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Design for Construction Safety (DfCS) 2 to 4 Hour Course

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1 Design for Construction Safety (DfCS) 2 to 4 Hour Course
Early slide with compelling photos of elevated tasks and trenches and other dangerous conditions to get the audience’s attention. Better photo of tilt up wall panel and photo of prefabricated plumbing tree instead of steel stairs (Jack Donovan to send) on DfCS prefabrication example slide. Photo of permanent anchorage point on roof (John Mazourik) and cad drawing showing anchorage point locations (walter jones). This presentation introduces the design for construction safety concept and demonstrates why it is important as one piece of a holistic approach to enhancing construction site safety. The presentation was developed by the Design for Construction Safety workgroup within the OSHA Alliance Program Construction Roundtable. The Roundtable is a collection of non-profit professional organizations and individual companies who are participating in the Alliance Program.

2 WHAT IS DESIGNING FOR CONSTRUCTION SAFETY?
The process of addressing construction site safety and health, and planning for future maintenance in the design phase of a project. Designing for Construction Safety is the process of of addressing construction site safety and maintenance in the design phase of a project. The cusomary role of the design professional is protect the safety of the public and to comply with building codes. Designing for Construction Safety extends this role to include construction site safety.

3 WHY IS IT NECESSARY? Currently there are no requirements for construction safety in building codes IBC Chapter 33 Safeguards During Construction-Pedestrian Safety There are currently no requirements for construction safety in modern building codes. The only buiding code construction safety requirement that currently exists addresses protection of the public. pedestrian safety during cons

4 OSHA 1926-Engineering Controls
Scaffolds Fall Protection Anchorages Hoists Excavations Shoring Lift Slabs The invovlement of design professionals in the construction process is not a new idea. There are currently many sections in the OSHA 1926 standards which require engineering controls in construction projects.

5 DfCS Process1-It’s a Team Concept
Design Kickoff Design Internal Review Issue for Construction External Review Trade contractor involvement Establish design for safety expectations Include construction and operation perspective Identify design for safety process and tools QA/QC Cross-discipline review Focused safety review Owner review This is one of the DfCS process models. Safety expectations are addressed in the beginning. There is trade contractor, QA, QC, owner, and contractor involvement throughout the design process. There are multiple reviews and re-designs. This all occurs before the drawings are finally issued for construction. This graphic depicts the typical DfCS process. The key component of this process is the incorporation of site safety knowledge into design decisions. Ideally, site safety would be considered throughout the design process. It is recognized, however, that a limited number of progress reviews for safety may be more practical. The required site safety knowledge can be provided by one or more possible sources of such safety constructability expertise, including trade contractors, an in-house employee, or an outside consultant. In the future, perhaps state and federal OSHA employees may provide such expertise. One question that sometimes is raised is whether the work product of a DfCS project looks different from that on standard projects. For now, the answer is “no.” That is, drawings and technical specifications on DfCS projects will likely at least initially look the same as typical documents, but they will reflect an inherently safer construction process. Eventually, it is hoped that construction documents resulting from a DfCS process will include safety enhancing details and notes that are not currently found on standard plans and specifications. 1 Gambatese

6 U.S. Construction Accident Statistics1
Nearly 200,000 serious injuries and 1,226 deaths each year 5.5% of workforce but 21.5% of fatalities Construction has one of the highest fatality rates of any industry sector 1 Bureau of Labor Statistics-2006 Unfortunately, as many of us know, construction is one of the most dangerous industries to work in. In the U.S., construction typically accounts for just under 200,000 serious injuries and 1200 deaths each year. The fatality rate is disproportionally high for the size of the construction workforce. But statistics like these do not tell the whole story. Behind every serious injury, there is a real story of an individual who suffered serious pain and may never fully recover. Behind every fatality, there are spouses, children and parents who grieve every day for their loss. Because we all recognize that safety is an inherently dangerous business, all of us—including architects and engineers--must do what we can to reduce the risk of injuries on the projects we are involved in.

7 CONSTRUCTION ACCIDENTS IN U.S.1
1 Photos courtesy of Washington Group International Note to presenter. You may or may not want to include this slide…. This slide indicates what this is all about., Behind every death or serious injury is a real live person. Many design decisions have a direct effect on construction accidents. Because we all recognize that safety is an inherently dangerous business, all of us—including architects and engineers--must do what we can to reduce the risk of injuries on the projects we are involved in.

8 CONSTRUCTION FATALITIES BY OCCUPATION1
Total fatalities ,226 Construction laborers Electricians Carpenters First Line supervisors Roofers Painters and paper hangers 54 Structural steel 1 BLS,2006 These are some of the construction fatailties based on occupation. As you can see, the oridinary consruction laborer has the highest fatility rate.

9 MOST FREQUENTLY CITED/HIGHEST PENALTY OSHA VIOLATIONS IN CONSTRUCTION1
Scaffolding 29 CFR Fall Protection 29 CFR Ladders 29 CFR Excavations 29 CFR Aerial Lifts 29 CFR 1Most Frequently Cited Standards 2005 These are some of the most frequently cited OSHA violations in construction.

