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Collaboration or Cooperation Collaborative or group learning is based upon a learner centred model... Learner as an active participant (Harasim, Calvert.

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Presentation on theme: "Collaboration or Cooperation Collaborative or group learning is based upon a learner centred model... Learner as an active participant (Harasim, Calvert."— Presentation transcript:


2 Collaboration or Cooperation Collaborative or group learning is based upon a learner centred model... Learner as an active participant (Harasim, Calvert & Groeneboer 1998) "Collaboration is a philosophy of interaction and personal lifestyle whereas cooperation is a structure of interaction designed to facilitate the accomplishment of an end product or goal." (Panitz 1996)

3 The Student's Prayer (Umberto Maturana) Don't impose on me what you know, I want to explore the unknown And be the source of my own discoveries Let the known be my liberation, not my slavery The world of your truth can be my limitation Your wisdom my negation Dont instruct me: lets walk together. Let my richness begin where yours ends Show me that I can stand on your shoulders Reveal yourself so that I can be Something different You believe that every human being Can love and create. I understand, then, your fear When I ask you to live according to your wisdom. You will not know who I am By listening to yourself. Dont instruct me; let me be. Your failure is that I be identical to you. (Quoted in Zohar and Marshall, 2001) This poem is taken from Carroll and Gilbert (2011) p10

4 Self, Community & Group Process Working in an online group adds to the complexity of the group work process (McDonald and Gibson, 1998) Learning from each other is a very positive experience: new ideas, new structures, new ways of thinking Working in this way may require more dependence on others and comes with a whole set of problems such as: non- contributing members, unequal workload, scheduling issues (Piezon and Donaldson 1984), Social Loafing (Williams and Karau 1991) and Free riding effects (Albanese and Van Fleet 1985) Reflective view:

5 Technology I cant access the whiteboard, this prevents me contributing to the written summary Troubleshooting together with online collaboration can help students increase their technical abilities and problem solving Technology is one of the greatest challenges in online education. A diverse student population means that technical abilities are varied and it should not be assumed that all students have had access to high level technologies. One study reported that although students found working via online and internet highly collaborative and challenging of their thinking and ideas, 50% of the 316 students taking part found difficulty in the design. (Leahy & Twomey, 2005)

6 Motivation One positive motivation can be mutual gain Lack of motivation can lead to problems such as: the free rider effect (Kerr & Brunn 1983), the sucker effect (Kerr, 1983), the status sensitivity effect (Dembo & McAuliffe, 1987) and the ganging up on the task phenomenon (Salamon & Globerson 1987). (cited by Roberts 2003 p vii) Kerr (1983) noted these effects particularly in male group members. The Ringelmann Effect should also be considered where motivational loss increases with increased numbers. (Kravitz & Martin, 1986) An important difference between collaboration and cooperation via the internet is elements of motivation. Where does the motivation come from? If the motivation is, I want to contribute, social exchange and relations would be more a collaborative approach. I need to do this well and meet this goal would be more a cooperation approach. Every time I overcome a problem, I feel more motivated to take on the next challenge

7 Privacy With increased sophistication of computer based technology and global access, asymmetrical sharing of information and privacy can result in reduced collaboration and cooperation (Jiang, Hong & Landay 2002) Reflective view: Considering privacy issues while collaborating using the internet can be used to teach students valuable employment skills regarding confidentiality and responsibility in sharing information

8 Educators are finding the value of using the Web for facilitating collaborative groups ( Anderson, Reinhart & Slowinski 2001) The question isnt how can we encourage collaboration through the internet?.. the internet is collaboration and will not function in the way we know without it. Reflective view:

