teeth out both parasynthetic and non parasynthetic verbs in –ono tend to prefer ornative meanings (see Efthymiou to appear): vutirono to butter, ep-argir-óno cover with silver

13 The role of the suffix Some meanings expressed by non-parasynthetic verbs in –izo, -iazo, -ono are not attested in MGPVs:Some meanings expressed by non-parasynthetic verbs in –izo, -iazo, -ono are not attested in MGPVs: e.g. similative, instrumental meanings: aristotel-izo imitate Aristotle, karfono to nail,e.g. similative, instrumental meanings: aristotel-izo imitate Aristotle, karfono to nail,

14 The frequency of the suffix MGPVs extracted from RDMG (300)MGPVs extracted from RDMG (300) Suffix -izo (144)Suffix -izo (144) Suffix -ono (116)Suffix -ono (116) Suffix -iazo (40) Suffix -iazo (40) (Data from Tsakou 2010) Suffixed verbs extracted from RDMG (prefixed/compound verbs were eliminated) -izo (3507) 650 -ono (2106) 500 -iazo (2260) 313 (Data from Efthymiou to appear)

15 combinatorial restrictions The combination of prefixes and suffixes is restricted by register and semantic factors:The combination of prefixes and suffixes is restricted by register and semantic factors: 1.e.g. the [-learned] suffix –(i)ázo combines only with the [-learned] negative-privative prefix kse- de : kse-koil-iazo disembowel (koilia belly), kse-parad-jazo take all the money from someone (paras money[-learned]) 2. e.g. the [+learned] prefix epi- on(to) combines almost exclusively with the suffix óno, e.g. ep-argir-óno cover with silver (árgiros silver), which denotes mostly ornative meanings 2. e.g. the [+learned] prefix epi- on(to) combines almost exclusively with the suffix óno, e.g. ep-argir-óno cover with silver (árgiros silver), epi-nikel-ono (nickel), which denotes mostly ornative meanings 3. Kse- seems to be the only prefix that combines freely with all three suffixes under investigation

16 Combinatorial preferences Apo- seems to prefer combining with –ono: e.g. apo-kentr-ono decentralize, af-omi-ono assimilate, apo-ksen-ono alienate, apo-lith-ono ossifyApo- seems to prefer combining with –ono: e.g. apo-kentr-ono decentralize, af-omi-ono assimilate, apo-ksen-ono alienate, apo-lith-ono ossify But cf. also apo-kefal-izo decapitate Ek- combines preferably with –izo: ek-xristian-ízo christianizeEk- combines preferably with –izo: ek-dimokrat- izo democratize, ek-xristian-ízo christianize, but also eks-athli-ono degrade, make extremely poor/miserable (cf. also Efthymiou 2002)

17 Preference of certain semantic categories There is a clear tendency of certain semantic categories of prefixes to appear in parasynthetic verbs: i.e. negative and locative prefixes (kse-, ek-, apo-, en-, epi-, etc.).There is a clear tendency of certain semantic categories of prefixes to appear in parasynthetic verbs: i.e. negative and locative prefixes (kse-, ek-, apo-, en-, epi-, etc.). The vast majoriry of MGPVs is prefixed by kse- (110 verbs)The vast majoriry of MGPVs is prefixed by kse- (110 verbs) Of all MG prefixes kse- seems to be the most frequent, followed by ek(s)- (58 verbs), apo- (39 verbs), epi- (20 verbs), and en- (15 verbs)Of all MG prefixes kse- seems to be the most frequent, followed by ek(s)- (58 verbs), apo- (39 verbs), epi- (20 verbs), and en- (15 verbs)