10 Considering Safety During Design Offers the Most Payoff1
High Conceptual Design Detailed Engineering Ability to Influence Safety Procurement Construction Start-up One of the reasons that the DfCS concept is so compelling is that all safety professionals know that it is much more effective to design safety into a process than it is to try to manage safety within a process that is inherently unsafe. This chart has been adapted from the construction management literature. The ability to influence safety is on the vertical axis and the project schedule is on the horizontal axis. The chart shows that by including construction site safety as a consideration (along with production, quality, project scope, etc.) early in the project’s life cycle, one has a greater ability to positively influence construction site safety. This concept is in contrast to the prevailing methods of planning for construction site safety, which do not begin until a short time before the construction phase, when the ability to influence safety is limited. Low Project Schedule 1 Szymberski 1987

11 DESIGN CAN INFLUENCE CONSTRUCTION SAFETY11,2
22% of 226 injuries that occurred from in Oregon, WA and CA linked to design 42% of 224 fatalities in US between linked to design In Europe, a 1991 study concluded that 60% of fatal accidents resulted from decisions made before site work began 1 Behm, “Linking Construction Fatalities to the Design for Construction Safety Concept”, 2005 2 European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions Studies have shown that design professionals can have significatn influence on construction safety. These are some statistics from the US and Europe Because we all recognize that safety is an inherently dangerous business, all of us—including architects and engineers--must do what we can to reduce the risk of injuries on the projects we are involved in.

12 What Types of Design Decisions?
IBC paragraph requires that a parapet wall be at least 30 inches high OSHA 1926 Subpart M requires a inch guardrail or other fall protection If the design professional specifies a inch high parapet wall, fall protection would not be required The idea that decisions by design professionals do influence jobsite safety is not an unproven concept. Various researchers have show that design can influence construction site safety, both positively and negatively. For example, a 1996 paper by Professor John Smallwood showed that 50% of general contractors interviewed identified poor design features as affecting safety. A European study published in 1991 found that 60% of accidents studied could have been eliminated or reduced with more thought during design (European Foundation 1991). Researchers in the UK found that design changes would have reduced likelihood of 47% of 100 construction accidents studied (Gibb et al 2004). In the U.S., Professor Mike Behm found that design was linked to accidents in approximately 22% of 226 injury incidents in OR, WA and CA and to 42% of 224 fatality incidents between 1990 and 2003 (Behm 2004).

13 DfCS Examples: Roofs Upper story windows and roof parapets Skylights
These are some simple examples of how designers can influence construction safety. Specifying guards over skylights prevents workers from falling through. Design window sills and roof parapets at a specified height eliminates the need for fall protection. One example is including a parapet roof that is at 1.0 m (39 in.) high. Such roofs serve eliminate the need for additional guardrails during roofing and rooftop HVAC appliance installation and prevent the need for fall protection during future maintenance. Another example is designing upper story windows to be at least 1.0 m (39 in.) above the floor level. Having the window sill at this height allows it to function as a guardrail during construction. Skylights are another example. Specifically, designers can: Design permanent guardrails to be installed around skylights. Design domed, rather than flat, skylights with shatterproof glass or strengthening wires. Design the skylight to be installed on a raised curb.

14 COURSE OBJECTIVES To provide design and construction professionals with skills to identify construction safety hazards To provide design and construction professionals with skills to eliminate or reduce the risk of a serious injury in the design phase Designers may not be familiar or have training fo identify construction safety hazards and have the skills to specify design features to eiliminate these hazrards

15 COURSE OBJECTIVES Safety Engineering-skills to recognize hazards and uncover “hidden” hazards Design features to eliminate or reduce the risk of an injury due to a hazard OSHA resources for DfCS Many design engineers are not trained in safety engineering or may not be aware of the resources that are available to designers

16 Crash Course in Safety Engineering
Safety Engineering is a specialty within the engineering field that deals with the identification and elimination of hazards. Safety Engineering cuts across all engineering disciplines: Civil, Mechanical, Chemical, Electrical, as well as many branches of science. Designing for construction safety (hereafter referred to as DfCS) represents a change from custom and practice whereby the design professional (that is, architects and/or engineers), and typically the project owner (that is, the client), become involved in facilitating construction site safety at the earliest stages of a project’s life cycle. DfCS is defined as the deliberate consideration of construction site safety in the design phase of a construction project. Many of you may be familiar with the term constructability, which usually refers to the idea of incorporating construction expertise into the design process to ensure the design is cost effective and buildable. Designing for construction safety can be viewed as ensuring the constructability review includes the safety aspects of the project. It is important to note that the designing for construction safety concept applies only to the design of the permanent facility, that is, to the aspects of the completed building that make a project inherently safer to build. The designing for construction safety initiative does not focus on how to make different methods of construction engineering safer. For example, it does not focus on how to use fall protection systems, but it does include consideration of design decisions that influence how often fall protection will be needed. Similarly, DfCS does not address how to erect safe scaffolding, but it does relate to design decisions that influence the location and type of scaffolding needed to accomplish the work. Design professionals (i.e. architects and design engineers) are in a position for decision-making and influencing to help improve construction safety in these and many other areas. For example, when the height of parapet walls is designed to be 42”, the parapet acts as a guardrail and enhances safety. When designed into the permanent structure of the building and sequenced early in construction, the parapet at this height acts to enhance safety during initial construction activities and also during subsequent maintenance and construction activities, such as roof repair. Without this consideration, constructors are solely responsible to design, prepare, and implement other temporary safety measures even if the design hinders the ease in which they are utilized.

