Presentation on theme: "PMA Companies University of Scranton Ergonomics presented by Mary Ann Bubka November 4, 2013."— Presentation transcript:
PMA Companies University of Scranton Ergonomics presented by Mary Ann Bubka November 4, 2013
Ergonomics What will be covered: What is Ergonomics? Why should we be concerned? Musculosketetal Disorders (MSDs). Ergonomic Risk Factors. What you can do to prevent injury?
3 What is Ergonomics the science of fitting jobs to people. –Ergonomics uses knowledge of physical abilities, limitations & human characteristics that apply to job design.
4 Ergonomic Design considers the tasks, equipment & environment to provide efficient use of worker capabilities while ensuring that job demands do not exceed those capabilitiesconsiders the tasks, equipment & environment to provide efficient use of worker capabilities while ensuring that job demands do not exceed those capabilities
5 Proper ergonomics can Improve EfficiencyImprove Efficiency Increase Production CapabilityIncrease Production Capability Reduce Workplace InjuriesReduce Workplace Injuries Lower Workers Comp CostsLower Workers Comp Costs Reduce AbsenteeismReduce Absenteeism
6 Muscular Skeletal Disorders MSDs are medical conditions that develop gradually over a period of timeMSDs are medical conditions that develop gradually over a period of time MSDs do not typically result from a single instantaneous event.MSDs do not typically result from a single instantaneous event.
7 Muscular Skeletal Disorders Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are an injury or illness to soft body tissue such as:Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are an injury or illness to soft body tissue such as: »Muscles »Nerves »Tendons »Ligaments »Joints »Cartilage »Spinal Discs
Why do we focus on Ergonomics? To minimize employee pain and the impact on the organization of ergonomic exposures.
Ergonomic related injuries May be called: –CTDs - cumulative trauma disorders –RSIs - repetitive stress injuries OR MSD – musculoskeletal disorders They normally affect muscles, nerves, tendons, ligaments, joints.
Common types of MSDs Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Tendonitis Tennis Elbow Trigger Finger Strains/Sprains
Common Symptoms Soreness Numbness Tingling Weakness Limited Range of Motion Swelling
Controlling MSDs Step 1. –I–Identify the risk factors
Ergonomic Risk Factors Repetition Force Awkward Posture Static Posture Contact Stress Temperature Extremes Vibration Psycho Social
Repetition Occurs when the same movements are performed frequently such as keying or clicking a mouse. Can result in injury when the tissues are overused and do not have time to recuperate. Risk Factors
Force Force is the amount of physical effort required by a person to do a task. With excessive force the muscles are working much harder than normal, this can lead to strain on the muscles, tendons, and joints. Risk Factors
16 Force & Exertion Forceful exertions place higher loads on the muscles, tendons, ligaments, and jointsForceful exertions place higher loads on the muscles, tendons, ligaments, and joints FactorsFactors WeightWeight BulkinessBulkiness SpeedSpeed
Awkward Posture Is a deviation from the neutral body position. A neutral body position is safest and most efficient position in which to work. Awkward posture puts stress on muscles, tendons and joints. Risk Factors
Static Posture Static posture occurs when one position is held for a prolonged period of time. The muscles become fatigued. This fatigue can lead to discomfort and even injury. Risk Factors
Contact Stress Contact stress is caused by any sharp or hard object putting localized pressure on a part of the body. Contact stress will irritate local tissues and interfere with circulation and nerve function. Risk Factors
Temperature Extremes Extreme heat or cold may place stress on tissues. Risk Factors
21 Heat & Cold Heat effects blood circulation & causes cramps, burns/rashes and general discomfort.Heat effects blood circulation & causes cramps, burns/rashes and general discomfort. Cold effects the body's blood circulation, causes hypothermia, loss of flexibility, distraction and poor dexterity.Cold effects the body's blood circulation, causes hypothermia, loss of flexibility, distraction and poor dexterity. Comfortable temperature rangeComfortable temperature range 68 to 74 degrees68 to 74 degrees Humidity 20 – 60%Humidity 20 – 60%
Vibration Vibration is typically not found in an office environment but can occur when using tools. Vibration places stress on the tissues of the fingers, hand and arms. Whole body vibration from driving puts stress on the spinal tissues. Risk Factors
23 Vibration Excessive vibration causes pain to muscles, joints and internal organsExcessive vibration causes pain to muscles, joints and internal organs Soft tissue trauma to the hands, arms, feet and legs.Soft tissue trauma to the hands, arms, feet and legs.
