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© Stroma Development Ltd 2012 | Version 1.1 Stroma – Property Dating Assessing The Age of Dwellings.

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Presentation on theme: "© Stroma Development Ltd 2012 | Version 1.1 Stroma – Property Dating Assessing The Age of Dwellings."— Presentation transcript:

1 © Stroma Development Ltd 2012 | Version 1.1 Stroma – Property Dating Assessing The Age of Dwellings

2 © Stroma Development Ltd 2012 | Version 1.1 Stroma – Property Dating England and Wales Pre 1900 1900-1929 1930-49 1950-66 1967-75 1976-82 1983-90 1991-95 1996-2002 2003-06 2007 onwards If you are ever unsure of a property date, always select the older age band. Northern Ireland Pre 1919 1919-1929 1930-49 1950-73 1974-77 1978-85 1986-91 1992-99 2000-2006 (not applicable) 2007 onwards Scotland Pre 1919 1919-1929 1930-49 1950-64 1965-75 1976-83 1984-91 1992-98 1999-2002 2003-07 2008 onwards Property Date Bands

3 © Stroma Development Ltd 2012 | Version 1.1 Stroma – Property Dating Importance of Dating Houses Identifying the age of a property is fundamental to the EPC process because the RdSAP software makes a whole series of assumptions based on the property age The age of a dwelling determines three important factors – The assumptions correspond to the default U-values for the wall, roof and floor. – It can also provide an indication to the buildings construction type. – Ratio of floor area to window area

4 © Stroma Development Ltd 2012 | Version 1.1 Stroma – Property Dating Ageing Properties If a house has undergone a conversion it must meet building regulations for the time of conversion – this means you can enter the age of the property as the conversion date (providing there is suitable evidence to prove it has met building regulations) For most cases dwellings built at the beginning of an age band would have received building approval under the earlier age band regulations – i.e. a building being built in 1991 would have received planning for the 1983-1990 age bracket

5 © Stroma Development Ltd 2012 | Version 1.1 Stroma – Property Dating Ways to Assess The Age Ask the occupants Using documentary evidence Local authorities Changes in building regulations Constructional features Architectural style Surrounding property's

6 © Stroma Development Ltd 2012 | Version 1.1 Stroma – Property Dating External Indicators of Ageing Dwellings

7 © Stroma Development Ltd 2012 | Version 1.1 Stroma – Property Dating Pre 1900 A mixture of styles ranging from classical through to gothic Covers a long period so there are many different fashions and influences Generally characterised by over ornamented features around doors, windows, etc. Use of local materials Large chimneys, often several chimney pots Mixture of styles No driveways or garages Solid wall construction Sliding sash or wooden casement windows Small front gardens Old outbuildings – used to house outside loo Internally, large houses had servants quarters in the basement or attic.

8 © Stroma Development Ltd 2012 | Version 1.1 Stroma – Property Dating Early Properties Oak nearly exhausted (not true for all earlier properties) Small panes of glass Heavily panelled front door Building Act 1774 imposed restrictions on materials Flat facades

9 © Stroma Development Ltd 2012 | Version 1.1 Stroma – Property Dating Typical Gothic & Victorian Houses Front doors side by side Slate roof coverings Gable roofs Ornamental moldings around the windows and over the doors Wooden sash windows Solid brick

10 © Stroma Development Ltd 2012 | Version 1.1 Stroma – Property Dating Typical Gothic and Victorian Houses Brick decoration between floors Stone lintels with some embellishment No car parking facilities Close to footpath

11 © Stroma Development Ltd 2012 | Version 1.1 Stroma – Property Dating Early 1900s Whole streets developed at once More consistency in style Gothic arches and gables Larger panes of glass used Sash windows Mainly solid masonry – although cavity starts to be introduced in exposed regions of the country, generally narrow cavity Tiled floor in porches Narrow Cavity Walls (220+) & Solid walls are both used

12 © Stroma Development Ltd 2012 | Version 1.1 Stroma – Property Dating 1900 - 1929 Steep pyramid shaped roof Canted bay windows Access directly of the street No parking in lower end buildings

13 © Stroma Development Ltd 2012 | Version 1.1 Stroma – Property Dating 1919 - 1929 1920s saw introduction of 70ft rule – the minimum distance allowed between houses, reducing the number of properties in an acre from 20-30 to 6-8 This meant an larger property and garden size

14 © Stroma Development Ltd 2012 | Version 1.1 Stroma – Property Dating 1900 - 1929 Clay roof coverings Large chimneys Introduction of vertical tiling Steep roofs Arts and crafts movement inspired timber gable Mock Tudor Textured rendering

