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The First Two Years: Biosocial Development Slides prepared by Kate Byerwalter, Ph.D., Grand Rapids Community College The Developing Person Through Childhood.

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Presentation on theme: "The First Two Years: Biosocial Development Slides prepared by Kate Byerwalter, Ph.D., Grand Rapids Community College The Developing Person Through Childhood."— Presentation transcript:

1 The First Two Years: Biosocial Development Slides prepared by Kate Byerwalter, Ph.D., Grand Rapids Community College The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence by Kathleen Stassen Berger Chapter 5 Seventh Edition

2 Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 5 Body Changes An average newborn is 7½ lbs, 20 inches. Infants triple their birthweight by 1 year. By age two, they are about ½ their adult height (!) and ¼ their adult weight.

3 Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 5 Body Changes ALL: INES YVETTE LARAYA ERESE

4 Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 5 Body Changes (cont.) Percentile ranks: allow comparisons of an individual infant to group norms A sudden drop in percentile rank might indicate a developmental problem. Head Sparing: in cases of inadequate nutrition, the brain keeps growing

5 Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 5 The Wonderful World of SLEEP Newborns sleep 17+ hours a day. DAVID YOUNG-WOLFF / PHOTOEDIT, INC.

6 Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 5 Infant Sleep (cont.) Infants gradually adjust to the familys sleep schedule. 80% of 1 year olds sleep through the night Sleep cycles are influenced by brain maturation, diet, child-rearing practices, and birth order

7 Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 5 Make It Real: Co-Sleeping Some families practice co-sleeping, in which the family shares a bed. Why might a family do this? Do you think it could benefit or harm an infant?

8 Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 5 Research on Co-Sleeping CULTURE influences the decision (it is more common in Eastern culture) It is not harmful to an infant, under normal circumstances (e.g., if adult is not drunk) It may increase dependence on parents

9 Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 5 Brain Development Brain development during infancy is fascinating and rapid. By the age of 2, the brain is 75% its adult weight Neural connections in the brain also develop

10 Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 5

11 Brain Development (cont.) Regional specialization: neurons in certain areas of the brain correspond to different tasks Examples: language, vision, smell, emotional processing, recognizing faces vs. objects, etc.

12 Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 5 The Developing Cortex

13 Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 5 Brain Development (cont.) Transient exuberance: rapid proliferation of new neural connections in infancy As many as 15,000 new connections per neuron and 100 trillion synapses by age 2! Pruning makes the brain more efficient by eliminating underused connections.

14 Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 5

15 What influences early brain development? Brain development is influenced by maturation and experiences. Experience-expectant brain functions require basic common experiences. Example: No matter where an infant lives, he or she hears sounds and language.

16 Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 5 What influences early brain development? (cont.) Experience-dependent brain functions depend on exposure to particular events. Example: The particular sounds and language heard (and learned) varies across infants. Example: The development of impulse control depends on both maturation and practice.

17 Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 5 Why are neural connections so important? A certain level of neural connections indicate healthy brain development. Lack of connections may result from child abuse or neglect early in life, and can have lasting consequences. Example: Infants in orphanages

18 Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 5 Make it Real: Activities Make a list of toys and activities that can stimulate healthy brain development in the first two years of life. PHOTODISC

19 Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 5 Implications for Caregivers Is it possible to overstimulate an infant? YES! The key is to follow the infants lead Self-righting: an infants inborn drive to use whatever experiences available to develop the brain (wow!)

20 Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 5 Infant Senses All five senses function at birth Vision, hearing, taste, touch, smell Perception (the brains processing of the sensation) develops over time.

21 Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 5 Infant Senses (cont.) Hearing: is well developed at birth Infants respond to sudden noises, human voice, phonemes of language Vision: is the least mature sense at birth Bionocular vision develops around 14 weeks Adult vision (20/20) by one year

22 Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 5 Infant Senses (cont.) Taste, touch, smell function well at birth All: CINDY CHARLES / PHOTOEDIT, INC.

23 Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 5 Motor Skills Motor skills develop according to two principles: Cephalocaudal: growth proceeds from head- to-toe (e.g., head lift before sit, stand, walk) Proximal-distal: growth proceeds from torso outward (e.g., sucking before kicking)

24 Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 5 Motor Skills (cont.) Reflexes account for the first motor skills. Survival reflexes include sucking, breathing, body temperature. Other reflexes include the Babinski, Moro, and stepping reflexes.

25 Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 5 Infant Reflexes JENNY WOODCOCK; REFLECTIONS PHOTOLIBRARY / CORBIS PETIT FORMAT / PHOTO RESEARCHERS, INC. ASTIER / BSIP / SCIENCE SOURCE / PHOTO RESEARCHERS, INC.

26 Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 5 Make it Real: Motor Skills At what age do you think most infants learn to walk? What about you? PHOTODISC

27 Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 5

28 Motor Skills (cont.) Gross motor skills involve large muscle movements. Examples: crawling, sitting, walking Walking typically occurs around 12 months, with great variability across infants. Walking requires muscle strength, brain maturation, and practice.

29 Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 5 Motor Skills (cont.) Fine motor skills involve small muscle movements. Examples: learning to grasp, shake, pull an object, hold a spoon, write, draw, etc. Motor skills are influenced by genes, culture, and patterns of infant care.

30 Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 5 Public Health Measures Infant survival rates have increased significantly in the past century, due to better nutrition, cleaner water, and immunization. Although not without controversy, immunization has been hailed as a major achievement (e.g., significantly reducing polio, small pox, measles).

31 Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 5

32 Sudden Infant Death Syndrome SIDS is infant death of an unknown cause. Protective factors (although not a guarantee) include: NO cigarette smoke in house, noise and touch during sleep, breast feeding, sleeping on back


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