Presentation on theme: "Chapter 11: The Federal Court System"— Presentation transcript:
1Chapter 11: The Federal Court System Section 1: Powers of the Federal CourtsSection 2: Lower Federal CourtsSection 3: The Supreme Court
2Section 1: Powers of the Federal Courts I: Jurisdiction of the CourtsA. The U.S. has a _______ court system__________courtsB. State courts have jurisdiction over cases involving STATE laws.Many state court judges are __________.Federal court judges are _____________.C. _________ courts have jurisdiction over cases involving U.S. laws, foreign treaties, and cases that involve how to interpret the Constitution.
3Types of Jurisdiction 1. ___________ jurisdiction Court the case goes to _________. This depends on ______________________and/or where the _____________________ are from. Courts that have original jurisdiction are TRIAL courts.If you lose your case, you can appeal to a court with. . .2. ___________________ Jurisdiction3. Concurrent Jurisdiction (what’s that?)
4Where did the Supreme Court Get its Power? Article _________ is vagueThe Supreme Court’s power has developed over time. . .Marbury v. Madison established the court’s power of ___________________________________ was the first Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. He used the court’s early cases to establish and expand Supreme Court authority (set precedent/establish case law)
5Examples of Marshall Court Activism Marbury v. MadisonFletcher v. PeckDartmouth College v. WoodwardGibbons V. OgdenWhy is each of these cases historically important? Review the case description in the back of your book.
6Other Important Eras in Supreme Court History The Taney CourtWas known for ___________________rightsDred Scott case as an exampleThe Court and Due ProcessThe “Civil War” or “Reconstruction” amendmentsExpansion of these amendments to ________________________________
7Important Court Eras continued The Court and ________________Granger casesSlaughterhouse CasesU.S. v. E.C. Knight and CompanyDebs v. United States“sick chicken” caseBecause of the Supreme Court’s habit of ruling against his legislation, President Franklin D. Roosevelt attempted to “_______” the court with his appointees.
8Important Eras continued The Warren Court ( )Chief Justice Earl Warren’s court focused on __________ ________of citizensThe Warren Court’s landmark case was Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka (1954)Other cases involved protecting the rights of those ______________________________.
9Section 2: Lower Federal Courts Constitutional Courtsa. Federal district courts serve as trial courts for both _______ and ____________casesThere are currently ______ federal district courts.1. ____________ cases are ones in which someone is being prosecuted for having broken a law.2. A _________ case is when two people are suing each other or a person and the government are in a dispute.
10Constitutional Courts continued Criminal cases have 2 types of juries:______ juryPetit or ________ juryIf you lose your case, you can _________.There are 13 federal courts of appeals.Which appellate district is Alabama in?See p. 314
11Legislative CourtsThese are courts created by Congress to deal with specific types of issues________________________Federal Intelligence Surveillance Court (FISA)
12Selection of Federal Judges: What do Presidents Look For? The president has the power to appoint all federal judges (with the approval of the Senate) according to the Constitution.Presidents usually appoint judges from _____________________________ or _____________________on major issues.Presidents follow _________________when nominating judges.Federal judges are appointed __________. They keep these jobs until they ______, die or are ______________.
13Section 3:The Supreme Court What is the jurisdiction of the “highest court in the land?”Has both appellate and original jurisdictionOriginal jurisdiction involving. . .Representatives of ______________________Lawsuits between ____________or between a state and the federal government, as in McCulloch v. MarylandVery few of the cases the court hears every year are ___________ jurisdiction cases (only about 5 of the 100 or so cases the court hears.)Has appellate jurisdiction over cases fromLower courts _______________Federal district courts in certain cases (when an act of Congress has been found unconstitutional)_______________________courts in cases involving federal laws or the Constitution.
14Supreme Court Justices How many are there?1 chief justiceJohn Roberts (09/29/05)8 associate justicesSamuel Alito (01/31/06)Stephen Breyer (08/03/94)Ruth Bader Ginsberg (08/10/93)Clarence Thomas (10/23/91)Associate justices continuedDavid Souter (10/09/90)Anthony Kennedy (02/18/88Antonin Scalia (09/26/86)John Paul Stevens (12/1975)
15Congress and the Court_______________sets the number of the justices on the court. There have been _____since __________.Justices’ salaries are set by Congress and may not reduce it.Congress may remove justices by _____________them (treason, bribery)The Constitution says little about what the justices are supposed to do, so their jobs have evolved over time.Their main duty is to ____________________________.The chief justice provides leadership by presiding over ____________ and _____________, which is when the justices discuss cases among themselves.________________ assist the justices in their work.
16Who Becomes a Supreme Court Justice? Most are ________in their 50s or 60s.One woman, one African-American on the current court.Most have been ________ or ________ judges or been state attorney generals.
17Appointing JusticesThe Constitution gives the president the authority to appoint Supreme Court justices subject to Senate confirmation (how is this an example of checks & balances?)The President’s choices are usually confirmed, but there’s no guarantee--even Washington had one of his nominees rejected.The President solicits suggestions from top Justice Dept. officials, the ________________ and key Senators (senatorial courtesy)The ______ is also involved in evaluating the professional qualifications of the nominee.__________________, _________________, ____________
18Other Influences on Nominating Justices Key ____________________ play a roleNAACPNOWThe other ____________ on the Court also play a roleWrite letters of recommendationMay contact the president directly on behalf of a candidateEx. Chief Justice Burger and Harry BlackmunSandra Day O’Connor and William Rehnquist