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history has no interest ! ICE Quality © Cyril Grandpierre 2013 1 history has no interest, we are building the future Henry Ford.° This shows that a genius can also say stupidities. We will study how to improve ourselves, that is to say not to repeat our mistakes. History is the only way to avoid to repeat the mistakes of the others.° Why use the past to prepare the future ? Because it is the only one reference we have. James Burke.
ICE Quality © Cyril Grandpierre 2013 2 Quality tools : the beginning. -Social psychology -Quality management Everything began during the years 1920 in the Western Electric Manufacturing Company in Hawthorne, Chicago Because they had to produce the most complicated product ever designed.° All the classical methods failed.
Quality tools. Once upon a time ! ICE Quality © Cyril Grandpierre 2013 3 Once upon a time......in the years 1880 in Kansas City, Almon Strowger was operating a funeral company. When one of his friend died, he was very astonish to see his widow asking his competitor to do the job. Asking her the reason, she told him that she phoned to his company and was also very surprised to see the competitor doing the job. Almon made his investigation....
Quality tools. Once upon a time ! ICE Quality © Cyril Grandpierre 2013 4... and found that his competitors wife was employed as telephone operator by the telephone company of the town. competitors wife At that time the connections were manually done by operators, and this lady used to connect the customers asking for Almons company directly to her husband. He was absolutely upset and furious about that and decided to come back to school and to study electricity and mechanics, to get the knowledge to get his revenge.
Quality tools. Once upon a time ! ICE Quality © Cyril Grandpierre 2013 5 So in 1891 he invented the first automatic telephone commutator. Years later the patents were sold to the Bell Systems Company. The first system was made for 99 users, and needed hundreds of relays. It was at that time the most complicate product ever built by a company. He created a company to use the patent and develop improvements. The Stroger Automatic Telephone Exchange company covered the world with his invention. Then the next generation needed tens of thousands of relays…. And the problems began ….
Quality tools – a little history. ICE Quality © Cyril Grandpierre 2013 6 Everything began during the years 1920 in the Western Electric Manufacturing Company in Hawthorne, Chicago
Quality tools – a little history. ICE Quality © Cyril Grandpierre 2013 7 Elton Mayo invented there the test room. social psychology and anthropology of the work place. Establishing that the performance of employees is influenced by their surroundings and by the people that they are working with as much as by their own abilities.° Western Electric Manufacturing Company in Hawthorne, Chicago Frederick Taylor used his famous method there. How individual's performances could be improved.°
Quality tools – a little history. ICE Quality © Cyril Grandpierre 2013 8 1924: Walter Shewhart invented the control chart and the statistical analysis. A process is under control or not. Western Electric Manufacturing Company in Hawthorne, Chicago
Quality tools – a little history. ICE Quality © Cyril Grandpierre 2013 9 Walter Shewhart invented the control chart and the statistical analysis. Western Electric Manufacturing Company in Hawthorne, Chicago They were Americans but without great success in America. So they went in Japan with their wheels and changed the world. Joseph Juran invented the quality insurance. And Edwards Deming invented the wheel.
Quality tools – a little history. ICE Quality © Cyril Grandpierre 2013 10 Germans used their U boote to sink the allied merchants ships used to supply England.° The two Atlantic battles° Battle 1 = allied war ships against Germans U bootes. Battle 2 = build hundreds of merchant ships in US when the shipyards were used to build war ships, the workers were used as soldiers.
Quality tools – a little history. ICE Quality © Cyril Grandpierre 2013 11 Henry Kaiser He was an apprentice photographer early in life.. …started a construction company... …founded a paving company, the first to use heavy construction machinery. In 1931 his firm was the prime contractor in building the Hoover Dam on the Colorado River, and others … … and created a shipyard near Seattle at the beginning of the war. Then a second … a dozen.° He visited the Henry Ford factory and got the idea to build big ships like a car.° He hired a young technician in shipbuilding Elmer Hann.° Elmer Hann created the technique to build a ship like a car, using women and old people as workers.° And became Production manager of the shipyard.
Quality tools – a little history. ICE Quality © Cyril Grandpierre 2013 12 One of the many Kaiser shipyards.
Quality tools – a little history. ICE Quality © Cyril Grandpierre 2013 13 The liberty ships. Kaise and Hann built 2751 identical copies.