17 What is a Hazard? A HAZARD is the potential to do harm or damage
RISK is a measure of the probability of a hazard-related incident occurring and the severity of harm or damage A hazard is the potential to do harm or damage. Risk is trhe product of the probability and the severity. A low probablity and a high severity can have the same risk as a high probability and a low severity It is important to note that the designing for construction safety concept applies only to the design of the permanent facility, that is, to the aspects of the completed building that make a project inherently safer to build. The designing for construction safety initiative does not focus on how to make different methods of construction engineering safer. For example, it does not focus on how to use fall protection systems, but it does include consideration of design decisions that influence how often fall protection will be needed. Similarly, DfCS does not address how to erect safe scaffolding, but it does relate to design decisions that influence the location and type of scaffolding needed to accomplish the work. Design professionals (i.e. architects and design engineers) are in a position for decision-making and influencing to help improve construction safety in these and many other areas. For example, when the height of parapet walls is designed to be 42”, the parapet acts as a guardrail and enhances safety. When designed into the permanent structure of the building and sequenced early in construction, the parapet at this height acts to enhance safety during initial construction activities and also during subsequent maintenance and construction activities, such as roof repair. Without this consideration, constructors are solely responsible to design, prepare, and implement other temporary safety measures even if the design hinders the ease in which they are utilized.

18 Recognized Hazards Gravity-Falls from elevation Falling objects
Slopes-Upset Rollover Unstable surfaces Water- Drowning There are many recognized hazards. Any process that involves gravity can create a hazard.

19 Recognized Hazards Walking/working surfaces- tripping, slipping
Mechanical hazards- Rotation, reciprocation, shearing, vibration, pinch points, hydraulics, pneumatics, entanglement There are many hazards which are well-known such as tripping, slipping and mechancial hazards.These hazards are fairly easy to identify. For example, when the height of parapet walls is designed to be 42”, the parapet acts as a guardrail and enhances safety. When designed into the permanent structure of the building and sequenced early in construction, the parapet at this height acts to enhance safety during initial construction activities and also during subsequent maintenance and construction activities, such as roof repair. Without this consideration, constructors are solely responsible to design, prepare, and implement other temporary safety measures even if the design hinders the ease in which they are utilized.

20 Recognized Hazards Stored energy- springs, pneumatics
hydraulics, capacitors Electrical-electrostatic, current, voltage, sparks, arcs Chemical-corrosive, combustion, toxic Anything that stores energy should be checked for a possible hazard as well as electrical and chemical sources It is important to note that the designing for construction safety concept applies only to the design of the permanent facility, that is, to the aspects of the completed building that make a project inherently safer to build. The designing for construction safety initiative does not focus on how to make different methods of construction engineering safer. For example, it does not focus on how to use fall protection systems, but it does include consideration of design decisions that influence how often fall protection will be needed. Similarly, DfCS does not address how to erect safe scaffolding, but it does relate to design decisions that influence the location and type of scaffolding needed to accomplish the work. Design professionals (i.e. architects and design engineers) are in a position for decision-making and influencing to help improve construction safety in these and many other areas. For example, when the height of parapet walls is designed to be 42”, the parapet acts as a guardrail and enhances safety. When designed into the permanent structure of the building and sequenced early in construction, the parapet at this height acts to enhance safety during initial construction activities and also during subsequent maintenance and construction activities, such as roof repair. Without this consideration, constructors are solely responsible to design, prepare, and implement other temporary safety measures even if the design hinders the ease in which they are utilized.

21 Recognized Hazards Biological-allergens, carcinogens
Radiant Energy-sound, nuclear, X-rays, light, lasers Biological and chemical agent as well as all forms of radiant energy are potential hazard sources For example, when the height of parapet walls is designed to be 42”, the parapet acts as a guardrail and enhances safety. When designed into the permanent structure of the building and sequenced early in construction, the parapet at this height acts to enhance safety during initial construction activities and also during subsequent maintenance and construction activities, such as roof repair. Without this consideration, constructors are solely responsible to design, prepare, and implement other temporary safety measures even if the design hinders the ease in which they are utilized.

22 Recognized Hazards-Sources ANSI Standards
ANSI Z49.1 Safety in Welding and Cutting ANSI Z117.1 Safety Requirements for Confined Spaces ANSI D6.1 Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices ANSI 10.8 Safety Requirements for Scaffolding ANSI 14.2 Safety Requirements for Portable Ladders There are many standards which the design professional can use to identify hazards and provide safety measures. ANSI is a family of standards that can be used for this purpose. This is only a brief listing of some of the relevant ANSI standards.

23 Recognized Hazards-Sources ANSI Standards
ANSI Z93.1 Fire Hazards in Oxygen Enriched Atmospheres ANSI A14.4 Job Made Wooden Ladders ANSI A10.6-Safety Requirements for Demolition Operations ANSI A Safety Requirements for Workplace Floor and Wall Openings, Stairs & Railing Systems

24 Recognized Hazards-Sources ANSI Standards
ANSI A10.13 Safety Requirements for Steel erection ANSI A145.1 Recommended Practice for Concrete Formwork ANSI Z244.1 Lockout/Tagout of Energy Sources

25 Recognized Hazards-Sources ASTM Standards
ASTM F802 Guide for Selection of Certain Walkway Surfaces When Considering Footwear Traffic ASTM Wood Construction ASTM D4532 Respirable Dust in Workplace Atmospheres ASTM STP 1150 Fire Hazard and Fire Risk Assessment ASTM is another family of standards that can provide guidance for recognized hazards.

