Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Design for Construction Safety (DfCS) 2 to 4 Hour Course Design for Construction Safety (DfCS) 2 to 4 Hour Course.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Design for Construction Safety (DfCS) 2 to 4 Hour Course Design for Construction Safety (DfCS) 2 to 4 Hour Course."— Presentation transcript:

1 Design for Construction Safety (DfCS) 2 to 4 Hour Course Design for Construction Safety (DfCS) 2 to 4 Hour Course

2 WHAT IS DESIGNING FOR CONSTRUCTION SAFETY? The process of addressing construction site safety and health, and planning for future maintenance in the design phase of a project.

3 WHY IS IT NECESSARY? Currently there are no requirements for construction safety in building codes Currently there are no requirements for construction safety in building codes IBC Chapter 33 Safeguards During Construction-Pedestrian Safety IBC Chapter 33 Safeguards During Construction-Pedestrian Safety

4 OSHA 1926-Engineering Controls 1926.452 Scaffolds 1926.452 Scaffolds 1926.502 Fall Protection Anchorages 1926.502 Fall Protection Anchorages 1926.552 Hoists 1926.552 Hoists 1926.652 Excavations 1926.652 Excavations 1926.703 Shoring 1926.703 Shoring 1926.705 Lift Slabs 1926.705 Lift Slabs

5 DfCS Process 1 -Its a Team Concept Design Kickoff Design Internal Review Issue for Construction External Review Trade contractor involvement Establish design for safety expectations Include construction and operation perspective Identify design for safety process and tools QA/QC Cross- discipline review Focused safety review Owner review 1 Gambatese

6 U.S. Construction Accident Statistics 1 Nearly 200,000 serious injuries and 1,226 deaths each year Nearly 200,000 serious injuries and 1,226 deaths each year 5.5% of workforce but 21.5% of fatalities 5.5% of workforce but 21.5% of fatalities Construction has one of the highest fatality rates of any industry sector Construction has one of the highest fatality rates of any industry sector 1 Bureau of Labor Statistics-2006

7 CONSTRUCTION ACCIDENTS IN U.S. 1 1 Photos courtesy of Washington Group International

8 CONSTRUCTION FATALITIES BY OCCUPATION 1 Total fatalities 1,226 Total fatalities 1,226 Construction laborers 360 Construction laborers 360 Electricians 117 Electricians 117 Carpenters 114 Carpenters 114 First Line supervisors 113 First Line supervisors 113 Roofers 82 Roofers 82 Painters and paper hangers 54 Painters and paper hangers 54 Structural steel 36 Structural steel 36 1 BLS,2006

9 MOST FREQUENTLY CITED/HIGHEST PENALTY OSHA VIOLATIONS IN CONSTRUCTION 1 Scaffolding 29 CFR 1926.451 Scaffolding 29 CFR 1926.451 Fall Protection 29 CFR 1926.501 Fall Protection 29 CFR 1926.501 Ladders 29 CFR 1926.1053 Ladders 29 CFR 1926.1053 Excavations 29 CFR 1926.651 Excavations 29 CFR 1926.651 Aerial Lifts 29 CFR 1926.453 Aerial Lifts 29 CFR 1926.453 1 Most Frequently Cited Standards 2005 www.osha.gov

10 Considering Safety During Design Offers the Most Payoff 1 Conceptual Design Detailed Engineering Procurement Construction Start-up High Low Ability to Influence Safety Project Schedule 1 Szymberski 1987

11 DESIGN CAN INFLUENCE CONSTRUCTION SAFETY1 1,2 22% of 226 injuries that occurred from 2000-2002 in Oregon, WA and CA linked to design 22% of 226 injuries that occurred from 2000-2002 in Oregon, WA and CA linked to design 42% of 224 fatalities in US between 1990-2003 linked to design 42% of 224 fatalities in US between 1990-2003 linked to design In Europe, a 1991 study concluded that 60% of fatal accidents resulted from decisions made before site work began In Europe, a 1991 study concluded that 60% of fatal accidents resulted from decisions made before site work began 1 Behm, Linking Construction Fatalities to the Design for Construction Safety Concept, 2005 2 European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions

12 What Types of Design Decisions? IBC paragraph 704.11.1 requires that a parapet wall be at least 30 inches high IBC paragraph 704.11.1 requires that a parapet wall be at least 30 inches high OSHA 1926 Subpart M requires a 39-45 inch guardrail or other fall protection OSHA 1926 Subpart M requires a 39-45 inch guardrail or other fall protection If the design professional specifies a 39-45 inch high parapet wall, fall protection would not be required If the design professional specifies a 39-45 inch high parapet wall, fall protection would not be required

