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Introduction to Access Control

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1 Introduction to Access Control

2 Access control systems allow the free movement of authorized personnel while restricting unauthorized intrusion. A device that stops you from getting from A to B unless you are authorized to do so. The device or devices could be: • Mechanical, Electric or Motorized Locks. • Turnstiles and Tubestiles. • Mechanical and Electric Gates, Barriers. • Mechanical and Electric Code Locks. • Audio and Visual Door Entry Systems. Benefits of Access Control Protect property. Protect revenues and assets. Protect staff. No need for keys. No need for security guards. Management reports. Protect privacy. Reduce operational costs

3 These are many different card technologies
These are many different card technologies. In most applications, proximity technology is the preferred solution. Technology Cost Security Barcode Low Cost Low Security Magstripe Proximity Mid level Cost Med & High Security Smart card Proximity/Keypad combination Higher Security Biometrics High Cost Highest Security

4 Barcode Technology Employs a pattern of bars and spaces of varying widths to represent the user information. This is the same technology that is used by stores for inventory control and checkout counters. Since the bar code is visible it is easy to duplicate and as such is not considered to be a good choice for systems where security is a major concern.

5 Magstripe Technology Same technology as credit cards. Magnetic stripe technology requires the card to come in direct contact with the reader head causing wear and a shorter life span. The cards are low cost but are easily duplicated, can easily become damaged, and the readers require cleaning to remove any dirt build-up on the read heads.

6 Proximity Technology The proximity technology reader constantly transmits a low-level fixed RF signal that energizes the card. When the card is held at a certain distance from the reader, the RF signal is absorbed by a small coil inside the card and powers up the card's microchip, which contains a unique identification code. Once powered, the card transmits the code to the reader. The whole process is completed in microseconds. Benefits Include: No Moving Parts No Mechanical wear No Slots or read heads to maintain

7 Proximity with Keypad combination
Keypads should never be used by themselves as it is too easy to give away Pin codes to others. Keypads however can be used in conjunction with other technologies to increase the level of security. Lost or stolen cards can not be used to gain access without the use of the Pin code. Proximity & Pin should be installed on all external doors and also higher security doors

8 Biometric Technology System measures some physiological properties of the user such as hand geometry, Iris pattern, finger print pattern or voice pattern. These types of devices offer very high security but also are the most expensive and require that the user be present in order to be enrolled into the system. Use of biometrics requires careful considerations in terms of environment, speed and suitability.

9 Card & Reader Compatibility
Some cards are only compatible with certain readers. For example SensorProx card, will only work with SensorProx readers, HID cards will only work with HID readers... Reader Model Card SensorProx All SensorProx Cards SensorProx MIFARE MIFARE cards (Ultra, 1k, 4k) Serial reading not sector S-Class S-Class and MIFARE (Serial Number reading) cards. What are proprietary Formats? High security proprietary format created to prevent card duplication offering a higher standard of security, example S-Class.

10 Wiegand Standard Wiegand is communication protocol between the readers and the controllers. Most proximity, biometric and wireless readers are wiegand compatible. The standard format for weigand is 26 bits long. 26bit format Compatible with most access control panels on the market. Cannot prevent card duplication (Lower security).

11 Access Control Operation

12 Access Control Operation
Both the reader and the electronic locking device are connected to the Controller. The Controller is programmed via a PC with the GuardPoint software. The information programmed into the Door Controller include: The unique card number, Access rights and time zones applicable to that card (Who, Where and When). A cardholder presents the card to the reader. The reader then transmits the card details to the controller it is attached to If the card is valid the Door Controller will release the locking device securing the door. If the card is not valid the Door Controller will not release the locking device securing the door. To come back through the door there are the following options: Use a Request to Exit button. Use another reader, on the same door. Known as read IN, read OUT. Use a mechanical handle (dependant upon the device securing the door). Use a Break Glass unit in the event of a fire.

13 Break Glass Unit (BGU) Double pole break glass units should be always installed on the egress side of the door as this will provide immediate local release of the door in case of fire. BGU should be monitored so breakage can be reported. Door Contact (DC) Monitoring the door status is essential to allow the user to know if the door has been left open or forced open. Without it the access control system is running in low security mode. Exit Button (RTE) Exit buttons are used to release the locking hardware for all FREE EGRESS doors. Maglock Electronic locking mechanism is required to lock and release the door, many versions and types are available depending on the door and application.