26 Recognized Hazards-Sources ASTM Standards
ASTM O 4.07 Building Seals and Sealants

27 Recognized Hazards-Sources NFPA Standards
NFPA Volume 13, 53M Fire Hazards in Oxygen Enriched Atmospheres NFPA 654 Prevention of Fire and Dust Explosions in the Chemical, Dye, Pharmaceutical, and Plastics Industries NFPA 241 Safeguarding Construction, Alteration, and Demolition Operations NFPA is another organization that can provide guidance on recognized hazards. This is only a brief list of applicable NFPA standards.

28 Recognized Hazards-Sources Government Regulations
OSHA Cranes and derricks OSHA Rigging Material for Material Handling OSHA Scaffolds OSHA Underground Construction OSHA Occupational Noise Exposure Government regulations such as OSHA can be used by the design professional to identify and eiliminate hazads

29 Recognized Hazards-Sources NFPA Standards
NFPA 30 Flammable and Combustible Liquids NFPA 325M Fire Hazard Properties of Flammable Liquids, Gases & Volatile Solids

30 Recognized Hazards-Sources Government Regulations
OSHA Longshoring Operations in the Vicinity of Repair and Maintenance Work OSHA Stairways and Ladders OSHA Excavations Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations

31 Recognized Hazards-Sources Other Sources
National Safety Council MSHA SAE NIOSH US Army Corps of Engineers ACI There are many government agencies and standard writing organizations that can be used to design out hazards

32 Recognized Hazards-Examples Fall Hazards 6 Feet or More1
1Photos courtesy of Washington Group International This is an example of a classic fall hazard. The worker is exposed to an unprotected edge. The designer could specify anchorage points in the design so that the worker will have a tie off for fall protection. It should be noted that Designing for Construction Safety is not how or when to use fall protection, it is designing buildings so that either fall protection is not needed, or, installed hardware such as tie-offs. Unprotected edges

33 Recognized Hazards-Examples Confined Space
Confined spaces are another recognized hazard. Designer can be heloful by designing areas that do not require confined space entry procesures. It should be noted that Design for Construction Safety is how to implement a confined space entry procedure, it is how to design projects so that confined space entry is not required.

34 Recognized Hazards-Examples Power Lines
Worker electrocuted when his drill rig got too close to overhead power lines. Design engineer specified groundwater monitoring wells were to be dug directly under power lines. Engineer could have specified wells be dug away from power lines and/or better informed the employer of hazard posed by wells’ proximity to powerlines through the plans, specifications, and bid documents. This is another example where the design professional can eliminate hazards in the design stage of a project. Here is a DfCS example that involves sitework rather than an actual structure. This photo is associated with a site on which a construction worker was killed (electrocuted) when the drill rig he was operating got too close to the overhead power lines. The project environmental engineer specified that groundwater monitoring wells were to be dug directly under the power lines. If the construction safety were considered in the design phase, the engineer would have either a) specified that the wells be dug in another position away from the overhead power lines, and/or b) informed the construction company through the plans, specifications, and bid documents of the hazard and provided the necessary contact information such that the construction company could have contacted the power company prior to arriving on site. Clearly, the constructor had a responsibility for his employee and the design for construction safety concept in no way suggests that employers do not have primary responsibility for the safety of their employees. But this case illustrates that simply considering the safety of site workers during the design phase can result in easy decisions that have a major influence on a project’s inherent level of risk.

35 Hidden Hazards-Examples
Underground utilities Electrical wire buried in a wall Asbestos Rot/Decay of structural members Gas lines Any hazard uncovered during project execution There are many hazards that may be hidden. They are not readily apparent to the worker or the designer.

36 Hidden Hazards-”What If” Analysis
A “What If” analysis is a structured brainstorming methods of uncovering hidden hazards Select the boundaries of the review and assemble an experienced team Gather information-video tapes of operation, design documents, maintenance procedures, etc. There are several analytical techniques that can be used to uncover “hidden hazards”. These include “What If” scenarios. Other methods include assembling an experienced team of professionals to review a project. Gathering as much information as possible about a project can also aid in uncovering hazards.

37 Hidden Hazards-”What If” Analysis “What If” Situation Questions
Failure to follow procedures Procedures are followed, but are incorrect Equipment failure Utility failure Weather Operator not trained In a “what if” analysis the design professional or design team needs to brainstorm things that can go wrong (“what if”).

38 Hidden Hazards-”What If” Analysis Example
Highway Construction Project- What if workers have to access drains? Are drains a possible confined space? What about the power lines? Will equipment be operating near power lines? What about worker/public injury from traffic accidents? Do trucks have enough turning space? Is there signage/barriers to re-direct pedestrians? Will construction vehicles have enough shoulder space to stop on road What if worker attempts to manually pick up drain covers? Are they lightweight? Do they have handles? This is a sample of “what if” questions that might be included in the construction highway project. Each of the “what if” scenarios should be followed up by a design feature that can eliminate the hazard.

39 Hidden Hazards-Other Methods
Fault Tree Analysis Design Check Lists Plan review, if your gut feeling tells you that something is unsafe, it probably is. Read case studies on construction accidents “Fatal Facts” There are many other techniques and sources that can be used to identify hidden hazards.

40 Fatal Facts The OSHA website has a catalog of “fatal facts” . These can be reviewed to become familiar with some of the things that occur in construction. Many of these might be called “Murphy’s Law”.