9 References Albanese, R., and Van Fleet, D.D. (1985). Rational behaviour in groups: The free-riding tendency. Academy of Management Review, 10, 244-255. Anderson, Reinhart and Slowinski (2001) A Journey in Virtual Collaboration: Facilitating Computer-Mediated Communication Among Pre-Service Teachers Benklers, Y. (2005) Open Source Economics. (Updated 16/04/2008, accessed 06/02/2012). Bond, C. (2009) Nurses computers and pre registration education. Nurse Education Today. Vol 29 (7). Pp. 731-734. Carroll, M. and Gilbert, M. C. (2011) On Being a Supervisee: Creating Learning Partnerships 2 nd Edition Vukani Publishing : London, UK De Oliveira, M. (2009) What changes when Technology is Good Enough? The international Journal of Learning. Vol 16 (2) Pp. 477-487 Goode, J. (2010) Mind the Gap: The digital Dimension of college Access. The Journal of Higher Education. Vol 81 (5). Pp. 583- 618. Harasim, L., Calvert, T. and Groeneboer, C. (1998) Virtual U: A web based system to support collaborative learning Chapter 18 p149-158 In: Khan, B. H. (1998) Web based Instruction (Third edition) Englewood Cliffs : New Jersey USA Jiang, X,, Hong, J. I. And Landay, J. A. (2002) Approximate information flows : Socially-based modelling of privacy in ubiquitous computing Lecture Notes in Computer Science 2498 176-193 doi: 10.1007/3-540-45809-3_14 Leahy, M. and Twomey, D. (2005)Using web based design with pre service teachers as a means of creating a collaborative learning environment. Educational Media International. Vol 24 (2). Pp.143-151 Kerr, N. L. (1983) Motivation losses in small groups: A social dilemma analysis Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 45 (4) 819-828 doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.45.4.819 10.1037/0022-3514.45.4.819 Kerr, N. L. and Bruun, S. E. (1983) Dispensibility of member effort and group motivation losses : Free rider effects Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 44 78-94 Cited by:T. Roberts (2004) Online Collaborative Learning: Theory and Practice Information Science Publishing : London, UK pvii McDonald, J. and Gibson, C.C. (1998) Interpersonal dynamics and group development in computer conferencing The American Journal of Distance Education 12 (1) p 7-25 Neilson, M. (2011) Open Science now. (updated 11/11/2011, accessed 06/02/2012) Panitz, T (1996). A definition of collaborative vs cooperative learning. paper.cfm. updated 2000, accessed 01/02/2012) paper.cfm. updated 2000 Piezon and Donaldson (2005) Online Groups and Social Loafing: Understanding Student-Group Interactions Online Journal of Distance Learning Administration, Volume VIII, Number IV, Winter 2005 University of West Georgia, Distance Education Center Available at:[Accessed at 23.18 on 14.02.12] Posey, L. & Pintz, C. (2006) Online teaching strategies to improve collaboration among nursing students. Nurse Education Today. Vol 26 (8). Pp. 680- 687.

10 References Reece, I. & Walker, S. (2008) Teaching Training and Learning: A Practical Guide. M&A Thomson Litho LTD. Glasgow. Roberts, T. (2004) Online Collaborative Learning: Theory and Practice Information Science Publishing : London, UK Rosendale, P. (2010) Introduction to Second Life (Historical View) (updated 10/09/2006 accessed 06/02/2012). Sargeant, J. Curran, V. Allen, M, Jarvis, S. and Kendall, H. (2006) Facilitating Interpersonal Interaction and learning online: linking theory to practice. The Journal of Continual Education in the Health professions. Vol 26. Pp. 128-136. Stoltzman, R. and Slovak Radio Symphony Orchestra, (2008). Maid with the Flaxen Hair by Debussy, Fine Music, Vol. 1 [MP3] Twomey, A (2004) Web based teaching in nursing: lessons form literature. Nurse Education Today. Vol 24. Pp 452-458 Von Ahn, L. (2011) Massive Scale Online Collaboration. com. (updated 06/12/2011, Accessed 06/02/2012). com Wiersema, N. (2000) How does collaborative learning actually work in a classroom and how do students react to it? (updated 2000 accessed 01/02/2012 Williams, K.D., & Karau, S. J. (1991). Social loafing and social compensation: The effects of expectations of co-worker performance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 61(4), 570-581 Zohar, D. And Marshall, I. (2001) Spiritual Intelligence – the ultimate intelligence Bloomsbury : London

11 If you have more time.. You may like to read the accompanying notes pages or listen to these additional notes on: Privacy Motivation.. Technology Notes on Motivation Notes on Technology A positive view of privacy Notes on privacy And a Reflective View on the process:

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