15 © Stroma Development Ltd 2012 | Version 1.1 Stroma – Property Dating 1900 - 1929 Typical of late 1920s building design Vertical tiling No ornamental moldings Low rise buildings most common Large pyramid shaped gable roof

16 © Stroma Development Ltd 2012 | Version 1.1 Stroma – Property Dating 1920s Large property No integrated parking facilities Well spaced from adjacent properties Small roof tiles/slates

17 © Stroma Development Ltd 2012 | Version 1.1 Stroma – Property Dating 1930s Rounded Bay windows designed to fit metal casement windows (nearly all now replaced) Detached garage or space for car Semi detached properties very common Cavity walls commonly used throughout the UK Hipped roofs Still have chimneys Properties have damp proof course installed when built Council house estates – predominantly semi-detached and terraced properties. Any flats built would be low-rise due to lack of lift technology Density of properties is increasing again Large growth of suburban estates Introduction of non-traditional (system build) buildings such as steel frame, timber frame, pre-cast and in-situ concrete

18 © Stroma Development Ltd 2012 | Version 1.1 Stroma – Property Dating 1930 - 1949 Chimneys still common Double bay windows Buildings set further back from the road Squarer in design Hipped roof Cavity wall

19 © Stroma Development Ltd 2012 | Version 1.1 Stroma – Property Dating 1930 - 1949 Double height bay window Tile hung bay Casement windows Hipped roof Square in shape Covered porch

20 © Stroma Development Ltd 2012 | Version 1.1 Stroma – Property Dating 1930s Estate

21 © Stroma Development Ltd 2012 | Version 1.1 Stroma – Property Dating Typical 1940s Typical 1940s detached house Square in design Chimneys Exterior soil pipe Cavity walls now common (250mm+) Introduction of bungalows, but not common until after WW2

22 © Stroma Development Ltd 2012 | Version 1.1 Stroma – Property Dating 1940s Estate 1940s estate type housing Often on large estates Square boxes Plain features Low cost housing

23 © Stroma Development Ltd 2012 | Version 1.1 Stroma – Property Dating Post War During the war there was little property construction Immediately after the war there was a big need for properties, but limited resources or skilled labour System build properties used cheap materials and did not require high skill levels to build Massive numbers of system build properties were constructed in the post war years

24 © Stroma Development Ltd 2012 | Version 1.1 Stroma – Property Dating System Built Post War House Cornish type 1 Precast concrete panels Due to skilled labour shortage Inherent defects Easily identifiable

25 © Stroma Development Ltd 2012 | Version 1.1 Stroma – Property Dating System Built Post War House Today most system built houses have had the external walls improved or replaced Located usually on large housing estate

26 © Stroma Development Ltd 2012 | Version 1.1 Stroma – Property Dating 1950 - 1966 1950s Council house building but reverted to brick/stone construction rather than system build Large open plan estates Steel casement windows (usually replaced with UPVC now) Chimneys still present on most properties until the 1960s, when gas boilers became more common Most properties now have a driveway and or garage Bungalows became popular Flat roof porches Bay windows on non-council houses Concrete roof coverings Window openings increase in size and tend to be wider than they are high

27 © Stroma Development Ltd 2012 | Version 1.1 Stroma – Property Dating 1950s Semi casement windows Chimneys Cavity wall (260mm+) Plain flat fronted, simple in design Enclosed front garden

28 © Stroma Development Ltd 2012 | Version 1.1 Stroma – Property Dating 1950s semi Semi detached Hipped roof Small chimney Single height bay window Drive-way Small front and rear gardens

29 © Stroma Development Ltd 2012 | Version 1.1 Stroma – Property Dating 1960s Clean Air Act of 1956 greatly influenced the heating of dwellings and saw a reduction in properties with traditional chimneys. Solid fuels were rarely used Brick cavity walls (260+mm thick), with some use of timber boarding, tile hanging or concrete panels for sections of properties Chalet style bungalow with roof dormers Tall tower blocks common from 1960s Attached or integral garages Open plan rooms, lounge/dining room

30 © Stroma Development Ltd 2012 | Version 1.1 Stroma – Property Dating 1960s Introduction of brick and block external walls – should be able to determine inner block wall during loft inspection Concrete roof coverings, slate rarely used Flat or low pitched roofs covered in roofing felt New materials employed for construction, including plastic gutters to replace asbestos cement Window areas are large and originally single glazed, with little consideration for heat loss due to the low price of oil Introduction of building regulations in Scotland in 1964, England and Wales 1966 and Northern Ireland in 1972