41 Fatal Facts

42 Fatal Facts

43 Fatal Facts

44 Fatal Facts Designing for construction safety (hereafter referred to as DfCS) represents a change from custom and practice whereby the design professional (that is, architects and/or engineers), and typically the project owner (that is, the client), become involved in facilitating construction site safety at the earliest stages of a project’s life cycle. DfCS is defined as the deliberate consideration of construction site safety in the design phase of a construction project. Many of you may be familiar with the term constructability, which usually refers to the idea of incorporating construction expertise into the design process to ensure the design is cost effective and buildable. Designing for construction safety can be viewed as ensuring the constructability review includes the safety aspects of the project. It is important to note that the designing for construction safety concept applies only to the design of the permanent facility, that is, to the aspects of the completed building that make a project inherently safer to build. The designing for construction safety initiative does not focus on how to make different methods of construction engineering safer. For example, it does not focus on how to use fall protection systems, but it does include consideration of design decisions that influence how often fall protection will be needed. Similarly, DfCS does not address how to erect safe scaffolding, but it does relate to design decisions that influence the location and type of scaffolding needed to accomplish the work. Design professionals (i.e. architects and design engineers) are in a position for decision-making and influencing to help improve construction safety in these and many other areas. For example, when the height of parapet walls is designed to be 42”, the parapet acts as a guardrail and enhances safety. When designed into the permanent structure of the building and sequenced early in construction, the parapet at this height acts to enhance safety during initial construction activities and also during subsequent maintenance and construction activities, such as roof repair. Without this consideration, constructors are solely responsible to design, prepare, and implement other temporary safety measures even if the design hinders the ease in which they are utilized.

45 Design for Safety (DFS)
Identify the hazard(s) Assess the Risk Propose design features to eliminate the risk or reduce it to an acceptable level Designing for Safety involves identifying the hazards, assessing the risk, then proposing design features to eliminate the risk or reduce it to an acceptible level. Design for Saety in used in the design of machines, equipment, products, and facilities. Many design professionals have no formal training in safety and risk assessment.

46 DFS- Risk Assessment Estimate Injury Severity
Severe-Death or serious debilitating long-term injury such as amputation or coma Serious-Permanent or nonreversible injury that severely impact enjoyment of life and may require continued treatment The first step is to assess the risk.A very simple risk assessment is a qualitative analysis as follows. First, the injury severity is assesed, severe, serious, moderate or slight

47 DFS- Risk Assessment Estimate Injury Severity
Moderate-Permanent or reversible minor injury that does not significantly impact enjoyment of life, but requires medical treatment. Slight-Reversible injury requiring simple medical treatment with no confinement

48 DFS- Risk Assessment Estimate Probability of Hazardous Event
High- Very likely to occur, protective measures are nearly worthless Medium-Occurrence is likely. The frequency of control measures is significant or control measures are inadequate Next the probability of occurranace is estimated, either high, medium, moderate or low.

49 DFS- Risk Assessment Estimate Probability of Hazardous Event
Moderate-Occurrence is possible, but not likely Low- Occurrence is so unlikely as to be considered nearly zero.

50 DFS-Risk Assessment Matrix
Severity Probability Severe Serious Moderate Slight High High High Medium Low Medium High Medium Low Low Moderate Medium Low Low Negligible Low Low Low Negligible Negligible Once the severity and the probality have been estimated, this matrix can be used to assess the risk. The risk ranges from high to negligable. Design action ranges from intervention (high) to no action (negligable).

51 Other Forms of Hazard Identification/Prevention Matrix1
1Hazard Information Foundation, Inc. Eliminate the Hazard Guard the Hazard Provide a Safety Factor Provide Redundancy Provide Reliability Hazard Safety Natural Structural/ Mechanical Electrical Chemical Radiant Energy Biological Artificial Intelligence There are other methods of hazard identification and prevention that can be used. This matrix was developed by the Hazard Information Foundation

52 DFS-Design Hierarchy First-Design out the hazard
Second-Provide safety devices Third-Provide warning devices Fourth- Implement operating procedures and training programs Fifth-Use personal protective equipment Once the risk has been determined, the design professional proceeds to eliminate the risk or reduce it to an acceptible level by the design alternatives, designing out the hazard being the top priority, followed by providing safety devices, warning devices, operating procedures and training, and lastly providing personal protective equipment.

53 END OF CRASH COURSE IN SAFETY ENGINEERING
This ends the protion of this course that deals with safety engineering. The treatment here was an overview/introduction. The field of safety engineeing is much more broad and complicated than can be presented in this brief course. The reader is referred to the American Society of Safety Engineers, the National Safety Council, and the Board of Certified Safety Professionals for more information.

54 Typical Construction Project Arrangement
Project owner separately contracts with a Architect/Engineer and with a general contractor, prime contractor, construction manager, program manager or owner’s agent Above entities may subcontract out some or all of the work to specialty trade contractors Project owners occasionally contract with a design-build firm to perform both design and construction Now getting back to the main subject, that is how designers can prevent or reduce construction accidents. Construction is unique from other industries. For example, in general industry, the designers, assembly workers, management, and owners are generally all under one roof and all work for the same entity. There is generally more of a chain of command, responsibilities are more defined. This is not true in construction. An owner may purchase plans from a design professional. The owner may then contract with a general contractor, construction manager, or other agent. Any of these entities may sub-contract out work. The safety responsibilities become blurred. Some contractors may pass safety responsibilities onto others. No one follows up.

55 Root Causes for Construction Accidents1
Inadequate construction planning Lack of proper training Deficient enforcement of training Unsafe equipment Unsafe methods or sequencing Unsafe site conditions Not using safety equipment that was provided 1 Toole, “Construction Site Safety Roles”, 2002 The result is that no decisions or poor decisions are made with regard to safety and someone gets injured or even killed. These are some of the root causes for construction accidents. Many of these causes are related to human error, but could have been prevented if a design feature would have eliminated the need for a site decision.

