Enforcement Provisions Amendment 13, Sec. 2, Amendment 15, Sec. 2: Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. Amendment 14, Sec. 5: Congress shall have power, by appropriate legislation, to enforce the provisions of this article.
Article 3, Section 2 (1787) The judicial power shall extend... to Controversies between two or more States; -- between a State and Citizens of another State; -- between Citizens of different States; --... and between a State, or the Citizens thereof, and foreign States, Citizens or Subjects. Eleventh Amendment (1798) The Judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to extend to any suit in law or equity, commenced or prosecuted against one of the United States by Citizens of another State, or by Citizens or Subjects of any Foreign State.
Americans with Disabilities Act (1990) Family and Medical Leave Act (1993) Violence Against Women Act (1994)
The Taxing Power and the Spending Power ART. I, Section 8: The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes,... to pay the Debts and provide for the common Defence and general Welfare of the United States.
McCray v. US (oleomargarine)(1904) US v. Doremus (opium)(1919)
Among the more egregious pre-Reynolds disparities (compiled by Congressman Morris K. Udall):Morris K. Udall In the Connecticut General Assembly one House district had 191 people; another, 81,000 (424 times more).Connecticut General AssemblyHouse In the New Hampshire General Court one township with three people had a Representative in the lower house; this was the same representation given another district with 3,244. The vote of a resident of the first township was therefore 1,081 times more powerful at the Capitol.New Hampshire General Courtlower house In the Utah State Legislature the smallest district had 165 people, the largest 32,380 (196 times the population of the other).Utah State Legislature In the Vermont General Assembly the smallest district had 36 people, the largest 35,000, a ratio of almost 1,000 to 1.Vermont General Assembly Los Angeles County, CaliforniaLos Angeles County, California; with 6 million people, had one member in the California State Senate, as did the 14,000 people of one rural county (428 times more).California State Senaterural In the Idaho Legislature the smallest Senate district had 951 people; the largest, 93,400 (97 times more).Idaho LegislatureSenate 17 members of the Nevada Senate represented as many as 127,000 or as few as 568 people, a ratio of 224 to 1.Nevada Senate Reynolds v. Sims (1964)
Hanging Chad Pregnant Chad Dimpled Chad Bush v. Gore (2000)