Presentation on theme: "ADAPTS VIETNAM Handbook of Adaptation Measures for Local Communities."— Presentation transcript:
ADAPTS VIETNAM Handbook of Adaptation Measures for Local Communities
As part of the ADAPTS project implemented in Vietnam from , CSRD visited a large number of communities along the Huong River Basin in Central Vietnam to assess their climate risk perceptions and to identify ways in which they are already adapting to climate changes. This resulted in the identification of various local, mostly low-cost adaptation measures that have proven to be highly effective. Most of these simple measures have been developed by the people themselves. This demonstrates that climate change adaptation advisers must work collaboratively with local communities to build on local knowledge and local responses to changing conditions in developing climate and adaptation strategies and policies. This simple handbook is intended as a practical source of inspiration for vulnerable communities and authorities in Vietnam, as well as in other countries similarly impacted by climate change. INTRODUCTION OF THE HANDBOOK
Adaptation Measures CENTRE FOR SOCIAL RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT (CSRD) 2/33Nguyen Truong To, Hue City, Vietnam STORM CONDITIONS Picture 1. The house with additional frame (Add: Trn Đình Cho, hamlet 2, Huong Loc commune, Nam Dong District, Thua Thien Hue Province) Additional frame to strengthen the roof (Xiên Thưng) 1. Function The additional frame is designed to connect the beams and the roof in order to create a solid block capable of withstanding up to a force 10 gale. This roof is capable of lasting for more than 20 years. 2. Technique The additional frame is a wooden, rectangular frame. It strengthens the house by connecting the walls with the roof. 3. Feasibility Total cost of building this house is 60,000,000VND. This model suits rural areas. It has been popular in the past, and it is very suited to todays changing weather conditions. SAFE HOUSE MODELS
STORM CONDITIONS SAFE HOUSE MODELS Tail beam 1. Function This is the buffer bar between the concrete beam and the wooden beams of the roof. It protects the wooden beam from rotting, and thus increases the sustainability of the house. 2. Technique Additional beams are made of wood to protect them from rotting. At contact point, mortar is used to fasten the beams together. 3. Feasibility This modification is cheap and easy to make. This technique is good for tiled roofs. Picture 2. Tail beam (Thuy Bieu commune, Hue City) Tube-tile combined with water trough (downspout) 1. Function The tube-tile is used to keep other tiles stable, and to prevent rain and wind damage. The water trough is used to catch rain water. The combination of tube-tile and water trough protects the roof from rain water and strong winds. Storms cannot blow the roof off when the roof is fixed flat. 2. Technique The tube-tile is a commonly-used material in the building industry. The tube-tile is used to cover the top of the house and the roof edge, after the roof is completed. The water trough is made from concrete. The bottom of the trough is not absorbent. It is built underneath and encloses at the end of the roof. 3. Feasibility The cost of tube-tile is not high. Picture 3. Tube-tile combined with water trough (Add: Hoàng Trung Sơn, t 9, Thy Biu, Hue City)
STORM CONDITIONS SAFE HOUSE MODELS Multi-roofed house 1. Function This model is designed to break up the wind as it hits the roof. Thus the impact of the wind is less and the roof can withstand storm conditions. 2. Technique This kind of roof is made from wood and is divided into many eaves. The frame of the house needs many beams and uprights. 3. Feasibility Cost of this roof is high but it is a good solution for houses which are frequently affected by storms. Picture 4. Multi-roofed house Picture 5. Strengthen house model How to strengthen the house to cope with storms 1. Function The roof is tied to the beams so that the wind cannot blow it away. 2. Technique Material: nylon wire or rope; tightening stakes. Method: Tie wire or rope across the top of the roof, parallel with the roof beams. Attach the two ends of each wire to the ground, using the tightening stakes. After the stormy season, remove the wires which might otherwise cause the roof to rust by trapping wet leaves and rubbish. 3. Feasibility This technique is very cheap and simple to implement.