13 DfCS Examples: Roofs Skylights Upper story windows and roof parapets

14 COURSE OBJECTIVES To provide design and construction professionals with skills to identify construction safety hazards To provide design and construction professionals with skills to identify construction safety hazards To provide design and construction To provide design and construction professionals with skills to eliminate or reduce the risk of a serious injury in the design phase professionals with skills to eliminate or reduce the risk of a serious injury in the design phase

15 COURSE OBJECTIVES Safety Engineering-skills to recognize hazards and uncover hidden hazards Safety Engineering-skills to recognize hazards and uncover hidden hazards Design features to eliminate or reduce the risk of an injury due to a hazard Design features to eliminate or reduce the risk of an injury due to a hazard OSHA resources for DfCS OSHA resources for DfCS

16 Crash Course in Safety Engineering Safety Engineering is a specialty within the engineering field that deals with the identification and elimination of hazards. Safety Engineering is a specialty within the engineering field that deals with the identification and elimination of hazards. Safety Engineering cuts across all engineering disciplines: Civil, Mechanical, Chemical, Electrical, as well as many branches of science. Safety Engineering cuts across all engineering disciplines: Civil, Mechanical, Chemical, Electrical, as well as many branches of science.

17 What is a Hazard? What is a Hazard? A HAZARD is the potential to do harm or damage A HAZARD is the potential to do harm or damage RISK is a measure of the probability of a hazard-related incident occurring and the severity of harm or damage RISK is a measure of the probability of a hazard-related incident occurring and the severity of harm or damage

18 Recognized Hazards Gravity-Falls from elevation Gravity-Falls from elevation Falling objects Falling objects Slopes-Upset Slopes-Upset Rollover Rollover Unstable surfaces Unstable surfaces Water- Drowning Water- Drowning

19 Recognized Hazards Walking/working surfaces- Walking/working surfaces- tripping, slipping tripping, slipping Mechanical hazards- Mechanical hazards- Rotation, reciprocation, shearing, Rotation, reciprocation, shearing, vibration, pinch points, hydraulics, vibration, pinch points, hydraulics, pneumatics, entanglement pneumatics, entanglement

20 Recognized Hazards Stored energy- springs, pneumatics Stored energy- springs, pneumatics hydraulics, capacitors hydraulics, capacitors Electrical-electrostatic, current, voltage, sparks, arcs Electrical-electrostatic, current, voltage, sparks, arcs Chemical-corrosive, combustion, toxic Chemical-corrosive, combustion, toxic

21 Recognized Hazards Biological-allergens, carcinogens Biological-allergens, carcinogens Radiant Energy-sound, nuclear, Radiant Energy-sound, nuclear, X-rays, light, lasers X-rays, light, lasers

22 Recognized Hazards-Sources ANSI Standards ANSI Z49.1 Safety in Welding and Cutting ANSI Z49.1 Safety in Welding and Cutting ANSI Z117.1 Safety Requirements for Confined Spaces ANSI Z117.1 Safety Requirements for Confined Spaces ANSI D6.1 Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices ANSI D6.1 Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices ANSI 10.8 Safety Requirements for Scaffolding ANSI 10.8 Safety Requirements for Scaffolding ANSI 14.2 Safety Requirements for ANSI 14.2 Safety Requirements for Portable Ladders Portable Ladders

23 Recognized Hazards-Sources ANSI Standards ANSI Z93.1 Fire Hazards in Oxygen ANSI Z93.1 Fire Hazards in Oxygen Enriched Atmospheres Enriched Atmospheres ANSI A14.4 Job Made Wooden Ladders ANSI A14.4 Job Made Wooden Ladders ANSI A10.6-Safety Requirements for Demolition Operations ANSI A10.6-Safety Requirements for Demolition Operations ANSI A1264.1-Safety Requirements for Workplace Floor and Wall Openings, Stairs & Railing Systems ANSI A1264.1-Safety Requirements for Workplace Floor and Wall Openings, Stairs & Railing Systems

24 Recognized Hazards-Sources ANSI Standards ANSI A10.13 Safety Requirements for Steel erection ANSI A10.13 Safety Requirements for Steel erection ANSI A145.1 Recommended Practice for Concrete Formwork ANSI A145.1 Recommended Practice for Concrete Formwork ANSI Z244.1 Lockout/Tagout of Energy Sources ANSI Z244.1 Lockout/Tagout of Energy Sources