56 Potential Areas of Concern in Construction Safety
Falls Hazardous materials Fire Protection Electrical Scaffolding Floor and wall openings, stairways, ladders These are some of the areas where a design professional needs to be concerned about.

57 Potential Areas of Concern in Construction Safety
Cranes, derricks, hoists Material handling and storage Excavating and trenching Confined Space Work Zone

58 Potential Areas of Concern in Construction Safety
Trade specific Steel workers Electrical HVAC Plumbing Excavators Concrete These are some of the trades that are involved in a construction project.

59 Designing for Construction Safety (DfCS) – What is it?
An extension of DfS to cover construction projects Recognizes construction site safety as a design criterion The process of addressing construction site safety and health in the design of a project Designing for Construction Safety is an extension of the Design for Safety process (Hazard identification/hazard elimination/design hierarchy) to construcion. Construction safety becomes a design criteria.

60 Designing for Construction Safety Process1
1Gambatese Prelim. Design Review 30% Review 60% Review Planning Review 90% Review This is another model of how the design for safety process fits in construction. The design process becomes part of the planning, rather than a task that ends when the plan are delivered . Planning Preliminary design/ Schematics Design Construction Operation and Maintenance

61 DfCS Examples: Prefabrication
Concrete Wall Panels Here are some examples. Prefabrication eliminates site work that can lead to accidents Concrete Segmented Bridge Steel stairs

62 DfCS Examples: Anchorage Points
The idea of identifying anchorage points on construction drawings is in accordance with Appendix C to Subpart M (Fall Protection) from the federal OSHA standards for Construction: (h) Tie-off considerations (1) “One of the most important aspects of personal fall protection systems is fully planning the system before it is put into use. Probably the most overlooked component is planning for suitable anchorage points. Such planning should ideally be done before the structure or building is constructed so that anchorage points can be incorporated during construction for use later for window cleaning or other building maintenance. If properly planned, these anchorage points may be used during construction, as well as afterwards.” Designing in anchorage points gives workers someplace to tie off on, rather than picking something that may not be structurally sound.

63 DfCS Examples: Roofs Upper story windows and roof parapets Skylights

64 DfCS Examples: Steel Design
Avoid hanging connections; design to bear on columns instead using safety seats Require holes in columns for tie lines 21” and 42” above each floor slab Specify shop welded connections instead of bolts or field welds to avoid dangerous positions during erection Consider approximate dimensions of connection tools to prevent pinches or awkward assemblies National Institute of Steel Detailing and Steel Erectors Association of America. Detailing Guide for the Enhancement of Erection Safety

65 DfCS Examples: Residential Fall Protection
Many fall accidents occur in residential construction. By designing and installing tie-offs, roofers and cosntruction workers have something to tie off on when working on a residential roof.

66 Other DfCS Design Examples
Design underground utilities to be placed using trenchless technology1 Specify primers, sealers and other coatings that do not emit noxious fumes or contain carcinogenic products2 Design cable type lifeline system for storage towers3 1 Weinstein, “Can Design Improve Construction Safety”, 2005 2 Gambatese, “Viability of Designing for Construction Worker Safety”, 2005 3 Behm, “Linking Construction Fatalities to the Design for Construction Safety Concept”, 2005

67 CASE STUDY #1-CIRCULATOR PUMPS
This is a very simple example that illustrates the concept. In this boiler room, the circulator pumps where high up near the ceiling. A worker would have to stand on a ladder to replace the pumps, and would have to work in between the other piping.

68 CASE STUDY #1-CIRCULATOR PUMPS
Replacing circulator pumps requires a ladder,pumps are located in a tight space. Maintenance worker could fall off ladder, drop pump, or suffer hand injury from hitting adjacent piping

69 CASE STUDY #1-CIRCULATOR PUMPS
Design review questions- Is there enough room to replace the pumps? How high off the ground are the pumps? What if a maintenance worker has to shut off a valve an emergency? These are some of the “what if” questions that can be asked

70 CASE STUDY #1-CIRCULATOR PUMPS
Identify Hazard- Fall and mechanical First we identify the hazard(s).The hazards are FALL (off the ladder) and MECHANICAL (cracking your knuckles in the tight space)

71 CASE STUDY #1-CIRCULATOR PUMPS
Assess Risk- severity- slight (knuckles) to serious (head injury) probability-medium (likely) risk- low to medium Additional consideration- solution is simple and inexpensive Next we assess the risk. The severity can be serious, a head injury from a fall. The probability is medium, it is likely to occur. The risk using the matrix is low to medium. It should be noted that the design feature in this case is simple and inexpensive

72 CASE STUDY #1-CIRCULATOR PUMPS
Severity Probability Severe Serious Moderate Slight High High High Medium Low Medium High Medium Low Low Moderate Medium Low Low Negligible Low Low Low Negligible Negligible Once the severity and the probality have been estimated, this matrix can be used to assess the risk. The risk ranges from high to negligable. Design action ranges from intervention (high) to no action (negligable).

73 CASE STUDY #1-CIRCULATOR PUMPS
DfCS solution: design pumps close to ground level so that a ladder is not required, provide adequate space around pumps, provide a metal identification tag for each valve and provide a permanent identification board in the mechanical room that identifies each valve and it’s purpose.

