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Presentation on theme: "I MPACT OF INDUSTRIALISATION AND URBANISATION ON ENVIRONMENT Essay questions."— Presentation transcript:


2 AL-2005 With reference to the Hong Kong SAR, describe the impact of smog on the local economy. Discuss how rapid urbanization and industrialization of the Zhujiang (Pearl River) Delta region have contributed to the recent formation of smog in Hong Kong. Evaluate measures taken by the relevant authorities to alleviate the problem of cross-border air pollution.

3 I MPACT OF SMOG ON LOCAL ECONOMY Reducing visibility in turn affecting navigation and air transport Adding a psychological blackspot for the city in the minds of investors and tourists Making plants more susceptible to disease, pests and environmental stresses Affecting health, especially children, the elderly and those with respiratory and cardiac conditions Increasing in medical expenses, loss of working time due to illnesses, absenteeism

4 F ORMATION OF SMOG Rapid industrialization and urbanization in ZRD Great demand for power due to Higher income level and living standard Higher no. of vehicles Prosper industrial activities Increase electricity production from coal-burning plants Frequent cross-border traffic Frequent smog results from high concentration of SO (London-type) and No x and vapour (LA-type)

5 O THER FACTORS LEADING TO SMOG Climatic factors Temperature inversion Strong sunlight Light northerly winds Urban heat island effect Local factors Prevailing winds carry pollutants from power plants in HK to urban areas VOC emissions Topography of NW New Territories Heavy road traffic in urban areas

6 M EASURES Introduction of sulphur-free and less polluting biofuel for cross-border vehicles Restirct the entry of dirty-fuel vehicles across the border Reduce motor vehicle emissions through speeding up the tightening of motor fuel and vehicle emission standards in PRDR Regional cooperation is essential Tradable emission credits scheme

7 AL-2005 In some large cities, support for the strategies of converting municipal solid waste into industrial raw materials has come from entrepreneurs, environmental groups, individuals and the governments. Why is it desirable to promote the strategies of converting municipal solid waste into industrial raw materials? Citing examples, discuss how these strategies may affect the location of industries using these materials. What difficulties may be encountered by industrialists should these strategies be implemented?

8 R EASONS FOR THE NEED TO CONVERT SOLID WASTE TO RM Depletion of raw materials in the future Competition for raw materials may result in higher cost of production Lots of municipal solid waste contain valuable recycling materials Enables business and community sustainability Creates more jobs in the long run Helps to solve environmental problems caused by waste disposal

9 I MPACT ON INDUSTRIAL LOCATION Move to large urban areas with largest amount of MSW due to Higher living standard Better community education work Move to designated areas due to Government incentives to integrate contracts for waste and recycling services More capital for the setting up of recycling industries Move to break-of-bulk points where local and overseas solid waste can be available

10 D IFFICULTIES ENCOUNTERED Increase cost of production Complicated procedures in collecting solid wates, sorting and refining Recycled RM are usually more expensive High cost of changing industrial techniques Supply of RM may not be stable and reliable Quality of RM may not be guaranteed Hazardous waste may be incorporated and thus lowering of the quality of finished products

11 AL-2001 Greening of a city is the process of building a clean city from the viewpoint of energy efficiency, resource conservation, and environmental protection. What are the possible benefits of greening a city? Discuss and explain the conditions favouring the greening process. Evaluate the possibilities and difficulties in achieving the purpose of greening in Hong Kong.

12 P OSSIBLE BENEFITS ON ENERGY EFFICIENCY using high level of insulation, high performance windows, and tight construction in cold regions, double window glazing can help to save energy design buildings to use renewable energy like solar heating and natural cooling. Solar water heating can save a lot of energy it can reduce the use of energy consumption. Everyone inside the green city will try to minimize the energy consumption like switch off unused lights, air-conditioners etc. people will travel by mass transport systems e.g. buses, trains. In this way, a lot of energy will be saved. There will be no more problem of energy crisis. high-efficiency heating and cooling equipment can be installed high-efficiency lights and appliances can also be installed

13 P OSSIBLE BENEFITS ON RESOURCE CONSERVATION water-conserving toilets and showerheads reduce water use avoid excessive packaging, such as plastic- wrapped plumbing fixtures in building the city buildings should be located to provide access to public transportation, bicycle paths, walking access to basic services

14 P OSSIBLE BENEFITS ON ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION planting hedge rows and shrubs can block cold winter winds or help channel cool summer breezes into buildings use durable products and materials in building because they contribute less to solid waste problems the greening of a city involves the growing of different types of vegetation.