Psycho-social Issues Stress, boredom, job dissatisfaction and anxiety can contribute to the possibility of developing a MSD. Psycho-social issues can create increased muscle tension and reduce a persons awareness of work technique. Risk Factors
Other contributory factors Smoking Diabetes Obesity Age Gender Lifestyle Physical activity level
26 MSDs are caused by »Bending »Climbing »Crawling »Reaching »Twisting »Overexertion »Repetitive Exposure
27 Environment Risk Factors Heat or coldHeat or cold LightingLighting VibrationVibration Tool designTool design NoiseNoise
29 Lighting Under & over lighted areas causes:Under & over lighted areas causes: »Headaches »Muscle strains »Fatigue »Eye strain Poorly lighted areas also contributes to trip & fall hazards & poor coordinationPoorly lighted areas also contributes to trip & fall hazards & poor coordination
31 Posture Prolonged standing - varicose veins, back stress, pooling of blood in legsProlonged standing - varicose veins, back stress, pooling of blood in legs Sitting without back support - low back stressSitting without back support - low back stress Seat too high - decreased circulation, (legs dangling over end) bruisesSeat too high - decreased circulation, (legs dangling over end) bruises
32 Posture Shoulders rounded - Upper/lower back stress, respiratory distressShoulders rounded - Upper/lower back stress, respiratory distress Leaning forward - Lower back stressLeaning forward - Lower back stress Arms extended or over-reaching - Stress to arm muscles, upper back stressArms extended or over-reaching - Stress to arm muscles, upper back stress
33 Posture Elbows "winged" - Joint stress at shoulder, poor use of bicep musclesElbows "winged" - Joint stress at shoulder, poor use of bicep muscles Stepping backwards - Loss of balance, displaced gravity, muscle stressStepping backwards - Loss of balance, displaced gravity, muscle stress Locking knees - Stress to back of knee, poor blood circulationLocking knees - Stress to back of knee, poor blood circulation Bent Wrist – excessive force when grippingBent Wrist – excessive force when gripping
34 Repetition Frequent & prolonged repetition of the same movements cause muscle fatigue and stressFrequent & prolonged repetition of the same movements cause muscle fatigue and stress Factors that increase repetition hazardsFactors that increase repetition hazards Number of cycles per minuteNumber of cycles per minute Force requiredForce required PosturePosture
35 Gripping Factors that increase gripping hazardsFactors that increase gripping hazards Bent wristBent wrist Surface areaSurface area Surface frictionSurface friction VibrationVibration Type of gripType of grip
36 Lifting Factors that increase lifting hazardsFactors that increase lifting hazards WeightWeight SizeSize RepetitionRepetition TwistingTwisting BendingBending ReachingReaching MethodMethod
37 Hazard Controls Engineering Controls Work Practice Controls
38 Engineering Controls Re-design of work stationRe-design of work station Re-design of toolsRe-design of tools Lighting modificationLighting modification Vibration controlVibration control Noise ControlNoise Control AutomationAutomation Mechanical LiftingMechanical Lifting Material FlowMaterial Flow
39 Work Practice Controls Work techniques & proceduresWork techniques & procedures Conditioning periodConditioning period Training Lifting techniquesTraining Lifting techniques Personal Protective EquipmentPersonal Protective Equipment
40 Hazard Identification Reports of signs, symptoms & hazards Recommendations from employees & supervisors Records review of existing safety & health records Routine facility safety & health inspections
41 Information & Training Signs & symptomsSigns & symptoms Importance of early reportingImportance of early reporting Specific hazards & controlsSpecific hazards & controls Reporting MSDs & hazardsReporting MSDs & hazards How to recommend control methodsHow to recommend control methods Protective MeasuresProtective Measures Ergonomics program & their roleErgonomics program & their role
42 Employee Involvement Report of signs, symptoms & hazardsReport of signs, symptoms & hazards Hazard control recommendationsHazard control recommendations Access to informationAccess to information
43 Recordkeeping Reports of MSD or hazardsReports of MSD or hazards Responses to employee reportsResponses to employee reports Job hazard analysisJob hazard analysis Hazard control recordsHazard control records Ergonomics program evaluationErgonomics program evaluation MSD management recordsMSD management records
A Typical Workday
Controlling MSDs Step 2 – Fit the workstation to you.
Adjusting Seat Height Knees and hips should be level. Feet should be flat on the floor or footrest. Back of knees should not come in direct contact with the front of the seatpan.
Seat Back Support your low back using the chairs backrest. The curve of the backrest should match the curve of your low back.
Arm Rests Adjust to lightly support arms. Use only for breaks or non keying/mousing activities. Lower arm rests slightly for typing or mousing.
Variable Back Stop Slight reclining gives the spine a rest. Keep the buttocks back, dont slouch. Not all chairs have this feature
Seat Tension Turn knob or adjust lever under the chair. Adjust tension to body weight. –Soft enough to recline. –Firm enough to support you. Not all chairs have this feature
Keyboard / Mouse
Keyboard Wrists should be in a neutral position. Keyboard should be flat. Key strokes should be light.
Adjustable Keyboard trays Make sure that your arms are in a relaxed position. Ensure adequate leg clearance under tray.
Mouse Mouse should be located adjacent to keyboard on same level. Hold hand lightly on the mouse. Use Scroll features.
Monitors Placement: –directly in front of you at arms length –top of the screen is eye- level or lower –parallel to bright windows Adjustments: height, angle contrast, brightness, color and refresh rate.
Reach Zones Frequent Used Items Occasional Used Items Rarely Used Items
Supporting Equipment Wrist and mouse rests –called RESTS for a reason! Copy/document holders Headsets Footrests Back supports