31 © Stroma Development Ltd 2012 | Version 1.1 Stroma – Property Dating 1960s Chalet Bungalow Cavity Wall Concrete roof coverings Car parking Mix of gable and hipped roofs Use of different building materials Larger windows Asymmetrical design Introduction of coloured panels to front elevation

32 © Stroma Development Ltd 2012 | Version 1.1 Stroma – Property Dating 1964 Semi Detached Concrete roof coverings Cavity wall Off road parking Timber and stone cladding becoming more popular No front garden fencing

33 © Stroma Development Ltd 2012 | Version 1.1 Stroma – Property Dating 1960s Terrace

34 © Stroma Development Ltd 2012 | Version 1.1 Stroma – Property Dating Typical 1960s Bungalow No front fencing Large windows Concrete roof coverings Chimneys with less pots Off road parking Built in estates

35 © Stroma Development Ltd 2012 | Version 1.1 Stroma – Property Dating Altered 1960s bungalow This bungalow has had replacement windows and a new cloaked verge roof, which would suggest construction around the easrly1980s

36 © Stroma Development Ltd 2012 | Version 1.1 Stroma – Property Dating 1960s Estate Style Housing Introduction of flat roofing for the main roof covering Integral parking facilities No front fencing No chimneys

37 © Stroma Development Ltd 2012 | Version 1.1 Stroma – Property Dating 1970s No chimneys, roof vents for central heating Cavity walls measure 260+mm thick Introduction of pre-fab trussed rafter roof, from mid 60s, extensively from 1970s Wider variety in built form, reacting to sameness of 1960s design Increase in density of housing as the price of land increases – also off plot car parking Soil stack integral to building Cross wall construction still common, coloured panels used in front elevations Change in building regulation requirements for roof insulation (still less than a quarter of today) Flat roofs, mono pitch and shallow pitch roofs become popular, particularly in low cost housing developments Use of timber and steel frame construction is common The collapse of part of a concrete constructed block of flats (Ronan Point) in 1968 lead to the demolition of a number of similar style buildings with others undergoing substantial strengthening work Small amount of insulation assumed by RdSAP in roof and walls

38 © Stroma Development Ltd 2012 | Version 1.1 Stroma – Property Dating Early 1970s Cross wall construction Integral garages No chimneys Large front windows High density housing Built in soil stack

39 © Stroma Development Ltd 2012 | Version 1.1 Stroma – Property Dating Early 1970s Roof vents, no chimneys Cross wall construction Large casement windows Concrete roof coverings Small garden space

40 © Stroma Development Ltd 2012 | Version 1.1 Stroma – Property Dating Mid 1970s 1973 oil crisis increased awareness of need for fuel efficiency; started to make houses more energy efficient introduce wall insulation much smaller windows double glazing introduced

41 © Stroma Development Ltd 2012 | Version 1.1 Stroma – Property Dating

42 © Stroma Development Ltd 2012 | Version 1.1 Stroma – Property Dating 1980s Building design starts to come back Cavity walls measure 270+mm thick Cul-de-sacs in estates Mixed styles in same estate Double glazing in dark wooden frames Chimneys start to reappear for gas flame effect fires Reduction in use of asbestos for external building materials i.e. soffits Introduction of roof vents Enclosed front garden often with paved space for a car and integral garage Complicated roof shapes, occasionally with dormer windows

43 © Stroma Development Ltd 2012 | Version 1.1 Stroma – Property Dating 1980s Dark window frames Concrete roof tiles Dark bricks Variation in design on estates Off road parking No chimney

44 © Stroma Development Ltd 2012 | Version 1.1 Stroma – Property Dating Early 1980s Dark wood double glazing No chimney Integral garage Small floor area Close to neighbouring property

45 © Stroma Development Ltd 2012 | Version 1.1 Stroma – Property Dating Typical 1980s Picture above shows good example of a dormer window with dark wood surround Mock Tudor becoming popular again

46 © Stroma Development Ltd 2012 | Version 1.1 Stroma – Property Dating Example of a Flat Flats in general follow the same architectural principles as housing As you can see dormers in the roof no chimneys and dark wood window frames

47 © Stroma Development Ltd 2012 | Version 1.1 Stroma – Property Dating 1990s Often small plots, small property footprint and garden area Different materials and slightly different styles in same development Cavity walls measure 270-300mm thick Often inclusion of some of the following features: – Bay windows – Mock pillars – Porches – Decorative brickwork Shared drives for several houses Small detached homes, narrow gaps between properties Studies, utility rooms, downstairs toilet and en-suite bathrooms become more common Introduction of trickle vents over windows

