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Child Development Theory and Milestones.

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Presentation on theme: "Child Development Theory and Milestones."— Presentation transcript:

1 Child Development Theory and Milestones

2 Importance of Early Years
Conception to age six is the key to subsequent Growth Development Productivity

3 Developmental Needs Infants need: Protection from physical danger
Adequate nutrition Adequate health care Adults with whom to form an attachment Adults who understand and respond to their signals Things to look at, touch, hear, smell, and taste Opportunities to explore the world Appropriate language stimulation                                                    Donohue-Colletta, 1992

4 Developmental Needs Toddlers need all of the above and:
Support in acquiring new motor, language, and thinking skills A chance to develop some independence Help in learning how to control their behavior Opportunities to begin to learn to care for themselves Daily opportunities to play with a variety of objects                                               Donohue-Colletta, 1992

5 Developmental Needs Preschoolers need all of the above and:
Opportunities to develop and refine fine motor skills Encouragement of language through talking, singing, books Activities which will develop a positive sense of mastery Opportunities to learn cooperation, helping, sharing Experimentation with pre-writing and pre-reading skills                                           Donohue-Colletta, 1992

6 Child Development Principles
Development begins prenatally and learning is occurring at birth Development has several interrelated dimensions Children are active participants in their own development and learning Development proceeds in predictable steps and learning occurs in recognized sequences, within which there is a great deal of individual and social variability Development and learning occur continuously through interactions with people and objects in the environment The Consultative Group on Early Childhood Care and Development

7 Rethinking the Brain Old Thinking New Thinking
How a brain develops depends on the genes you were born with New Thinking How a brain develops hinges on a complex interplay between the genes you are born with and the experiences you have Direct quotes from Shore, 1997 as cited in the Early Years Study, Final Report, 1999

8 Rethinking the Brain Old Thinking New Thinking
The experiences you have before age three have a limited impact on future development New Thinking Early experiences have a decisive impact on the architecture of the brain, and on the nature and extent of adult capacities Direct quotes from Shore, 1997 as cited in the Early Years Study, Final Report, 1999

9 Rethinking the Brain Old Thinking New Thinking
A secure relationship with a primary caregiver creates a favorable context for early development and learning New Thinking Early interactions don’t just create the context, they directly affect the way the brain is “wired.” Direct quotes from Shore, 1997 as cited in the Early Years Study, Final Report, 1999

10 Rethinking the Brain Old Thinking New Thinking
Brain development is linear: the brain’s capacity to learn and change grows steadily as an infant progresses towards adulthood New Thinking Brain development is non-linear: there are prime times for acquiring different kinds of knowledge and skills Direct quotes from Shore, 1997 as cited in the Early Years Study, Final Report, 1999

11 Rethinking the Brain Old Thinking New Thinking
A toddler’s brain is much less active than the brain of a college student New Thinking By the time children reach age three, their brains are twice as active as those of adults. Activity levels drop during adolescence. Direct quotes from Shore, 1997 as cited in the Early Years Study, Final Report, 1999

12 Brain Development Facts
Development taking place before age one is more rapid and extensive than once thought Development is much more vulnerable to environmental influences than suspected Carnegie Corporation of New York, 1994

13 Brain Development Facts, continued
Early environment has long-lasting influences on brain development Environmental influences are not limited to number of brain cells and connections among them, also the way connections are “wired” Carnegie Corporation of New York, 1994

14 The Newborn Maintain life sustaining functions Habituate Taste See
Supply oxygen Root, suck, and swallow (reflexive) Sneeze, cough, blink (reflexive) Regulation of body temperature Elimination of waste Habituate Taste See Hear Other reflexes (e.g., Moro, grasp)

15 The Kindergartner Beginning Kindergartner’s Knowledge and Skills
Reading proficiency Print familiarity Engagement in prosocial behavior Approaches to learning Print familiarity includes knowing that print reads left to right, where to go when a line of print ends, and where the story ends Prosocial behavior – accept peer ideas, form friendships, comforts others Approaches to learning – persists at tasks, eager to learn, pays attention U. S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of

16 SO What concepts and skills enable children to move from the reflexive stage of infancy to the stage of a kindergartner?

17 Principles and Patterns of Development
highly competent socially interactive active learners sequence is universal skills become more specialized plasticity critical learning periods transitions occur individual differences are seen in children

18 Composition skills complexity fluidity/quality
Developmental Patterns – cephalocaudal, proximodistal, refinement

19 Developmental areas motor language cognition social
activities of daily living (adaptive)

20 Motor Development Components Tonicity Stability/mobility
flexion extension adduction abduction internal rotation external rotation Tonicity Stability/mobility Movement qualities reflexive movements goal directed movements

21 Language Development Components of language Early language development
syntax semantics pragmatics morphology phonology Early language development perlocutionary illocutionary locutionary Refinement of language

22 Cognitive Development
Sensorimotor period of development Pre-operational period of development

23 Social Development Attachment Peer relationships Play
initial pre-attachment attachment-in-the-making clear-cut attachment multiple attachments Peer relationships Play

24 Activities of daily living (Adaptive skill development)
Eating and drinking Toileting Self-help skills

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