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Chapter 1 Introduction to Organizational BehaviorJohn M. Ivancevich Michael T. Matteson Slides Prepared by Bruce R. Barringer University of Central Florida © McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1999
Learning Objectives Slide 1 of 2Discuss the importance of human resources to organizational success. Describe the disciplines that have contributed to the field of organizational behavior. Discuss the importance of understanding behavior in organizations. © McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1999
Learning Objectives Slide 2 of 2Explain the goal approach to defining and measuring effectiveness. Explain the relationship between quality and organizational effectiveness. © McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1999
Forces Reshaping the Process of ManagementPower of Human Resources Cultural Diversity Globalization Employer- Employee Rapid Change New Psychological Contract © McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1999
The Origins of Management Slide 1 of 3Early History of Management Early on, management was a process of trial and error with little or no theory and virtually no sharing of ideas or practices. Industrial Revolution in England The period between 1700 and 1785 is referred to as the Industrial Revolution in England. © McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1999
The Origins of Management Slide 2 of 3Industrialization in the U.S. A new industrial era begin in the U.S. around the time of the Civil War (early 1860s). Managers attempted to better plan, organize, and control the work of their organizations. Scientific Management Frederick Taylor applied scientific methods to jobs in an attempt to maximize the output of workers. © McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1999
The Origins of Management Slide 3 of 3Henri Fayol Developed the first comprehensive statement of a general theory of management. Defined the functions of management as planning, leading, organizing, commanding, coordination, and controlling. © McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1999
The Functions of ManagementPlanning Coordinating Commanding Organizing Controlling © McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1999
Fayol’s Contribution to the Field of ManagementManagement is a separate body of knowledge that can be applied in any type of organization A theory of management can be learned and taught There is a need for teaching management in colleges © McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1999
The Importance of Studying Organizational Behavior (OB) Slide 1 of 2OB is a way of thinking. OB is multidisciplinary. There is a distinctly humanistic orientation with OB. The field of OB is performance oriented. The external environment is seen as having significant impact on OB. © McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1999
The Importance of Studying Organizational Behavior (OB) Slide 2 of 2Since the field of OB relies heavily on recognized disciplines, the role of the scientific method is deemed important in studying variables and relationships. The field has a distinctive applications orientation. © McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1999
The Hawthorne Studies Slide 1 of 2Illumination Study at Western Electric Plant Uncovered the “Hawthorne Effect” Workers felt important because someone was observing and studying them at work. Thus, they produced more because they were observed and studied. Bank Wiring Room Study Discovered that the behavior of an individual worker is modified by the influence of his or her work group. © McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1999
The Hawthorne Studies Slide 2 of 2Overall Conclusions Economic rewards don’t totally explain worker behavior. Workers respond to: Group norms Social pressures Observation © McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1999
© McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1999Exhibit 1.2: Topics in Studying and Understanding Organizational Behavior The Field of Organizational Behavior Chapters 1 and 2 Environment Environment Part II Understanding and Managing Individual Differences Chapters 3-7 Part III Group Behavior and Interpersonal Influence Chapters 8-10 Part IV Organizational Processes Chapters 11-14 Part V Issues in Organizational Design, Change, and Innovation Chapters 15-16 © McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1999
Framing the Study of Organizational BehaviorThe Individual in the Organization Interpersonal Influence and Group Behavior The Organization’s Environment Understanding individual behavior is critical for effective management Interpersonal influence and group behavior are also powerful forces Every organization must respond to the needs of its environment © McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1999
Organizational Structure and Design Slide 1 of 2Structure of the Organization The structure of the organization refers to the components of the organization and how these components fit together. Job Design Refers to the processes by which managers specify the contents, methods, and relationships of jobs and specific task assignments to satisfy both organizational and individual needs. © McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1999
Organizational Structure and Design Slide 2 of 2Organizational Processes A number of behavioral processes contribute to effective organizational performance including leadership, communication, decision making, and organizational change and development. © McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1999
Effectiveness in OrganizationsThe Goal Approach In the view of this approach, an organization exists to accomplish goals. The Systems Approach Systems theory enables you to describe the behavior of organizations both internally and externally. © McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1999
Exhibit 1.4: The Basic Elements of a SystemProcess Inputs Outputs Environment © McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1999
© McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1999Systems Theory Two Main Conclusions Effectiveness criteria must reflect the entire input-process-output cycle, not simply output. Effectiveness criteria must reflect the interrelationships between the organization and its outside environment. © McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1999
Exhibit 1.5: Time Dimension Model of EffectivenessQuality Quality Quality Productivity Efficiency Satisfaction Adaptiveness Development Survival Short run Intermediate run Long run © McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1999
Criteria for EffectivenessProductivity Quality Satisfaction Development Efficiency Adaptiveness © McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1999
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