25 Recognized Hazards-Sources ASTM Standards ASTM F802 Guide for Selection of Certain Walkway Surfaces When Considering Footwear Traffic ASTM F802 Guide for Selection of Certain Walkway Surfaces When Considering Footwear Traffic ASTM 04.09 Wood Construction ASTM 04.09 Wood Construction ASTM D4532 Respirable Dust in Workplace Atmospheres ASTM D4532 Respirable Dust in Workplace Atmospheres ASTM STP 1150 Fire Hazard and Fire Risk Assessment ASTM STP 1150 Fire Hazard and Fire Risk Assessment

26 Recognized Hazards-Sources ASTM Standards ASTM O 4.07 Building Seals and Sealants ASTM O 4.07 Building Seals and Sealants

27 Recognized Hazards-Sources NFPA Standards NFPA Volume 13, 53M Fire Hazards in Oxygen Enriched Atmospheres NFPA Volume 13, 53M Fire Hazards in Oxygen Enriched Atmospheres NFPA 654 Prevention of Fire and Dust Explosions in the Chemical, Dye, Pharmaceutical, and Plastics Industries NFPA 654 Prevention of Fire and Dust Explosions in the Chemical, Dye, Pharmaceutical, and Plastics Industries NFPA 241 Safeguarding Construction, Alteration, and Demolition Operations NFPA 241 Safeguarding Construction, Alteration, and Demolition Operations

28 Recognized Hazards-Sources Government Regulations OSHA 1926.550 Cranes and derricks OSHA 1926.550 Cranes and derricks OSHA 1926.251 Rigging Material for Material Handling OSHA 1926.251 Rigging Material for Material Handling OSHA 1926.452 Scaffolds OSHA 1926.452 Scaffolds OSHA 1926.800 Underground Construction OSHA 1926.800 Underground Construction OSHA 1926.52 Occupational Noise Exposure OSHA 1926.52 Occupational Noise Exposure

29 Recognized Hazards-Sources NFPA Standards NFPA 30 Flammable and Combustible Liquids NFPA 30 Flammable and Combustible Liquids NFPA 325M Fire Hazard Properties of Flammable Liquids, Gases & Volatile Solids NFPA 325M Fire Hazard Properties of Flammable Liquids, Gases & Volatile Solids

30 Recognized Hazards-Sources Government Regulations OSHA 1918.95 Longshoring Operations in the Vicinity of Repair and Maintenance Work OSHA 1918.95 Longshoring Operations in the Vicinity of Repair and Maintenance Work OSHA 1926.1050-1053 Stairways and Ladders OSHA 1926.1050-1053 Stairways and Ladders OSHA 1926.650 Excavations OSHA 1926.650 Excavations Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations

31 Recognized Hazards-Sources Other Sources National Safety Council National Safety Council MSHA MSHA SAE SAE NIOSH NIOSH US Army Corps of Engineers US Army Corps of Engineers ACI ACI

32 Recognized Hazards-Examples Fall Hazards 6 Feet or More 1 1 Photos courtesy of Washington Group International Unprotected edges

33 Recognized Hazards-Examples Confined Space

34 Recognized Hazards-Examples Power Lines Worker electrocuted when his drill rig got too close to overhead power lines. Design engineer specified groundwater monitoring wells were to be dug directly under power lines. Engineer could have specified wells be dug away from power lines and/or better informed the employer of hazard posed by wells proximity to powerlines through the plans, specifications, and bid documents.

35 Hidden Hazards-Examples Underground utilities Underground utilities Electrical wire buried in a wall Electrical wire buried in a wall Asbestos Asbestos Rot/Decay of structural members Rot/Decay of structural members Gas lines Gas lines Any hazard uncovered during project execution Any hazard uncovered during project execution

36 Hidden Hazards-What If Analysis A What If analysis is a structured brainstorming methods of uncovering hidden hazards A What If analysis is a structured brainstorming methods of uncovering hidden hazards Select the boundaries of the review Select the boundaries of the review and assemble an experienced team and assemble an experienced team Gather information-video tapes of operation, design documents, maintenance procedures, etc. Gather information-video tapes of operation, design documents, maintenance procedures, etc.

