Presentation on theme: "The First Two Years: Biosocial Development"— Presentation transcript:
1The First Two Years: Biosocial Development The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescenceby Kathleen Stassen BergerSeventh EditionChapter 5The First Two Years: Biosocial DevelopmentSlides prepared by Kate Byerwalter, Ph.D., Grand Rapids Community College
2Body Changes An average newborn is 7½ lbs, 20 inches. Infants triple their birthweight by 1 year.By age two, they are about ½ their adult height (!) and ¼ their adult weight.
4Body Changes (cont.)Percentile ranks: allow comparisons of an individual infant to group normsA sudden drop in percentile rank might indicate a developmental problem.Head Sparing: in cases of inadequate nutrition, the brain keeps growing
5The Wonderful World of SLEEP Newborns sleep 17+ hours a day.DAVID YOUNG-WOLFF / PHOTOEDIT, INC.
6Infant Sleep (cont.)Infants gradually adjust to the family’s sleep schedule.80% of 1 year olds sleep “through the night”Sleep cycles are influenced by brain maturation, diet, child-rearing practices, and birth order
7Make It Real: Co-Sleeping Some families practice “co-sleeping,” in which the family shares a bed.Why might a family do this? Do you think it could benefit or harm an infant?
8Research on Co-Sleeping CULTURE influences the decision (it is more common in Eastern culture)It is not harmful to an infant, under normal circumstances (e.g., if adult is not drunk)It may increase dependence on parents
9Brain DevelopmentBrain development during infancy is fascinating and rapid.By the age of 2, the brain is 75% its adult weightNeural connections in the brain also develop
11Brain Development (cont.) Regional specialization: neurons in certain areas of the brain correspond to different tasksExamples: language, vision, smell, emotional processing, recognizing faces vs. objects, etc.
13Brain Development (cont.) Transient exuberance: rapid proliferation of new neural connections in infancyAs many as 15,000 new connections per neuron and 100 trillion synapses by age 2!Pruning makes the brain more efficient by eliminating underused connections.
15What influences early brain development? Brain development is influenced by maturation and experiences.Experience-expectant brain functions require basic common experiences.Example: No matter where an infant lives, he or she hears sounds and language.
16What influences early brain development? (cont.) Experience-dependent brain functions depend on exposure to particular events.Example: The particular sounds and language heard (and learned) varies across infants.Example: The development of impulse control depends on both maturation and practice.
17Why are neural connections so important? A certain level of neural connections indicate healthy brain development.Lack of connections may result from child abuse or neglect early in life, and can have lasting consequences.Example: Infants in orphanages
18Make it Real: Activities Make a list of toys and activities that can stimulate healthy brain development in the first two years of life.PHOTODISC
19Implications for Caregivers Is it possible to overstimulate an infant? YES!The key is to follow the infant’s leadSelf-righting: an infant’s inborn drive to use whatever experiences available to develop the brain (wow!)
20Infant Senses All five senses function at birth Vision, hearing, taste, touch, smellPerception (the brain’s processing of the sensation) develops over time.
21Infant Senses (cont.) Hearing: is well developed at birth Infants respond to sudden noises, human voice, phonemes of languageVision: is the least mature sense at birthBionocular vision develops around 14 weeks“Adult” vision (20/20) by one year
22Infant Senses (cont.) Taste, touch, smell function well at birth All: CINDY CHARLES / PHOTOEDIT, INC.
23Motor Skills Motor skills develop according to two principles: Cephalocaudal: growth proceeds from head-to-toe (e.g., head lift before sit, stand, walk)Proximal-distal: growth proceeds from torso outward (e.g., sucking before kicking)
24Motor Skills (cont.) Reflexes account for the first motor skills. Survival reflexes include sucking, breathing, body temperature.Other reflexes include the Babinski, Moro, and stepping reflexes.
28Motor Skills (cont.)Gross motor skills involve large muscle movements.Examples: crawling, sitting, walkingWalking typically occurs around 12 months, with great variability across infants.Walking requires muscle strength, brain maturation, and practice.
29Motor Skills (cont.) Fine motor skills involve small muscle movements. Examples: learning to grasp, shake, pull an object, hold a spoon, write, draw, etc.Motor skills are influenced by genes, culture, and patterns of infant care.
30Public Health Measures Infant survival rates have increased significantly in the past century, due to better nutrition, cleaner water, and immunization.Although not without controversy, immunization has been hailed as a major achievement (e.g., significantly reducing polio, small pox, measles).
32Sudden Infant Death Syndrome SIDS is infant death of an unknown cause.Protective factors (although not a guarantee) include: NO cigarette smoke in house, noise and touch during sleep, breast feeding, sleeping on back