18 Semantic categories The vast majority of PGPVs prefixed by kse-, apo- and ek(s)- denote privative/ablative (and 2. causative/completive) meanings (cf. also Tsakou 2010): e.g. apo-kentr-ono decentralize, apo-kefal-izo decapitate, af-omi-ono assimilate, apo-ksen-ono alienate, apo-lith-ono ossify, kse-port-izo [-learned go out/away from home, ek-top-izo dislocate, displace, ek-stom-izo utterThe vast majority of PGPVs prefixed by kse-, apo- and ek(s)- denote privative/ablative (and 2. causative/completive) meanings (cf. also Tsakou 2010): e.g. apo-kentr-ono decentralize, apo-kefal-izo decapitate, af-omi-ono assimilate, apo-ksen-ono alienate, apo-lith-ono ossify, kse-port-izo [-learned go out/away from home, ek-top-izo dislocate, displace, ek-stom-izo utter Correlation between privation and parasynthesis?Correlation between privation and parasynthesis? Very few MGPVs are prefixed by dia-, kata-, meta-, pros-, para-, peri-, syn-, yper-, ypo-, ana- : pros-edaf-izo land, kat- edaf-izo demolishVery few MGPVs are prefixed by dia-, kata-, meta-, pros-, para-, peri-, syn-, yper-, ypo-, ana- : pros-edaf-izo land, kat- edaf-izo demolish

19 Absent semantic categories (?) Temporal (pro-), quantitative (e.g. poly-), evaluative, etc. prefixes are almost absent from the MGPVs of our corpus.Temporal (pro-), quantitative (e.g. poly-), evaluative, etc. prefixes are almost absent from the MGPVs of our corpus. Exceptions : ana-ne-ono [+learned] renew

20 the register of the prefix may influence the choice of the nominalizing suffix that attaches to verbal parasynthetic bases:may influence the choice of the nominalizing suffix that attaches to verbal parasynthetic bases: e.g. apo-lep-ízo [+learned] scale, peel - apo-lepi-si scaling, peeling vs. kse-lep-jazo [-learned] scale - kse-lepjas-ma scaling vs. kse-lep-jazo [-learned] scale - kse-lepjas-ma scaling apo-fli-óno husk, peel [+learned] – apo-flio-sihusking vs. kse-fludh-izo peel, husk- kse-floudhis-ma peeling

21 conclusion In this paper an attempt was made to show thatIn this paper an attempt was made to show that 1. the distribution of the prefixes and suffixes in MGPVs is not arbitrary but governed by some general principles 2. the role of the first affix (i.e. the prefix) is more important than the role of the second (i.e. the suffix). THANK YOU !! ΕΥΧΑΡΙΣΤΩ !!

22 Selected references Anastassiadis-Symeonidis A The Reverse Dictionary of Modern Greek. Thessaloniki: Institouto Neoellinikon Spoudon [in Greek].Anastassiadis-Symeonidis A The Reverse Dictionary of Modern Greek. Thessaloniki: Institouto Neoellinikon Spoudon [in Greek]. Anastassiadis-Symeonidis A. and Masoura E Ending-part and memory: A theoretical account. In G. Giannakis, M. Baltazani, G. Xydopoulos and A. Tsangalidis (eds). Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Greek Linguistics, University of Ioannina, 30 August- 2 September 2007, Ioannina, [in Greek].Anastassiadis-Symeonidis A. and Masoura E Ending-part and memory: A theoretical account. In G. Giannakis, M. Baltazani, G. Xydopoulos and A. Tsangalidis (eds). Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Greek Linguistics, University of Ioannina, 30 August- 2 September 2007, Ioannina, [in Greek]. Efthymiou A Semantic considerations for the Modern Greek prefixes kse-, ek- and apo-. Studies in Greek Linguistics 2001, [in Greek].Efthymiou A Semantic considerations for the Modern Greek prefixes kse-, ek- and apo-. Studies in Greek Linguistics 2001, [in Greek]. Efthymiou A How many factors influence the meaning of denominal verbs? The case of Modern Greek verbs in –(i)ázo. Talk presented at the Workshop Meaning and Lexicalization, 14th International Morphology Meeting, Budapest May 2010.Efthymiou A How many factors influence the meaning of denominal verbs? The case of Modern Greek verbs in –(i)ázo. Talk presented at the Workshop Meaning and Lexicalization, 14th International Morphology Meeting, Budapest May Ralli A Morphology. Patakis: Athens. [In Greek].Ralli A Morphology. Patakis: Athens. [In Greek]. Tsakou E Derivative verbs of Modern Greek without correspondence between form and meaning. The case of prefixed verbs in –ízo, –iázo and –óno. Master Thesis, Democritus University of Thrace, Greece [In Greek].Tsakou E Derivative verbs of Modern Greek without correspondence between form and meaning. The case of prefixed verbs in –ízo, –iázo and –óno. Master Thesis, Democritus University of Thrace, Greece [In Greek].


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