37 Hidden Hazards-What If Analysis What If Situation Questions Failure to follow procedures Failure to follow procedures Procedures are followed, but are incorrect Procedures are followed, but are incorrect Equipment failure Equipment failure Utility failure Utility failure Weather Weather Operator not trained Operator not trained

38 Hidden Hazards-What If Analysis Example Highway Construction Project- What if workers have to access drains? Are drains a possible confined space? What if workers have to access drains? Are drains a possible confined space? What about the power lines? Will equipment be operating near power lines? What about the power lines? Will equipment be operating near power lines? What about worker/public injury from traffic accidents? Do trucks have enough turning space? Is there signage/barriers to re-direct pedestrians? What about worker/public injury from traffic accidents? Do trucks have enough turning space? Is there signage/barriers to re-direct pedestrians? Will construction vehicles have enough shoulder space to stop on road Will construction vehicles have enough shoulder space to stop on road What if worker attempts to manually pick up drain covers? Are they lightweight? Do they have handles? What if worker attempts to manually pick up drain covers? Are they lightweight? Do they have handles?

39 Hidden Hazards-Other Methods Fault Tree Analysis Fault Tree Analysis Design Check Lists Design Check Lists Plan review, if your gut feeling tells you that something is unsafe, it probably is. Plan review, if your gut feeling tells you that something is unsafe, it probably is. Read case studies on construction accidents Read case studies on construction accidents Fatal Facts Fatal Facts

40 Fatal Facts

41

42

43

44

45 Design for Safety (DFS) Identify the hazard(s) Identify the hazard(s) Assess the Risk Assess the Risk Propose design features to eliminate the risk or reduce it to an acceptable level Propose design features to eliminate the risk or reduce it to an acceptable level

46 DFS- Risk Assessment Estimate Injury Severity Severe-Death or serious debilitating long-term injury such as amputation or coma Serious-Permanent or nonreversible injury that severely impact enjoyment of life and may require continued treatment

47 DFS- Risk Assessment Estimate Injury Severity Moderate-Permanent or reversible minor injury that does not significantly impact enjoyment of life, but requires medical treatment. Slight-Reversible injury requiring simple medical treatment with no confinement

48 DFS- Risk Assessment Estimate Probability of Hazardous Event High- Very likely to occur, protective measures are nearly worthless Medium-Occurrence is likely. The frequency of control measures is significant or control measures are inadequate

49 DFS- Risk Assessment Estimate Probability of Hazardous Event Moderate-Occurrence is possible, but not likely Low- Occurrence is so unlikely as to be considered nearly zero.

50 DFS-Risk Assessment Matrix Severity Severity Probability Severe Serious Moderate Slight High High High Medium Low High High High Medium Low Medium High Medium Low Low Medium High Medium Low Low Moderate Medium Low Low Negligible Moderate Medium Low Low Negligible Low Low Low Negligible Negligible Low Low Low Negligible Negligible

51 Other Forms of Hazard Identification/Prevention Matrix 1 1Hazard Information Foundation, Inc. Eliminate the Hazard Guard the Hazard Provide a Safety Factor Provide Redundancy Provide Reliability HazardSafetyHazardSafetyHazardSafetyHazardSafety Natural Structural/ Mechanical Electrical Chemical Radiant Energy Biological Artificial Intelligence

52 DFS-Design Hierarchy First-Design out the hazard First-Design out the hazard Second-Provide safety devices Second-Provide safety devices Third-Provide warning devices Third-Provide warning devices Fourth- Implement operating procedures and training programs Fourth- Implement operating procedures and training programs Fifth-Use personal protective equipment Fifth-Use personal protective equipment

53 END OF CRASH COURSE END OF CRASH COURSE IN SAFETY IN SAFETY ENGINEERING ENGINEERING

54 Typical Construction Project Arrangement Project owner separately contracts with a Architect/Engineer and with a general contractor, prime contractor, construction manager, program manager or owners agent Project owner separately contracts with a Architect/Engineer and with a general contractor, prime contractor, construction manager, program manager or owners agent Above entities may subcontract out some or all of the work to specialty trade contractors Above entities may subcontract out some or all of the work to specialty trade contractors Project owners occasionally contract with a design-build firm to perform both design and construction Project owners occasionally contract with a design-build firm to perform both design and construction

55 Root Causes for Construction Accidents 1 Inadequate construction planning Inadequate construction planning Lack of proper training Lack of proper training Deficient enforcement of training Deficient enforcement of training Unsafe equipment Unsafe equipment Unsafe methods or sequencing Unsafe methods or sequencing Unsafe site conditions Unsafe site conditions Not using safety equipment that was provided Not using safety equipment that was provided 1 Toole, Construction Site Safety Roles, 2002

56 Potential Areas of Concern in Construction Safety Falls Falls Hazardous materials Hazardous materials Fire Protection Fire Protection Electrical Electrical Scaffolding Scaffolding Floor and wall openings, stairways, ladders Floor and wall openings, stairways, ladders

