1 LIN 1310B Introduction to Linguistics Prof: Nikolay Slavkov TA: Qinghua Tang CLASS 5, Jan 19, 2007.
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1 LIN 1310B Introduction to Linguistics Prof: Nikolay Slavkov TA: Qinghua Tang CLASS 5, Jan 19, 2007
2 Today Announcements and Reminders: -attendance will be taken in ALL DGDs; and ocassionally in lectures. -continue reading Chapter 4 (read at least until p.108). -class notes are posted on the web site after class. -assignment 1 will be made available to you next Tuesday in class. Today’s Lecture: -Review from last time -Continue with morphology.
3 Review from last time Free form vs. free morpheme -a free form is word -a free morpheme is also a word NB! wanted is a free form (word) but it consists of more than one morpheme. A free morpheme in on language can be bound in another and vice versa. Allomorphs vs Spelling Changes Roots vs Bases
4 Problematic Cases (p. 103 of text) Roots carry the core meaning of the word. Roots are usually free morphemes in English, i.e. English morphology is word- based: walk, boy, teach, tree, etc. In other languages, however, morphology may not be word-based. In other words, other languages may have bound roots.
5 Examples of bound roots: Verbal roots in Spanish are bound: they always have to appear with an affix, i.e. they can never stand alone. E.g.: abandonar, gustar, bailar, votar, etc. http://users.ipfw.edu/JEHLE/VERBLIST.HTM
6 Problematic Cases (p. 103 of text) Free or bound roots??? receive, conceive, deceive, perceive permit, submit, commit -ceive or -mit do not mean anything in English, and therefore, we consider them not to be roots; we will consider receive, permit, etc. to be a single morpheme. However: reception, conception, deception, perception permission, submission, commission -there seems to be variation between -ceive ~ -cept and between -mit ~ -mis, which suggests that they are indeed morphemes; i.e. if there seems to be allomorphic variation between these forms, then they should be morphemes. =>We will say that the above examples have a special status in the language.
7 Derivation vs. Inflection Derivation: an affix is attached and the meaning or category of the word changes. e.g. un + predictable = unpredictable (meaning) teach + er = teacher (category) Inflection: an affix is attached to add some grammatical information to the word. e.g. airplane + s = airplanes (gramm. info: plural) walk + s = walks (gramm. info: 3 rd person sg.)
8 Exercise: derivational affixes Create a small data sample using the affixes -able, -less, -ing, re-, un- and determine what lexical categories they attach to and what lexical categories they derive. -able: V A e.g. doable, readable -less: N A e.g. painless, penniless -ing 1 : V N e.g. (the) shooting, falling -ing 2 : V A e.g. amusing, disappointing re-: V V e.g. rerun, reconsider un 1 -V V e.g. undo, undress un 2 - A A e.g. unpleasant, uninteresting
10 Some English derivational prefixes (table 4.6 p. 105 of text)
11 Determining the category of the base worker: work(N) + er or work(V) + er ??? -Verbs that take the -er suffix: teach, write, play, do, examine, pitch -Nouns that take the -er suffix: ??? => The base for the suffix -er is a VERB.
12 Complex Derivations A complex derivation is a derivation that applies more than once, i.e. we create multiple levels of structure by adding more than one affix. ?How do we know if act is a V or a N? p. 106 of text
13 Complex Derivations: Determining the order in which the affixes attach p. 106 of text
14 Complex Derivations: Determining the order in which the affixes attach p. 106 of text
15 Complex Derivations: Determining the order in which the affixes attach Based on the data from the previous slide, we determine that the prefix un- combines freely with Adjectives but not with Nouns. Therefore, in the derivation un- attaches to the base ‘happy’ first; then the derivation proceeds and the suffix -ness attaches to the base ‘unhappy’
16 Constraints on derivation So far we’ve seen that affixes may be sensitive to the lexical category of the base to which they attach (N, V, A). But they can also be sensitive to: -the origin of the base -the phonological properties of the base => These are know as constraints or restrictions on the derivation.
17 Examples of constraints on the derivation (origin of base) - ant assistant*fightant combatant*helpant claimant*teachant defendant*workant Latin OriginEnglish Origin
18 Examples of constraints on the derivation (phonological properties of base) -en whiten*abstracten soften*bluen madden*angryen quicken*slowen liven*greenen -en can only combine with a verbal base only if that base is: a) monosyllabic (contains only one syllable) AND b) ends in an obstruent (a special kind of consonant such as t, d, k, g, p, b, s, z, etc. )
19 Two classes of derivational affixes Properties of Class 1 affixes: 1)often trigger changes in the consonant or vowel segments of the base; e.g. san-ity (vowel change from sane /e/ to sanity/æ/) 2) may change stress placement; e.g. product-ive (próduct vs. prodúctive) 3) often combine with bound roots e.g. nat-ion (nat cannot stand alone and is therefore a bound morpheme).
20 Two classes of derivational affixes Properties of Class 2 affixes: 1)Usually are phonologically neutral (i.e. do not trigger sound changes) e.g. prompt-ness (no sound change or stress placement change triggered by the affix) 2) Usually cannot intervene between the root and Class 1 affixes.