74 CASE STUDY #1-CIRCULATOR PUMPS
In this case the solution to eliminate the hazard was to place the pumps low enough so that a ladder would not be needed, and to put them in an area that was clear of other piping. This simple example shows how a designer can have an impact on construction safety without increasing cost, taking on additional liability, or involving the owner.

75 CASE STUDY #2-INSTALLATION\MAINTENANCE OF HVAC SYSTEM (ATTIC)
HVAC System installed in the attic of a commercial office building No floor or platform/walkways were designed or installed HVAC technicians had to walk on joists/trusses This is another case study that illustrates the Design for Construction Safety concept. An HVAC system was installed in the attic of a commercial office building. No floor or platform walkways were installed. HVAC technicians had to walk on the trusses to install the system and to maintain the system

76 CASE STUDY #2-INSTALLATION\MAINTENANCE OF HVAC SYSTEM (ATTIC)
Design review questions What will workers stand on when installing HVAC system? Will regular maintenance be required? What will the maintenance workers stand on? What are the pertinent OSHA regulations?

77 CASE STUDY #2-INSTALLATION\MAINTENANCE OF HVAC SYSTEM (ATTIC)
Trying to walk on the joists was made more difficult when insulation was blown in. There was some narrow planking sent down, but it was not wide enough and was not secured.

78 CASE STUDY #2-INSTALLATION\MAINTENANCE OF HVAC SYSTEM (ATTIC)
Design review questions What will workers stand on when installing HVAC system? Will regular maintenance be required? What will the maintenance workers stand on? What are the pertinent OSHA regulations?

79 CASE STUDY #2-INSTALLATION\MAINTENANCE OF HVAC SYSTEM (ATTIC)
Identify hazard FALL

80 CASE STUDY #2-INSTALLATION\MAINTENANCE OF HVAC SYSTEM (ATTIC)
Assess Risk- severity- serious (knee) to severe (death) probability-medium (likely) risk- medium to high

81 CASE STUDY #2-INSTALLATION\MAINTENANCE OF HVAC SYSTEM (ATTIC)
Severity Probability Severe Serious Moderate Slight High High High Medium Low Medium High Medium Low Low Moderate Medium Low Low Negligible Low Low Low Negligible Negligible Once the severity and the probality have been estimated, this matrix can be used to assess the risk. The risk ranges from high to negligable. Design action ranges from intervention (high) to no action (negligable).

82 CASE STUDY #2-INSTALLATION\MAINTENANCE OF HVAC SYSTEM (ATTIC)
DfCS solution: design permanent platforms and walkways with guardrails In this case the hazard was recongnizable and the design solution straight forward, right out of the OSHA regulations

83 CASE STUDY #3-RAW COAL RECLAIM FACILITY1
Plant utility worker was fatally injured while performing clean-up duties at a raw coal reclaim area Victim either fell through a 56” x 80” opening in a platform or entered through a coal feeder opening 1Case study courtesy of Washington Group International Here is another case study, coutesy of the Washington Group International

84 CASE STUDY #3-RAW COAL RECLAIM FACILITY
Design review questions- Will workers need to have access to conveyors? Are covers and/or guardrails provided for all openings near or over conveyors? Are covers and/or guardrail gates interlocked?

85 CASE STUDY #3-RAW COAL RECLAIM FACILITY
This the area were the worker fell

86 CASE STUDY #3-RAW COAL RECLAIM FACILITY
Identify hazard Mechanical

87 CASE STUDY #3-RAW COAL RECLAIM FACILITY
Assess Risk- severity- severe (death) probability-medium to high risk- high

88 CASE STUDY #3-RAW COAL RECLAIM FACILITY
Severity Probability Severe Serious Moderate Slight High High High Medium Low Medium High Medium Low Low Moderate Medium Low Low Negligible Low Low Low Negligible Negligible Once the severity and the probality have been estimated, this matrix can be used to assess the risk. The risk ranges from high to negligable. Design action ranges from intervention (high) to no action (negligable).

89 CASE STUDY #3-RAW COAL RECLAIM FACILITY
DfCS solution: design covers and/or guardrails over conveyor belts and opening to conveyor belts. Design interlocks for covers and gates.

90 CASE STUDY #4-BLIND PENETRATION INTO CONCRETE1
A construction worker penetrated an embedded electrical conduit containing an energized 120-volt line while hand drilling into a concrete bean to install pipe hanger inserts. The conduit was 1 inch from the surface. 1 Dept. of Energy Blind Penetration Incidents This is an example of a hidden hazard

91 CASE STUDY #4-BLIND PENETRATION INTO CONCRETE
Design review questions How will the worker install the pipe hangers? Are there any electrical lines in the concrete beam? Are there any pipe hangers that will be near an electrical line? This is an example where “what if” scenarios can be used to “flush out” the hazard.

92 CASE STUDY #4-BLIND PENETRATION INTO CONCRETE
Assess Risk- severity- severe (death) probability- moderate to medium risk- medium to high

93 CASE STUDY #4-BLIND PENETRATION INTO CONCRETE
Severity Probability Severe Serious Moderate Slight High High High Medium Low Medium High Medium Low Low Moderate Medium Low Low Negligible Low Low Low Negligible Negligible Once the severity and the probality have been estimated, this matrix can be used to assess the risk. The risk ranges from high to negligable. Design action ranges from intervention (high) to no action (negligable).

94 CASE STUDY #4-BLIND PENETRATION INTO CONCRETE
DfCS Solution: Design embedded electrical lines deeper than the maximum depth of the pipe hanger bolts, clearly mark locations of electrical lines on contract drawings Even with this hidden hazard, there are design decisions that can be made to eliminate or reduce the risk of an injury.