57 Potential Areas of Concern in Construction Safety Cranes, derricks, hoists Cranes, derricks, hoists Material handling and storage Material handling and storage Excavating and trenching Excavating and trenching Confined Space Confined Space Work Zone Work Zone

58 Potential Areas of Concern in Construction Safety Trade specific Trade specific Steel workers Steel workers Electrical Electrical HVAC HVAC Plumbing Plumbing Excavators Excavators Concrete Concrete

59 Designing for Construction Safety (DfCS) – What is it? An extension of DfS to cover construction projects An extension of DfS to cover construction projects Recognizes construction site safety as a design criterion Recognizes construction site safety as a design criterion The process of addressing construction site safety and health in the design of a project The process of addressing construction site safety and health in the design of a project

60 Designing for Construction Safety Process 1 1 Gambatese PlanningPreliminary design/ Schematics DesignConstructionOperation and Maintenance Planning Review Prelim. Design Review 30% Review 90% Review 60% Review

61 DfCS Examples: DfCS Examples: Prefabrication Steel stairs Concrete Wall Panels Concrete Segmented Bridge

62 DfCS Examples: DfCS Examples: Anchorage Points

63 DfCS Examples: Roofs Skylights Upper story windows and roof parapets

64 DfCS Examples: l DfCS Examples: Steel Design Avoid hanging connections; design to bear on columns instead using safety seats Avoid hanging connections; design to bear on columns instead using safety seats Require holes in columns for tie lines 21 and 42 above each floor slab Require holes in columns for tie lines 21 and 42 above each floor slab Specify shop welded connections instead of bolts or field welds to avoid dangerous positions during erection Specify shop welded connections instead of bolts or field welds to avoid dangerous positions during erection Consider approximate dimensions of connection tools to prevent pinches or awkward assemblies Consider approximate dimensions of connection tools to prevent pinches or awkward assemblies National Institute of Steel Detailing and Steel Erectors Association of America. Detailing Guide for the Enhancement of Erection Safety. 2001

65 DfCS Examples: Residential Fall Protection

66 Other DfCS Design Examples Design underground utilities to be placed using trenchless technology 1 Design underground utilities to be placed using trenchless technology 1 Specify primers, sealers and other coatings that do not emit noxious fumes or contain carcinogenic products 2 Specify primers, sealers and other coatings that do not emit noxious fumes or contain carcinogenic products 2 Design cable type lifeline system for storage towers 3 Design cable type lifeline system for storage towers 3 1 Weinstein, Can Design Improve Construction Safety, 2005 2 Gambatese, Viability of Designing for Construction Worker Safety, 2005 3 Behm, Linking Construction Fatalities to the Design for Construction Safety Concept, 2005

67 CASE STUDY #1-CIRCULATOR PUMPS

68 Replacing circulator pumps requires a ladder,pumps are located in a tight space. Replacing circulator pumps requires a ladder,pumps are located in a tight space. Maintenance worker could fall off ladder, drop pump, or suffer hand injury from hitting adjacent piping Maintenance worker could fall off ladder, drop pump, or suffer hand injury from hitting adjacent piping

69 CASE STUDY #1-CIRCULATOR PUMPS Design review questions- Is there enough room to replace the pumps? Is there enough room to replace the pumps? How high off the ground are the pumps? How high off the ground are the pumps? What if a maintenance worker has to shut off a valve an emergency? What if a maintenance worker has to shut off a valve an emergency?

70 CASE STUDY #1-CIRCULATOR PUMPS Identify Hazard- Fall and mechanical Fall and mechanical

71 CASE STUDY #1-CIRCULATOR PUMPS Assess Risk- severity- slight (knuckles) to serious severity- slight (knuckles) to serious (head injury) (head injury) probability-medium (likely) probability-medium (likely) risk- low to medium risk- low to medium Additional consideration- solution is simple and inexpensive

72 CASE STUDY #1-CIRCULATOR PUMPS Severity Severity Probability Severe Serious Moderate Slight High High High Medium Low High High High Medium Low Medium High Medium Low Low Medium High Medium Low Low Moderate Medium Low Low Negligible Moderate Medium Low Low Negligible Low Low Low Negligible Negligible Low Low Low Negligible Negligible

73 CASE STUDY #1-CIRCULATOR PUMPS DfCS solution: design pumps close to ground level so that a ladder is not required, provide adequate space around pumps, provide a metal identification tag for each valve and provide a permanent identification board in the mechanical room that identifies each valve and its purpose.