Quality tools – a little history. ICE Quality © Cyril Grandpierre 2013 14 Swan Island in Portland, OregonPortlandOregon Total building time of a ship from 230 to 45 days (average) and 25 days (minimum). From keel laying to launching. Record : The SS Robert Peary in 1942. 4 days 15 hours 30 minutes.
Quality tools – a little history. ICE Quality © Cyril Grandpierre 2013 15 After the war Elmer Hann had a vision of a fleet of giants merchant ships built like that. He rented the biggest Japanese shipyard of KURE. ° In the contract the Japanese required the building of a university there for naval engineers.° The KURE naval private university = the tool to become world leader.
Quality tools – a little history. ICE Quality © Cyril Grandpierre 2013 16 William Edwards Deming Worked during the war to improve the quality of the weapons industry. But the Americans were more interested by mass production than quality production. After the war General Mac Arthur had to restart the Japanese industry. He began by firing all the old guys and promoted young open minded engineers. And ask Deming, the Juran to help them. Deming spent 10 years there and became the most popular foreign hero in Japan. Isahi SHINTO his Japanese disciple became the director of the KURE naval private university. (then CEO of KURE then president of IHI) And 30 years later Japan got 55% of world market share and a productivity 3 to 4 times higher than in Europe or America. William Deming was the first non Japanese to get an award from the emperor. Joseph Juran the second and Elmer Hann the third..
Quality tools – a little history. ICE Quality © Cyril Grandpierre 2013 17 I had the privilege to study at the KURE naval private university in1985. 3 years later, CEO of a company producing industrial laundry machines. Within few months, the time to produce a big machine (factory work) went from 5 weeks to 3 days. The time to send back a delivery confirmation to customer (administrative paper work) from 3 weeks to 1 day. So it works also in France with French workers. AlRawdatainLaCiotat
Quality tools – a little history. ICE Quality © Cyril Grandpierre 2013 18 Japanese industry 1950 : struggle to survive. 1960 : development. 1970 : conquered the world. And became world leader in shipbuilding (why ?) electronics motor bikes and car second photography music instruments watches machine tools and robots construction civil equipment etc... 1980 : if they can do it, we must do it. But how did they succeed ? The quality concepts went back to US and Europe.
Classical Quality tools ICE Quality © Cyril Grandpierre 2013 19 -SMED Single Minute Exchange of Die -KANBAN -POKA YOKE -TOTAL MAINTENANCE -VISUAL MANAGEMENT -Cause & Effect Diagram of ISHIKAWA -CEDAC Cause & Effect Diagram with Addition of Cards -QFD Quality function deployment -AMDEC (Analyse des modes de défaillance, de leurs effets et de leur criticité) -SPC Statistical process control -ZERO DEFECT -DFM Design for manufacturability -JIT JUST IN TIME -ZERO MUDA -5 WHY -5 S Seiri, Seiton, Seiso, Seiketsu, Shitsuké. -6 sigma (failure rate of 3.4 parts per million or 99.9997% perfect) -Lean manufacturing -........
Classical Quality tools ICE Quality © Cyril Grandpierre 2013 20 -Quality circles -Self control -Timing -Machine capability -cumulative frequency curve -Pareto -Check lists -Write the process description -... as many as you want.... Obvious but it doesnt always work !... If you do not look what is behind the curtain.
Useful in everyday life ! ICE Quality © Cyril Grandpierre 2013 21 Set in order means : -to hide in the nearest drawer. -to move a bit. -to let it where I used it last time. -to put in a place where everyone looking for it can find it. Where did I put : -my keys -my bag -my mobile phone (could you call me ?) -my pills -my wallet -my spectacles -my iPad (new) -etc... every morning, every day, a lifetime. With the Quality tools, you discover that the decision to loose an object is taken when you still have it in hand.
Little work for next time ICE Quality © Cyril Grandpierre 2013 22 Guaranty cost (in % of the price of the machine) for the same product (washing machine 22Kg) in different subsidiaries. Average on 3 years: Germany3,9% UK3,7% Italy2,7% Austria2,2% Finland2,1% Japan 1,5% Sweden1,3% France 1,1% Denmark1,0% Explain … Customer
Quality tools : Useful in everyday life !
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