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Power Dynamics - Group 2 - Tara Chatterson Minyoung Moon Hong An Vo April 7th, 2014.

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Presentation on theme: "Power Dynamics - Group 2 - Tara Chatterson Minyoung Moon Hong An Vo April 7th, 2014."— Presentation transcript:

1 Power Dynamics - Group 2 - Tara Chatterson Minyoung Moon Hong An Vo April 7th, 2014

2 Agenda 1. Introduction 2. Annotate Bibliography 3. Implications for Future Research 4. Interventions for Practitioners 5. Take Away & Conclusion

3 To provide research on power and its impacts on organizations. To offer recommendations for both human resource develop practitioners and researchers with a hope to address issues caused by power in an organization as well as to advance research along this line. Purpose of this Project Introduction

4 Annotated Bibliography Authors & YearJournalFocusMethodFindings Baumgartner & Schneider (2010) Journal of Career D evelopment Glass CeilingInterview Breaking the glass ceiling: overcoming stereotype s, balancing work and family have been barriers for women to climb up the corporate ladder. Brotheridge & Lee ( 2008) Journal of Manage rial Psychology Emotion Management Archival Data Emotional intelligence is essential for everyday man agerial work. Managers are now expected to not onl y be rational but also able to manage their own emo tions as well as their employees. Gunduz (2013) Monthly ReviewEmotional Labor Interview & Data Analysis Examines the emotional toll for migrant care worker s and the emotional labors that employers have ove r these workers. The emotional labors paid by these women are for example: oppression from employer, discrimination, lack of protection from hosting coun tries, and resentful children whom had to grow up w ithout their mom. Gender Bias

5 Authors & YearJournalFocusMethodFindings Hakim (2006) British Journal of Guidance & Counselling Gender Inequality Archival Data & Case Study Analysis At least three types of career paths exist for women (i.e., t runcated, adaptive, or hegemonic) in todays workforce. T he fact that most women are categorically characterized in to one of these career paths is a significant sign of gender inequality. Noonan, Gallor, H ensler-McGinnis, F assinger, Wang, & Goodma n (2004) Journal of Counseling Psychology Womens Career Development Interview Examines the career development experiences of highly ac hieving women with physical and sensory disabilities. Torland (2011) Annals of Leisure Research Emotional Labor Survey Analysis Examines the potential differences between two types of emotional labor surface acting and deep acting among mal e and female adventure tour leaders. Williams, C. L., Muller, C., & Kilanski, K. (2012) Gender & Society Gender Inequality/ Power Interview & Case Study Analysis Addressing workplace gender inequality is of utmost impo rtance to 21 st century organizations. Organizing grassroot networks, standardizing career mapping for genders, and increasing salary transparency are all creditable options for organizations seeking to improve gender equality. Annotated Bibliography Gender Bias Cont…

6 Authors & YearJournalFocusMethodFindings Bunderson & Reagan (2011) Organization Science Power Dynamics Archival Data Socialized use of power is a necessary and critical bound ary for organizations where power and status difference s exist. Dasborough (2009) Leadership Quarterly Emotional Contagion Data Analysis When leaders show favoritism towards certain employe es it leads to a negative emotional perception of that lea der. This negative perception can obliterate morale of th e organization. Diefenderoff & Greguras (2009) Journal of Management Emotion Management Survey Explaining how emotional display rules at work depend on various targets (i.e., customers, co-workers, supervis ors). Roberts (2000) Education, Literacy, a nd Humanization: Exp loring the Work of Paulo Freire Educational Oppression Archival Data & Interview Illiteracy is an obvious manifestation of educational opp ression by political forces. Scarduzio (2011) Management Commu nication Quarterly Emotional Deviance/ Power Observation, Shadowing Employees, Interview Examines the intersection of power, professional work, organizing, and emotional deviance at two municipal co urthouses in the U.S. Annotated Bibliography social bias

7 Authors & YearJournalFocusMethodFindings Daniels (2011) Journal of Black Studies Cultural/ Power Dynamics Archival Data Understanding the differences between Eurocentric a nd Afrocentric organizations is critical to fostering cul turally-enhanced employee relationships and preventing misunderstandings due to cultural baggage. Everett & Johnson ( 2012) Public Relation Review Employee Perceptions Interviews This study explores how cultural knowledge and perc eption of the organization drives the way employees feel about the place where they work. Grandey, Rafaeli, Ra vid, Wirtz, & Steiner (2010) Journal of Service Management Emotion Management SurveyExplores how emotion display rules are influenced by relational, occupational, and cultural expectations. Annotated Bibliography cultural/ethnicity

8 Implications for Future Research (Tara) Recommendations Power structures resulting in gender, cultural/ethnicity, and social bias can cause severe problems within organizations. We offer these recommendations for future research on power dynamics in organizational settings: Gender bias - More research on how current policies are reinforcing gender bias should be completed in various occupational settings to gain a more encompassing understanding of how organizational policies and practices are sustaining the glass ceiling.

9 Most of the articles we found on the use of critical dialogue were conducted solely from a learning/teaching perspective. However, we strongly feel that the use of critical dialogue could have tremendously beneficial impacts on professional workplaces, and encourage future researchers to delve deeper into this relatively unknown territory. While we found plenty of evidence supporting the aspect of the role of power (e.g., abuse, misuse, proper use) of organizations, most work focused more on the goals, roles, and motives of those in power. It would be well- advised for future researchers to consider how power and status differences affect learning and development for those lower in the social hierarchy. Recommendations Cont

10 Career pathing uses an examination of a womans knowledge, skills, and attributes to evaluate possible conduits leading to increased career options. Displaying leadership behaviors, setting specific career goals and ambitions, taking risks, and self-promotion are all valuable aspects of career pathing. Interventions for Practitioners Career Pathing

11 Expanding Career Resources Expanding womens career resources in organizations is a crucial step to im proving CD for women. Some of these resources include: Stretch assignments On-the-job training (OJT) International assignments Interventions for Practitioners

12 Critical Dialogue Critical dialogue is frequently used to break down cultural, social, and political power barriers by encouraging open, honest discussion between conflicting parties. Interventions for Practitioners

13 Fish Bowls and Mirroring Fishbowls A subset of the team is selected to sit in a circle, with the rest of the team sitting around this subgroup. When the inner group discusses the matter, the outer circle can take notes and then provide feedback. Mirroring What qualities or attributes best describe me? What qualities or attributes best describe you? How do I think the others will describe me?

14 Interventions for Practitioners 360 Feedback & Mentoring/Sponsorship 360 Feedback Strong critical honest feedback allow employees to grow Starting the conversation Honest feedback Actionable items Mentoring/Sponsorship Supportive relationship builds trust and expand knowledge Support network Knowledge expansion

15 Take Away & Conclusion Power dynamic takes place in every organization and at every level. Some organizations have a more evident power structure in place. It is important that research be done in order to affect change in policies and procedures that allow for the power structures to continue to hold sown those that are different from them both physically as well as ideologically. Gender bias is very prevalent in todays society even though we have been talking about it for decades. Research can open the door to true changes and bring a light to the fact that bias based on power dynamics still exists across all organizations to some level. Researching gender bias can also be translated to the other abuses that power dynamics bring to light, such as class warfare, racial bias. By identifying the underlying reasons why bias takes place in an organization and the benefits of breaking through biases because of power dynamics, organizations will be able to accomplish so much more than they do today.

16 Thank you! Well done, everyone ! Have a great summer !!

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