74 CASE STUDY #1-CIRCULATOR PUMPS

75 CASE STUDY #2- INSTALLATION\MAINTENANCE OF HVAC SYSTEM (ATTIC) HVAC System installed in the attic of a commercial office building HVAC System installed in the attic of a commercial office building No floor or platform/walkways were designed or installed No floor or platform/walkways were designed or installed HVAC technicians had to walk on joists/trusses HVAC technicians had to walk on joists/trusses

76 CASE STUDY #2- INSTALLATION\MAINTENANCE OF HVAC SYSTEM (ATTIC) Design review questions What will workers stand on when installing HVAC system? What will workers stand on when installing HVAC system? Will regular maintenance be required? Will regular maintenance be required? What will the maintenance workers stand on? What will the maintenance workers stand on? What are the pertinent OSHA regulations? What are the pertinent OSHA regulations?

77 CASE STUDY #2- INSTALLATION\MAINTENANCE OF HVAC SYSTEM (ATTIC)

78 Design review questions What will workers stand on when installing HVAC system? What will workers stand on when installing HVAC system? Will regular maintenance be required? Will regular maintenance be required? What will the maintenance workers stand on? What will the maintenance workers stand on? What are the pertinent OSHA regulations? What are the pertinent OSHA regulations?

79 CASE STUDY #2- INSTALLATION\MAINTENANCE OF HVAC SYSTEM (ATTIC) Identify hazard FALL FALL

80 CASE STUDY #2- INSTALLATION\MAINTENANCE OF HVAC SYSTEM (ATTIC) Assess Risk- severity- serious (knee) to severe severity- serious (knee) to severe (death) (death) probability-medium (likely) probability-medium (likely) risk- medium to high risk- medium to high

81 CASE STUDY #2- INSTALLATION\MAINTENANCE OF HVAC SYSTEM (ATTIC) Severity Severity Probability Severe Serious Moderate Slight High High High Medium Low High High High Medium Low Medium High Medium Low Low Medium High Medium Low Low Moderate Medium Low Low Negligible Moderate Medium Low Low Negligible Low Low Low Negligible Negligible Low Low Low Negligible Negligible

82 CASE STUDY #2- INSTALLATION\MAINTENANCE OF HVAC SYSTEM (ATTIC) DfCS solution: design permanent platforms and walkways with guardrails

83 CASE STUDY #3-RAW COAL RECLAIM FACILITY 1 Plant utility worker was fatally injured while performing clean-up duties at a raw coal reclaim area Plant utility worker was fatally injured while performing clean-up duties at a raw coal reclaim area Victim either fell through a 56 x 80 opening in a platform or entered through a coal feeder opening Victim either fell through a 56 x 80 opening in a platform or entered through a coal feeder opening 1 Case study courtesy of Washington Group International

84 CASE STUDY #3-RAW COAL RECLAIM FACILITY Design review questions- Will workers need to have access to conveyors? Will workers need to have access to conveyors? Are covers and/or guardrails provided for all openings near or over conveyors? Are covers and/or guardrails provided for all openings near or over conveyors? Are covers and/or guardrail gates interlocked? Are covers and/or guardrail gates interlocked?

85 CASE STUDY #3-RAW COAL RECLAIM FACILITY

86 Identify hazard Identify hazard Mechanical Mechanical

87 CASE STUDY #3-RAW COAL RECLAIM FACILITY Assess Risk- severity- severe (death) severity- severe (death) probability-medium to high probability-medium to high risk- high risk- high

88 CASE STUDY #3-RAW COAL RECLAIM FACILITY Severity Severity Probability Severe Serious Moderate Slight High High High Medium Low High High High Medium Low Medium High Medium Low Low Medium High Medium Low Low Moderate Medium Low Low Negligible Moderate Medium Low Low Negligible Low Low Low Negligible Negligible Low Low Low Negligible Negligible

89 CASE STUDY #3-RAW COAL RECLAIM FACILITY DfCS solution: design covers and/or guardrails over conveyor belts and opening to conveyor belts. Design interlocks for covers and gates.

90 CASE STUDY #4-BLIND PENETRATION INTO CONCRETE 1 A construction worker penetrated an embedded electrical conduit containing an energized 120-volt line while hand drilling into a concrete bean to install pipe hanger inserts. The conduit was 1 inch from the surface. A construction worker penetrated an embedded electrical conduit containing an energized 120-volt line while hand drilling into a concrete bean to install pipe hanger inserts. The conduit was 1 inch from the surface. 1 Dept. of Energy Blind Penetration Incidents

91 CASE STUDY #4-BLIND PENETRATION INTO CONCRETE Design review questions How will the worker install the pipe hangers? Are there any electrical lines in the concrete beam? Are there any pipe hangers that will be near an electrical line?