14 Controlled Door:   Outside View
This is an illustration of the non-secured side of an access controlled door. Check List : Reader Keypad (optional) Outside door handle should be permanently locked/disabled

15 Controlled Door:   Inside View – Free Egress
This illustration is the most common. It allows users to exit the protected area freely. It is called FREE EGRESS Check List : Maglock Door Contact Break Glass Unit (BGU) Exit Button (RTE)

16 Controlled Door:   Inside View – Controlled Egress
This is more secure but also a more expensive option. It monitors and controls which user is exiting the area. It is called CONTROLLED EGRESS Check List : Maglock Door Contact Reader Break Glass Unit (BGU)

17 Communication Methods – TCP/IP
The access control software can send and receive information to the controllers using an existing Ethernet Network known as either: 1. Local bases; LAN Local Area Network. 2. Bigger scale/Remote; WAN Wide Area Network. Key advantage is the ability to install the control equipment over many locations without the need for dedicated cable and containment hence will save costs. Considerations Co-operation of IT people required and communication can depend on the setting and configuration of the LAN/WAN.

18 Communication Methods – RS-485
The access control software can send and receive information to the controllers using a dedicated cable running from controller to controller and back to the PC. Key advantage is the fact that it allows full control of the system without IT involvement and can in some cases save money. Considerations; Limited to a distance of 1000 m per loop and the cable run must not be mixed with power cables and ideally running along side low voltage cables on own containment example CAT 5/6 cables. Max 32 controllers per loop.

19 Communication Methods – Wireless
The access control software can send and receive information to the controllers using wireless technology to transmit the data in either TCP/IP or RS-485 protocols. Options: WIFI, GSM allows the use of different wireless technologies for transmitting TCP/IP protocols. Wireless RS-485 Specifically transmits RS-485 signal. Key advantage Eliminates the need for cabling between controllers and server. Considerations; Limited to distances, signal coverage within the site and remote sites, noise factors.

20 Data Storage/Access Workstation The system can be managed from other locations and for this a workstation is required, The data is still based at Server. Server The access control software works with a database that manages all the records, transaction etc. This can be MS Access or SQL. All this data is stored in the main server. Intelligent Controller Certain parts of the database are loaded from the server to the controller. Controller will continue to work even if server is not connected. Some functions may be effected if such loss takes place.

21 Basic Access Control Types
Stand Alone This method of controlling access to the door does not utilise software, all programming, deleting, adding is done from the device itself. No reporting or networking is available at that level. If multiple doors are required to be controlled, then programming needs to be done separately at each door. PC Based This method allows the user to control the whole system using software. Multiple doors and sites can be controlled centrally, with full reporting and scheduling available. With this version you can have the software installed in a PC locally or have the software hosted remotely.

22 Basic Access Terminology
Access Groups/Time Schedules Time Schedules In order to create restrictions for the times when certain doors can be used, it is essential to create daily schedules and weekly which defines the times when certain doors are intended to be used. This must be the first consideration for the system before programming the system starts. Example for office staff (9-6 Monday to Friday) Access Groups Once the schedules has been defined, you need to define groups of people that can be put in a group which can share the same door authorisations. For example Management, Office, Factory staff.

23 A D A B C Basic Access Terminology Anti-Pass back Anti-Passback
Anti-Passback is used to increase the level of security in a building by not allowing users to tailgate (Follow person in front without presenting a valid card). Example if someone tailgated and ended up in area C, then they try and exit using exit reader C, the system will not allow this transaction. Considerations You will need to have readers on both sides of the door. It is recommend that this feature is used hand on hand with physical barriers, like turnstiles. If not used correctly, it can cause serious distributions to the operation of the site. A D A B C Questions What is Global Anti-Passback or (Local)? What is soft Anti-Passback (Hard)?

24 Questions 1. If you were to advice a school requiring access control for 10 doors, what type of system, technology would you recommend and why? 2. Insurance Company approaches your company and wants to have Biometrics installed on all 20 doors in office. What are your thoughts and considerations? 3. Customer asks question about the PC based system that you are looking to offer; Will the system still work if the PC goes down? 4. End user wants to have a new system installed, but insist to use Magnetic Stripe Technology. What is your advice? 5. Sport Club have 5 doors to control for use of members and staff, they have about 2,000 members and 30 staff. They want you to install 5 stand alone systems to keep the costs down! What are your thoughts and recommendations.?

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