FLOOD CONDITIONS SAFE HOUSE MODELS Picture 6. Half-completed floor (Add: Tôn Tht Dương Đôn, Lương Quán, Thy Biu, Hue City) Half-completed, upper floor 1. Function This creates more space to store household belongings. Some families use it for their ancestral altar. In the flooding season, family members can occupy this space and continue many of their indoor, daily activities. In summer, this construction helps to keep the house cooler. 2. Technique The half-completed floor is 2-2.5m high from the ground floor, and is made from concrete. To build this model, the house wall should be higher than usual. 3. Feasibility The cost of this house model will suit households with a steady, average income. Girder (joist) 1. Function To store and protect food in floods and the rainy season. It is also possible for people to shelter up there. 2. Technique Lay some planks across the collar beams in order to easily create an attic space to be used when the house is flooded. 3. Feasibility This model is very simple and easily set up for all households in inundated areas. Picture 7. Girder (Add: Qung Thái commune - Qung Đin district, Thua Thien Hue Province, Vietnam)
FLOOD CONDITIONS SAFE HOUSE MODELS Raising the floor level of the house 1. Function To avoid inundation in the flood season. 2. Technique Raise the ground level higher than the average flood level, by using sand or soil to raise the foundations. 3. Feasibility The cost of raising the ground floor level is considerable but of great benefit to all households living on low-lying land. Picture 8. The floor level has been raised (Add: Thy Biu commune - Hue City) House models to cope with HOT and COLD weather Suspended ceiling 1. Function The suspended ceiling may be helpful in lowering hot, summer temperatures. It also limits the possibility that a wind storm will blow the roof off. 2. Technique Material: plastic or wooden or iron sheets; wooden beams and rafters. Method: make a frame, using the beams and rafters, to fit on top of the walls. Nail the sheets to this frame. 3. Feasibility The cost for this ceiling is very reasonable and depends on the material: iron sheet: 0.5USD/m2; plastic sheet: 0.3USD/m2. Wooden sheets: cost depends on the kind of wood. Picture 9. Suspended ceiling (Add: Hoàng Trung Sơn, hamlet 9, Thuy Bieu commune, Hue City) HOT AND COLD WEATHER CONDITIONS
Addition of a verandah to the house 1. Function To drain water away from the house and to provide shade from the sun. To create more space for daily activities. 2. Technique Material: iron sheets, concrete or wooden uprights, beams and rafters. Method: the uprights are fixed in the ground in a line in front of the house and connected to the front of the house by beams. Collar beams and vertical beams are made into a frame onto which the iron sheets are nailed or attached with steel wires. 3. Feasibility A verandah is an inexpensive and popular addition in the rural area of Thua Thien Hue Province. Picture 10. Verandah (Add: Nguyn Văn Thanh, hamlet 16, Vinh Phu commune, Phu Vang district, Thua Thien Hue province) Picture 11. Verandah (Add: Trn Quang Thanh, hamlet 3, Huong Loc commune, Nam Dong district, Thua Thien Hue Province
GRAVITY WATER SYSTEM WATER USE MODELS 1. Function To utilise water from streams in the highland areas for domestic and agricultural use. 2. Technique This method includes four main steps: a. Spillway: this is a small, concrete wall built in a stream to raise the water level. b. Filter-bed: to screen the waste such as leaves, branches of trees and other heavy items in the water. c. Water pipes: to bring water from spillway to households. They should be made from metal, plastic or rubber. d. Taps: to distribute water to each branch of the water pipe system and thus to each household. This system requires a good maintenance schedule to ensure that it continues to work well. 3. Feasibility This method is very effective and useful for communities in highland areas who are not connected to a District water supply. The communities themselves can build it and pay the costs. If this system is carefully managed and responsibly maintained by the local people, it will work well.