92 CASE STUDY #4-BLIND PENETRATION INTO CONCRETE Assess Risk- severity- severe (death) severity- severe (death) probability- moderate to medium probability- moderate to medium risk- medium to high risk- medium to high

93 CASE STUDY #4-BLIND PENETRATION INTO CONCRETE Severity Severity Probability Severe Serious Moderate Slight High High High Medium Low High High High Medium Low Medium High Medium Low Low Medium High Medium Low Low Moderate Medium Low Low Negligible Moderate Medium Low Low Negligible Low Low Low Negligible Negligible Low Low Low Negligible Negligible

94 CASE STUDY #4-BLIND PENETRATION INTO CONCRETE DfCS Solution: Design embedded electrical lines deeper than the maximum depth of the pipe hanger bolts, clearly mark locations of electrical lines on contract drawings

95 CASE STUDY #5-INCINERATOR CLEANOUT 1 An incinerator located adjacent to a main catwalk on 4 th floor An incinerator located adjacent to a main catwalk on 4 th floor There was no catwalk from the main catwalk to the incinerator There was no catwalk from the main catwalk to the incinerator Workers periodically had to go into incinerator to clean Workers periodically had to go into incinerator to clean Workers used make shift planking to from main catwalk to incinerator Workers used make shift planking to from main catwalk to incinerator 1 Note the catwalk from the main catwalk to the incinerator with the yellow guardrails was not in place at the time the worker fell.

96 CASE STUDY #5-INCINERATOR CLEANOUT

97

98 Design review questions.. Will regular maintenance be required? How will the workers gain access to the incinerator What are the pertinent OSHA regulations?

99 CASE STUDY #5-INCINERATOR CLEANOUT Identify hazard FALL FALL

100 CASE STUDY #5-INCINERATOR CLEANOUT Assess Risk- severity- severe (death) severity- severe (death) probability-medium (likely) to high (very likely) probability-medium (likely) to high (very likely) risk- high risk- high

101 CASE STUDY #-INCINERATOR CLEANOUT Severity Severity Probability Severe Serious Moderate Slight High High High Medium Low High High High Medium Low Medium High Medium Low Low Medium High Medium Low Low Moderate Medium Low Low Negligible Moderate Medium Low Low Negligible Low Low Low Negligible Negligible Low Low Low Negligible Negligible

102 CASE STUDY #5-INCINERATOR CLEANOUT DfCS solution: design catwalk with guardrail and toeboards from main catwalk to incinerator.

103 IDEAS FOR DESIGNERS www.safetyindesign.org Case Studies Trimming tops of Concrete Piles Trimming tops of Concrete Piles Modular Construction and Installation of Services Modular Construction and Installation of Services Temporary Support Steelwork for High Level Work Platform Temporary Support Steelwork for High Level Work Platform Atrium Lighting Atrium Lighting Integrated Service Column / Panel Design Integrated Service Column / Panel Design Prefabrication of Steelwork Prefabrication of Steelwork Modular Construction of Stone Panels Modular Construction of Stone Panels

104 TRAILER ACCESS PLATFORMS 1 1 www.safetyindesign.org

105 CAST-IN SOCKETS FOR RAILINGS 1 1 www.safetyindesign.org

106 COLOR CODED BOLT BAGS 1 1 www.safetyindesign.org

107 SAFETY BARRIER TO LOAD PALLETS ONTO MEZZANINE 1 1 www.safetyindesign.org

108 PREFABRICATION OF STEELWORK 1 1 www.safetyindesign.org

109 MAINTENANCE LIFT TO ACCESS ATRIUM LIGHTING 1 1 www.safetyindesign.org

110 MODULAR SERVICE RISERS 1 1 www.safetyindesign.org

111 GUIDANCE FOR DESIGNERS www.safetyindesign.org Hazardous materials Hazardous materials Asbestos Asbestos Musculo-Skeletal Musculo-Skeletal Noise Noise Excavations Excavations Erection of Structures Erection of Structures Steelwork Steelwork

112 GUIDANCE FOR DESIGNERS www.safetyindesign.org Refurbishment Refurbishment Temporary work equipment Temporary work equipment Work at height Work at height Roofs Roofs Spatial Designs Spatial Designs Suspended Access Equipment Suspended Access Equipment Blockwork Blockwork

113 GUIDANCE FOR DESIGNERS www.safetyindesign.org Demolition Demolition Manual Handling Manual Handling Lifting-cranes Lifting-cranes