95 CASE STUDY #5-INCINERATOR CLEANOUT1
An incinerator located adjacent to a main catwalk on 4th floor There was no catwalk from the main catwalk to the incinerator Workers periodically had to go into incinerator to clean Workers used make shift planking to from main catwalk to incinerator 1Note the catwalk from the main catwalk to the incinerator with the yellow guardrails was not in place at the time the worker fell. This is another case study that illustrates the Design for Construction Safety concept. An HVAC system was installed in the attic of a commercial office building. No floor or platform walkways were installed. HVAC technicians had to walk on the trusses to install the system and to maintain the system

96 CASE STUDY #5-INCINERATOR CLEANOUT
This is a very simple example that illustrates the concept. In this boiler room, the circulator pumps where high up near the ceiling. A worker would have to stand on a ladder to replace the pumps, and would have to work in between the other piping.

97 CASE STUDY #5-INCINERATOR CLEANOUT
This is a very simple example that illustrates the concept. In this boiler room, the circulator pumps where high up near the ceiling. A worker would have to stand on a ladder to replace the pumps, and would have to work in between the other piping.

98 CASE STUDY #5-INCINERATOR CLEANOUT
Design review questions.. Will regular maintenance be required? How will the workers gain access to the incinerator What are the pertinent OSHA regulations?

99 CASE STUDY #5-INCINERATOR CLEANOUT
Identify hazard FALL

100 CASE STUDY #5-INCINERATOR CLEANOUT
Assess Risk- severity- severe (death) probability-medium (likely) to high (very likely) risk- high

101 CASE STUDY #-INCINERATOR CLEANOUT
Severity Probability Severe Serious Moderate Slight High High High Medium Low Medium High Medium Low Low Moderate Medium Low Low Negligible Low Low Low Negligible Negligible Once the severity and the probality have been estimated, this matrix can be used to assess the risk. The risk ranges from high to negligable. Design action ranges from intervention (high) to no action (negligable).

102 CASE STUDY #5-INCINERATOR CLEANOUT
DfCS solution: design catwalk with guardrail and toeboards from main catwalk to incinerator.

103 IDEAS FOR DESIGNERS www.safetyindesign.org
Case Studies Trimming tops of Concrete Piles Modular Construction and Installation of Services Temporary Support Steelwork for High Level Work Platform Atrium Lighting Integrated Service Column / Panel Design Prefabrication of Steelwork Modular Construction of Stone Panels

104 TRAILER ACCESS PLATFORMS1
1

105 CAST-IN SOCKETS FOR RAILINGS1
1

106 COLOR CODED BOLT BAGS1 1

107 SAFETY BARRIER TO LOAD PALLETS ONTO MEZZANINE1
1

108 PREFABRICATION OF STEELWORK1
1

109 MAINTENANCE LIFT TO ACCESS ATRIUM LIGHTING1
1

110 MODULAR SERVICE RISERS1
1

111 GUIDANCE FOR DESIGNERS www.safetyindesign.org
Hazardous materials Asbestos Musculo-Skeletal Noise Excavations Erection of Structures Steelwork

112 GUIDANCE FOR DESIGNERS www.safetyindesign.org
Refurbishment Temporary work equipment Work at height Roofs Spatial Designs Suspended Access Equipment Blockwork

113 GUIDANCE FOR DESIGNERS www.safetyindesign.org
Demolition Manual Handling Lifting-cranes

114

115

116 GUIDANCE FOR DESIGNERS T 20.008 Work at Height1
Design service runs for so that they can be maintained from floor above Pre-assembly and fitting of trusses Position splices for steel columns so the splices can be done from a finished floor Install stairways early to avoid the need for temporary access Locate service equipment on ground if possible 1

117 GUIDANCE FOR DESIGNERS T 20.002 Erecting Steelwork1
Check all steel members for erection loads Ensure that all slender members can resist compression imposed by lifting slings Maximize pre-fabrication Ensure the spacing of purlins allows for the largest component to lowered down through 1

118 GUIDANCE FOR DESIGNERS T 20.009 Roofs1
Provide anchors points for fall protection Ensure roof structure can handle stacks of materials Position gutters so that cleaning can be done from cherry pickers or from safe access routes Consider parapets 1

119 GUIDANCE FOR DESIGNERS H 20.002 NOISE1
Cast in crack inducers rather than saw cutting Cast in anchors rather than site drilling Avoid vibro-compaction of ground Keep site grinding, cutting, etc. to a minimum 1

120 GUIDANCE FOR DESIGNERS H 20.001Musculo-skeletal1
Provide adequate space for lifting machines Design for machine laying of pavers Design brick laying to reduce long duration repetition 1

121 GUIDANCE FOR DESIGNERS H 10.001 Hazardous Materials1
Cast in chases for services rather than cut to reduce dust Specify water base or solvent free paints Check to see if there any existing contaminants on the site, alert workers 1

122 Summary/Closing Introduce the DfCS Process Basic Safety Engineering
Design Features Case Studies to Illustrate Process

123 Summary/Closing DESIGNERS CAN HAVE A POSITIVE IMPACT ON REDUCING CONSTRUCTION ACCIDENTS

124 DfCS Tools/Resources Construction Industry Institute database
United Kingdom Health & Safety Executive designer guides CHAIR OSHA Website

125 DfCS Tools/Resources Inherently Safer Design Principles for Construction, The Hazard Information Foundation, Inc.


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