48 © Stroma Development Ltd 2012 | Version 1.1 Stroma – Property Dating Typical 1990s Mixture of styles Small plot size Double glazed Modern building techniques with the use of UVPC

49 © Stroma Development Ltd 2012 | Version 1.1 Stroma – Property Dating House Built in 1997 Date stamp on front elevation Decorative brickwork Small plot size Cavity wall Off road parking

50 © Stroma Development Ltd 2012 | Version 1.1 Stroma – Property Dating Further Examples of 1990s

51 © Stroma Development Ltd 2012 | Version 1.1 Stroma – Property Dating 2000 to Present Day The owner/occupier is almost certain to know the original build date of the property Increased density of housing Encouragement to develop Brownfield sites – so lots of post 2002 inner city developments High purchase and building cost mean 3 storey houses and rooms in roof more common. Timber frame construction popular again Big developments with a few different property designs Weep holes above openings Soil stacks are built externally to the property Double glazing may have the date stamped in the bead

52 © Stroma Development Ltd 2012 | Version 1.1 Stroma – Property Dating 2003 Estate This building was built in 2003, in a low cost housing estate Much harder to date as they do not follow any of the previous architectural features The inside window bead may well provide an accurate date for when the building was constructed

53 © Stroma Development Ltd 2012 | Version 1.1 Stroma – Property Dating Post 2000

54 © Stroma Development Ltd 2012 | Version 1.1 Stroma – Property Dating 2008 Onwards Land is at a premium in the UK, which is steering building regulations and planning authorities to ensure more efficient use of land Increased use of Brownfield land Increased density of housing within developments Encouragement to build up

55 © Stroma Development Ltd 2012 | Version 1.1 Stroma – Property Dating Windows From this photo you can clearly see the date stamped in the bead of the window. In this case 12.09.2008

56 © Stroma Development Ltd 2012 | Version 1.1 Stroma – Property Dating Building Your Skills Establishing the date of a house by identifying style/construction is not an exact science, the training given should only be used as a guide You can: – Ask the seller (do not solely rely on this) – Ask a neighbour – Look at old maps – Look at neighbouring property's

57 © Stroma Development Ltd 2012 | Version 1.1 Stroma – Property Dating Internal Identifiers of Age Period fireplaces High skirting boards Ceiling roses Heavily panelled doors Cornicing Decorative architrave around windows and doors

58 © Stroma Development Ltd 2012 | Version 1.1 Stroma – Property Dating Housing age test

59 © Stroma Development Ltd 2012 | Version 1.1 Stroma – Property Dating SA AC REGIONAL 1 © STROMA CERTIFICATIO N LTD v1.4 15/4/2011

60 © Stroma Development Ltd 2012 | Version 1.1 Stroma – Property Dating SA AC REGIONAL 1 © STROMA CERTIFICATIO N LTD v1.4 15/4/2011

61 © Stroma Development Ltd 2012 | Version 1.1 Stroma – Property Dating SA AC REGIONAL 1 © STROMA CERTIFICATIO N LTD v1.4 15/4/2011

62 © Stroma Development Ltd 2012 | Version 1.1 Stroma – Property Dating SA AC REGIONAL 1 © STROMA CERTIFICATIO N LTD v1.4 15/4/2011

63 © Stroma Development Ltd 2012 | Version 1.1 Stroma – Property Dating SA AC REGIONAL 1 © STROMA CERTIFICATIO N LTD v1.4 15/4/2011

64 © Stroma Development Ltd 2012 | Version 1.1 Stroma – Property Dating SA AC REGIONAL 1 © STROMA CERTIFICATIO N LTD v1.4 15/4/2011

65 © Stroma Development Ltd 2012 | Version 1.1 Stroma – Property Dating SA AC REGIONAL 1 © STROMA CERTIFICATIO N LTD v1.4 15/4/2011

66 © Stroma Development Ltd 2012 | Version 1.1 Stroma – Property Dating SA AC REGIONAL 1 © STROMA CERTIFICATIO N LTD v1.4 15/4/2011

67 © Stroma Development Ltd 2012 | Version 1.1 Stroma – Property Dating SA AC REGIONAL 1 © STROMA CERTIFICATIO N LTD v1.4 15/4/2011

68 © Stroma Development Ltd 2012 | Version 1.1 Stroma – Property Dating SA AC REGIONAL 1 © STROMA CERTIFICATIO N LTD v1.4 15/4/2011

69 © Stroma Development Ltd 2012 | Version 1.1 Stroma – Property Dating SA AC REGIONAL 1 © STROMA CERTIFICATIO N LTD v1.4 15/4/2011