114

115

116 GUIDANCE FOR DESIGNERS T 20.008 Work at Height 1 Design service runs for so that they can be maintained from floor above Design service runs for so that they can be maintained from floor above Pre-assembly and fitting of trusses Pre-assembly and fitting of trusses Position splices for steel columns so the splices can be done from a finished floor Position splices for steel columns so the splices can be done from a finished floor Install stairways early to avoid the need for temporary access Install stairways early to avoid the need for temporary access Locate service equipment on ground if possible Locate service equipment on ground if possible 1 www.safetyindesign.org

117 GUIDANCE FOR DESIGNERS T 20.002 Erecting Steelwork 1 Check all steel members for erection loads Check all steel members for erection loads Ensure that all slender members can resist compression imposed by lifting slings Ensure that all slender members can resist compression imposed by lifting slings Maximize pre-fabrication Maximize pre-fabrication Ensure the spacing of purlins allows for the largest component to lowered down through Ensure the spacing of purlins allows for the largest component to lowered down through 1 www.safetyindesign.org

118 GUIDANCE FOR DESIGNERS T 20.009 Roofs 1 Provide anchors points for fall protection Provide anchors points for fall protection Ensure roof structure can handle stacks of materials Ensure roof structure can handle stacks of materials Position gutters so that cleaning can be done from cherry pickers or from safe access routes Position gutters so that cleaning can be done from cherry pickers or from safe access routes Consider parapets Consider parapets 1 www.safetyindesign.org

119 GUIDANCE FOR DESIGNERS H 20.002 NOISE 1 Cast in crack inducers rather than saw cutting Cast in crack inducers rather than saw cutting Cast in anchors rather than site drilling Cast in anchors rather than site drilling Avoid vibro-compaction of ground Avoid vibro-compaction of ground Keep site grinding, cutting, etc. to a minimum Keep site grinding, cutting, etc. to a minimum 1 www.safetyindesign.org

120 GUIDANCE FOR DESIGNERS H 20.001Musculo-skeletal 1 Provide adequate space for lifting machines Provide adequate space for lifting machines Design for machine laying of pavers Design for machine laying of pavers Design brick laying to reduce long duration repetition Design brick laying to reduce long duration repetition 1 www.safetyindesign.org

121 GUIDANCE FOR DESIGNERS H 10.001 Hazardous Materials 1 Cast in chases for services rather than cut to reduce dust Cast in chases for services rather than cut to reduce dust Specify water base or solvent free paints Specify water base or solvent free paints Check to see if there any existing contaminants on the site, alert workers Check to see if there any existing contaminants on the site, alert workers 1 www.safetyindesign.org

122 Summary/Closing Introduce the DfCS Process Introduce the DfCS Process Basic Safety Engineering Basic Safety Engineering Design Features Design Features Case Studies to Illustrate Process Case Studies to Illustrate Process

123 Summary/Closing DESIGNERS CAN HAVE A POSITIVE IMPACT ON REDUCING CONSTRUCTION ACCIDENTS DESIGNERS CAN HAVE A POSITIVE IMPACT ON REDUCING CONSTRUCTION ACCIDENTS

124 DfCS Tools/Resources Construction Industry Institute database Construction Industry Institute database www.construction- institute.org/scriptcontent/more/rr101_11_more.c fmwww.construction- institute.org/scriptcontent/more/rr101_11_more.c fmwww.construction- institute.org/scriptcontent/more/rr101_11_more.c fmwww.construction- institute.org/scriptcontent/more/rr101_11_more.c fm United Kingdom Health & Safety Executive designer guides United Kingdom Health & Safety Executive designer guides www.hse.gov.uk/construction/designers/index.ht mwww.hse.gov.uk/construction/designers/index.ht m CHAIR CHAIR www.workcover.nsw.gov.au/Publications/OHS/Saf etyGuides/chairsafetyindesigntool.htmwww.workcover.nsw.gov.au/Publications/OHS/Saf etyGuides/chairsafetyindesigntool.htm OSHA Website OSHA Website www.osha.govwww.osha.gov

125 DfCS Tools/Resources Inherently Safer Design Principles for Construction, The Hazard Information Foundation, Inc. besafe@hazardinfo.com Inherently Safer Design Principles for Construction, The Hazard Information Foundation, Inc. besafe@hazardinfo.combesafe@hazardinfo.com www.safetyindesign.org www.safetyindesign.org


Download ppt "Design for Construction Safety (DfCS) 2 to 4 Hour Course Design for Construction Safety (DfCS) 2 to 4 Hour Course."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google