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Chapter 5: Understanding Children Birth-Age 2. LEQ 1.What is the physical development of children in the first 2 years after birth? 2.How do children.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 5: Understanding Children Birth-Age 2. LEQ 1.What is the physical development of children in the first 2 years after birth? 2.How do children."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 5: Understanding Children Birth-Age 2

2 LEQ 1.What is the physical development of children in the first 2 years after birth? 2.How do children develop cognitively in the first 2 years after birth? 3.How do children in the first 2 years after birth develop socially and emotionally?

3 Physical Development: Size & Shape Average infant weight at birth is 7 ½ pounds 5 months later, the infant will have doubled his weight. By 1 year the typical child weighs 22 lbs The infant’s length also changes rapidly. The average newborn measures 20 inches. At 1 year, the infant usually is inches. There are weight and height differences between boys & girls. Most boys reach a bout half of their adult height by 2. Girls will have passed their halfway mark by 2.

4 SIDS Childcare providers who serve infants must be knowledgeable about SIDS. Keeping up to date with state guidelines and recommendations is essentail. When caring for infants, always Place infants on their backs to sleep. Provide a firm brib covered by a sheet Keep soft materials such as comforters, pillows, and stuffed toys out of the crib Make sure the sleeping area is a comfortable temperature to keep infants from becoming overheated.

5 Discuss: What changes can be expected in an infant’s sleep habits during the first year? What changes in diet can be expected?

6 Physical Development: Size & Shape Average infant weight at birth is 7 ½ pounds 5 months later, the infant will have doubled his weight. By 1 year the typical child weighs 22 lbs The infant’s length also changes rapidly. The average newborn measures 20 inches. At 1 year, the infant usually is inches. There are weight and height differences between boys & girls. Most boys reach a bout half of their adult height by 2. Girls will have passed their halfway mark by 2.

7 Physical Development: Size & Shape Average infant weight at birth is 7 ½ pounds 5 months later, the infant will have doubled his weight. By 1 year the typical child weighs 22 lbs The infant’s length also changes rapidly. The average newborn measures 20 inches. At 1 year, the infant usually is inches. There are weight and height differences between boys & girls. Most boys reach a bout half of their adult height by 2. Girls will have passed their halfway mark by 2.

8 Reflexes Sucking reflex-helps infant obtain food for survival. Rooting reflex-causes infants to turn their heads toard anything that brushes their face. This helps them find a food source such as a nipple. Moro reflex-AKA the startle reflex. The infant will fling arms and legs outward, then quickly draw arms together and cry. Usually disappears by 6 months. Palmar grasp reflex-grasp reflex when you touch infant’s palms. Babinski reflex-present at birth to babies born full term. Stroke the sole of the foot on the outside from the heel to the toe. The toes will fan out and curl and the foot twists in. Lasts for the first year. Stepping or walking reflex-when an infant is held so the feet are flat on a surface, the infant will life one foot after another in a stepping motion. This reflex usually disappears 2-3 months after birth. Infants learn to voluntarily step later in the first year.

9 Infant Reflexes video clip jnQhno3LA4 jnQhno3LA4 Discuss: What is the difference between survival and primitive reflexes? Which reflexes disappear with age? Why is it so important for doctors to test infants for the reflexes?

10 Worksheet: Reflexes

11 Motor Sequence The order in which an infant/toddler is able to perform movements. In the first months, head and trunk control develops. Infant can lift his head up and can watch a moving object from side to side. By 4-5 months an infant can roll over usually from front to back first. 4-6 sit upright. The infant needs to strengthen neck and back muscles to do this.

12 Motor Sequence cont. Gradually infants can sit up. After this crawling is the next skill. Crawling vs. creeping. Creeping is what we commonly k now as crawling. Crawling occurs when the infant’s abdomen is on the floor. Hitching happens next Creeping walking

13 Worksheet: Motor Sequences

14 Hand movements At first hand movements are reflexive. 3-4 months infants swipe at objects. They cannot grasp objects because they close their hands too early or too late. By 9 months hand-eye coordination improves and infants can pick up objects. 16 months-scribbling simple figures and lines 2 years-shows preference for hand

15 Activity In pairs of 2, survey toy catalogs, educational equipment catalogs and parenting magazines to locate appropriate toys to aid in an infant’s motor development. What materials are recommended for gross motor skills? What are the recommendations for developing fine motor skills. The pairs will share with the large group.

16 Cognitive Development in the first 2 years At birth most movement is reflexes. As they grow, they begin to make things happen for themselves. 2 main forces influence a child’s cognitive development: heredity and environment. Heredity determines when a child’s brain and senses will be mature enough to learn certain skills. Environment affects it because children need opportunities to use their senses and try new things. As caregivers, you need to provide the environment that allows children to develop into their full potential intellectually. Discuss: Give an example of a positive environmental effect on a child’s cognitive development. Give an example of heredity that may negatively impact a child’s cognitive development.

17 Birth-3 months Newborn’s vision is blurry at birth. Infants appear to focus on objects in the center of their vision field. Near vision is better developed than far sight. Studies show infants will gaze longer at patterned objects such as checks and stripes. They seem to prefer bold colors to pastels. They pay more attention to faces than objects.

18 Birth-3 months cont. Infants tend to shift their attention to the face as they get older. Hearing also develops early. From birth, infants will turn their heads toward a source of sound. They are startled by loud noises. Infants do not distinguish between themselves and the objects around them. They experiment with reflex actions.

19 3-6 months Infants start to focus on their surroundings. By 6 months, infants can distinguish between familiar and unfamiliar faces. They also start to learn that they can touch, shake and hit objects they see. And that they may make sounds Memory, foresight and self awareness are all developing.

20 3-6 months cont. 3-6 month olds start to show judgment. Infants respond to noise and will look around to explore sources of noise. Vocalization increases at this age. Infants respond to new ways to touch. Think with their senses and movements. Body awareness begins to develop between 5-6 months.

21 6-9 months

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