70 © Stroma Development Ltd 2012 | Version 1.1 Stroma – Property Dating Answers

71 © Stroma Development Ltd 2012 | Version 1.1 Stroma – Property Dating SA AC REGIONAL 1 © STROMA CERTIFICATIO N LTD v1.4 15/4/2011

72 © Stroma Development Ltd 2012 | Version 1.1 Stroma – Property Dating SA AC REGIONAL 1 © STROMA CERTIFICATIO N LTD v1.4 15/4/2011

73 © Stroma Development Ltd 2012 | Version 1.1 Stroma – Property Dating SA AC REGIONAL 1 © STROMA CERTIFICATIO N LTD v1.4 15/4/2011

74 © Stroma Development Ltd 2012 | Version 1.1 Stroma – Property Dating SA AC REGIONAL 1 © STROMA CERTIFICATIO N LTD v1.4 15/4/2011

75 © Stroma Development Ltd 2012 | Version 1.1 Stroma – Property Dating SA AC REGIONAL 1 © STROMA CERTIFICATIO N LTD v1.4 15/4/2011

76 © Stroma Development Ltd 2012 | Version 1.1 Stroma – Property Dating SA AC REGIONAL 1 © STROMA CERTIFICATIO N LTD v1.4 15/4/2011

77 © Stroma Development Ltd 2012 | Version 1.1 Stroma – Property Dating SA AC REGIONAL 1 © STROMA CERTIFICATIO N LTD v1.4 15/4/2011

78 © Stroma Development Ltd 2012 | Version 1.1 Stroma – Property Dating SA AC REGIONAL 1 © STROMA CERTIFICATIO N LTD v1.4 15/4/2011

79 © Stroma Development Ltd 2012 | Version 1.1 Stroma – Property Dating SA AC REGIONAL 1 © STROMA CERTIFICATIO N LTD v1.4 15/4/2011

80 © Stroma Development Ltd 2012 | Version 1.1 Stroma – Property Dating SA AC REGIONAL 1 © STROMA CERTIFICATIO N LTD v1.4 15/4/2011

81 © Stroma Development Ltd 2012 | Version 1.1 Stroma – Property Dating SA AC REGIONAL 1 © STROMA CERTIFICATIO N LTD v1.4 15/4/2011

82 © Stroma Development Ltd 2012 | Version 1.1 Stroma – Property Dating Date from style If previous approach does not establish the age develop your own dating skills in increments: – Start by putting the property into 1 of 3 broad age bands Pre WW1 Interwar Post WW2 – After this add in detail: Pre WW1 1920s 1930s 1945-59 1960s Post 1970s If you are ever unsure of a properties age band, select the older band

83 © Stroma Development Ltd 2012 | Version 1.1 Stroma – Property Dating Summary As with all skills and techniques the more do you and the more experience you gain the better you will become at assessing the age of properties It is not an exact science but with some consideration of what you have learned today coupled with your own field experience it should make your assessment much easier in the future Dwelling types vary immensely from area to area The style of the property is dependent on who the intended occupants are i.e. private or social housing Dwellings can also be changed from there original plan to something completely different and sometimes it helps to have a look at the neighbouring properties to aid you in your assessment

84 © Stroma Development Ltd 2012 | Version 1.1 Stroma – Property Dating Sampling Sampling is a process used to assess a large number of similar dwellings by identifying and surveying a representative group and applying the results to the whole group. Typically this will be most appropriate for social housing

85 © Stroma Development Ltd 2012 | Version 1.1 Stroma – Property Dating Sampling-Process 1. Identify the dwellings which share similar characteristics – the landlords stock must be divided into groups of dwellings which share similar characteristics. This information can be gathered from the landlords asset management database. If the DEA is not directly involved in the group selection then they should understand how the groups were derived 2. Identify common elements – identify elements which are common to all the dwellings in a group, such as age band, build type or heating system 3. Customize the dataset for known variations – Identify elements which are different, there should be no more than six differences between two or more dwellings 4. Enter data and produce an EPC for each dwelling – The DEA must visit a sample of the dwellings to verify that the variations based on the landlords database are correct. The number of properties visited is determined by the group size

86 © Stroma Development Ltd 2012 | Version 1.1 Stroma – Property Dating Sampling Please note… It is unlikely you will have to use sampling. You may want to use it if you are contracted to produce EPCs for a very large block of flats Sampling is not required within the DEA portfolio

87 © Stroma Development Ltd 2012 | Version 1.1 Stroma – Property Dating Any Questions? 87


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