Rain water use Small containers 1. Function To store rain-water for domestic use. 2. Technique Concrete containers are easy to clean. A simple cover should be added. 3. Feasibility This kind of tank is easy for households to use. Picture 14. Contain water in small tanks Medium tanks 1. Function To store rain-water for domestic use. 2. Technique Material: concrete. Method: place this tank underneath the downspout of the house to capture water from the roof. Cover: the cover is made of iron or plastic. It prevents dust, rubbish and insects from entering the water. Capacity: each household can decide how much water they wish to store. 3. Feasibility This tank is useful for people in dry areas where there is no water supply system. It is simple to install, and cheap. Picture 15. Water stored in medium tanks RAIN WATER STORAGE
1. Function To store rain-water for domestic use. 2. Technique The system comprises a concrete tank and a small tower which is made from 4 concrete columns and a small tank with a lid. The tower must be higher than the house in order to use gravity to move the water to the taps below. Pump and pipe: they move the water from the tank on the ground to the tower. 3. Feasibility This system requires a detailed design and considerable investment. It is suitable for average income households. Self-contained water supply system RAIN WATER STORAGE Picture 17. Water tankPicture 18. Water tower Picture 16. Water tank on the roof 1. Function To store rain-water for domestic use. 2. Technique Material: concrete. Method: install this concrete tank on a concrete roof. Lid: the lid is made of iron or plastic to keep out dust, rubbish and insects. Capacity: tank size may be varied according to household needs. 3. Feasibility This tank is useful for people in dry areas where water is limited and where there is no water supply system. This is a simple and cheap method.
FILTERING UNDERGROUND WATER Separate filter tank 1. Function To purify underground water for domestic use by using a multi-layer filter tank. 2. Technique This method has 4 parts: a. Well or drilling well from which to extract the underground water. b. Pump to raise water from the well to the filter tank. c. Filter tank to clean the underground water using 5 layers of gravel, sand and active coal. d. Container to store the filtered water ready for domestic use. Water from open well Water is put into active coal filter tank Water for domestic use
FILTERING UNDERGROUND WATER Picture 19. Active coal filter tank (sinhquyen.com) Picture 20. Combined filter and storage tank In some households, they combine the storage container and the water filter. This is smaller and simpler to build than the system which has a separate filter tank. Filter tank combined with storage container The structure of the active coal filter tank.
TYPICAL GREEN FENCE MODEL GREEN FENCES TO PROTECT HOUSES Picture 21: House protection by planting trees around Add: Nguyn Phn, hamlet 3, Hi Dương commune, Hương Trà district, Thua Thien Hue Province 1. Function To inhibit flood flow; To shade the roads; To break up winds and protect from storm. 2. Technique Local people plant three varieties of plants to protect their houses: - Duong Lieu (Casuarinaceae) This tree can be planted as a line or many parallel lines in front of the house. The distance between the lines should be 2m. After 3 years, they may be 4m high. - Hop (Bambuseae) Local people plant this tree to make fences around their houses by raising its branches. - Tra (Thespesia populnea) This tree is planted along the riverbank or lagoon bank to prevent erosion and protect roads. The tree branches may be raised to increase its height. 3. Feasibility These trees grow well in many kinds of soil. For the lagoon communities which are very vulnerable to flood, storm and sea level rising, this is an excellent model.
Earth canal to access water from sand dune WATER FOR AGRICULTURE Picture 22. Canal to access water from sand dune This approach is used by a lagoon commune where water for agricultural use completely depends on rainfall. This canal supplies water for a one-crop field in Hai Duong commune, Huong Tra District, Thua Thien Hue Province, Vietnam. EROSION PREVENTION MODELS ALONG COASTLINE Picture 23. Concrete sea dyke Picture 24. Rock sea dyke Picture 25. Forest after one year Picture 26. Forest after seven years
English version revised September 2012 Editor Lam Thi Thu Suu Design and Presentation Pham Thi Dieu My Tran Ba Quoc ContactCentre for Social Research and Development (CSRD) 2/33 Nguyen Truong To, Hue City, Vietnam Tel/fax Website. . English version revised September 2012 Editor Lam Thi Thu Suu Design and Presentation Pham Thi Dieu My Tran Ba Quoc ContactCentre for Social Research and Development (CSRD) 2/33 Nguyen Truong To, Hue City, Vietnam Tel/fax Website. .