15 F AVOURABLE CONDITIONS FOR GREENING Land conditions There should be a new land on which large scale town planning can start on or an already existing land on which town planning can be started bit by bit. Social conditions Citizens should be educated and have knowledge on environmental protection. They should be willing to take actions. Political conditions The government should be stable enough to undertake any reform concerning the environment. If there is political instability, the government will be busy to tackle problems like negotiation with other countries. There will be no time and effort to do anything for the goodness of the environment. Economic conditions The city should be rich enough to promote the greening idea because many facilities involve cost like installation of energy-efficient heating & cooling equipment. planting of trees and flowers also involve money promoting the idea of greening through mass media requires considerable expenditure Other conditions The greening process also requires the support of infrastructure like public transportation.

16 P OSSIBILITIES AND DIFFICULTIES OF GREENING IN HONG KONG Possibilities vacant land available e.g. in Northern District, Kai Tak the process has advantages e.g. building houses for the public. acceptable costs Hong Kong is rather politically stable There is laissez faire in HK so private developers have more freedom. Difficulties social unrest if land needs to be given back to government HK is a small place, so not enough land for redevelopment e.g. Wanchai, Yau Ma Tei Poor environmental concern for the public HK still has a lot of unemployment, so government should tackle this problem first, not only environmental problems.

17 CCSC M OCK 2009 Air and water are two important elements of sustenance. As a result of affluence, growth and technology, a city generates more waste or residuals than the government can handle. Pollution of air and water poses a recognized problem. With reference to Zhujiang Delta Region, discuss how urbanization and industrialization will cause pollution of air and water and their impact on the environment. Explain why the HKSAR government would seek the cooperation of neighbouring regions in solving these problems.

18 E VIDENCE OF AIR AND WATER POLLUTION IN PRD rapid urbanization and industrialization leads to the formation of large cities in the PRD, e.g. Guangzhou, Dongguan, Shenzhen, Zhuhai over-concentration of population and economic activities creates lots of environmental problems which are evident by no. of smoky days with low visibility, high quantity of suspended particulates, formation of smog, high amount of bacteria in Shenzhen River and Zhu Jiang River

19 A IR POLLUTION IN PRD more air pollutants, e.g. carbon dioxides, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons, photochemical oxidants, respirable suspended particulates, metal, other organic and inorganic compounds (VOC) more fuel / energy consumption from automobiles, industrial activities, business activities high population density, more high-rise buildings and narrow roads prevent the dispersal of air pollutants in the city Urbanization causes great demand for land. City expands in the form of various urban development processes like suburbanization (setting up of new towns), urban encroachment and rural-urban migration. Land expansion is done by the cutting of trees, reclamation & cutting of slopes Large reduction in the no. of trees and green areas means lowering the ability to absorb excessive carbon dioxide derived from industrial and urban activities and to regulate city temperature, causing air pollution and urban heat island effect frequent cross-border traffic worsens the air quality as entry of dirty-fuel vehicles into northwest HK across the border is possible

20 W ATER POLLUTION IN PRD illegal dumping of wastes into the river is common some water-demanding industries are also water- polluting industries, e.g. bleaching and dyeing factories, textile and clothing industries water is used as cooling agent in manufacturing process but it causes thermal pollution industrial development increases demand for sewage treatment facilities in the PRD, causing financial difficulties of local government therefore, sewage is untreated and directly dumped into the river occasional drought in the PRD also accelerates salt tide, causing retreat of seawater in the rivers

21 W HY IS REGIONAL COOPERATION NECESSARY ? air and water pollution is not a local issue but a regional issue cross-border cooperation is necessary and more effective to solve the air and water pollution problems as both governments should be responsible for the problems environmental policies should be consistent to avoid double standard, e.g. the tightening of motor fuel and vehicle emission stardards in the PRD some factories in the PRD are actually Hong Kong enterprises implementation of policies requires the cooperation between Hong Kong and China, e.g. restrict the entry of dirty-fuel vehicles across the border cross-border cooperation can facilitate technical exchanges and workshops on topics of air quality monitoring and pollution control between Hong Kong and China government officials both areas can carry out tradable emissions credits scheme water quality in Shenzhen River can be improved by both governments as it is located at the boundary between Hong Kong and China water quality in China is important to Hong Kong due to import of drinking water from Dong Jiang to Hong Kong


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