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1INSERT SPEAKER NAME, TITLE, AND ORGANIZATION INFORMATION PREVENTION OF FALL FATALITIES AND INJURIES IN CONSTRUCTIONINSERT SPEAKER NAME, TITLE, ANDORGANIZATION INFORMATION
2Overview OSHA Alliance Program OSHA Alliance Program Construction RoundtableU.S. Construction Accident and Fall StatisticsSafe PracticesResourcesSummary*Through the OSHA Alliance Program, this presentation was developed by members of the Alliance Program Construction Roundtable for informational purposes only. It does not necessarily reflect the official views of OSHA or the U.S. Department of Labor . (September 2008)
3Alliance ProgramOSHA and the participating organizations define, implement, and meet a set of short- and long-term goals that fall into three categories:Training and educationOutreach and communicationPromoting the national dialogue on safety and healthSharing technical expertise, developing and disseminating compliance assistance products with participantsProvides OSHA access to millionsof employers and employees● Alliance Program. The Alliance Program enables trade or professional organizations, employers, labor organizations, educational institutions and government agencies (only if joined with non-governmental organizations) that share an interest in workplace safety and health to collaborate with OSHA to develop compliance assistance tools and products to help prevent injuries and illnesses in the workplace through the program. OSHA and the organization sign a formal 2-year agreement, which can be renewed or concluded, with goals that address training and education, outreach and communication, and promoting the national dialogue on workplace safety and health.However, Alliance Program agreements do not include an enforcement component, such as exemption from general scheduled inspections or monitoring visits. Alliances are also different from other cooperative programs because their agreements are not worksite-based; instead focus on entire industries or hazards within the industries.OSHA chose the Alliance Program training and education, outreach and communication and promoting the national dialogue as goals to maximize the resources and expertise of the Agency and the Alliance Program participants, recognizing that this is a tremendous asset in helping to improve safety and health in the workplace.Examples of activities and products that are being conducted and modified to meet the Alliances goals include developing and delivering training, education programs and curricula, speaking and exhibiting at conferences, developing and disseminating information and guidance, and sharing best practices in workplace safety and health and convening or participating in forums and roundtable discussions, and developing case studies for safety and health.We believe that there are many benefits that result from participating in the Alliance Program. Through the Program, organizations are able to:Build cooperative, trusting and collaborative relationships with OSHABetter able to network with others who are committed to promoting safety and health issuesFind ways of maximizing resources to increase worker safety and health protectionLeverage resources to maximize worker protectionGain recognition as proactive leaders in safety and healthBy developing an Alliance results in recognition from OSHA, and demonstrates to current and future employees that the company or industry has a proactive commitment to safety and health.John R. Miller, President, SIA.; Edwin G. Foulke, Jr., Assistant Secretary, USDOL-OSHA; and Richard J. Marshall, then-Executive Vice President, SIA; sign a national Alliance agreement on February 25, 20083
4OSHA Alliance Program Construction Roundtable Purpose of Alliance RoundtableSuccess of Alliance Program Construction Roundtable:Fall Protection WorkgroupDesign for Safety (DfS) WorkgroupPresentationsIn 2004, OSHA recognized that a number of Alliance Program participants shared a common interest in construction-related topics and issues and that the participants' expertise could be leveraged by bringing them together to discuss these topics and develop related compliance assistance tools and resources. As a result, the Agency formed the OSHA Alliance Program Construction Roundtable to provide participants with the opportunity to share construction-related information about Alliance-related activities and successes and network with others in the Program. As an outcome of the Roundtable, the Fall Protection and Design for Safety Workgroups were established. The Workgroups are meeting regularly and developing and disseminating construction-related compliance assistance tools and other resources to employers and employees in the workplace.Presentations
5OSHA Alliance Program Construction Roundtable: Members American Industrial Hygiene AssociationAmerican Society of Safety EngineersConcrete Sawing and Drilling AssociationConstruction Institute-American Society of Civil EngineersIndependent Electrical ContractorsLaborers’ Health and Safety Fund of North AmericaNational Association of Home BuildersNational Institute for Occupational Safety and HealthSealant Waterproofing and Restoration InstituteNational Safety CouncilWashington Division of URS CorporationThe companies and professional organizations shown here have been involved in the Design for Construction Safety Initiative, including developing this presentation file. Here is an example of some of the members involved with the CR
6Alliance Program Construction Roundtable Products Design for Safety WorkgroupDesign for Construction Safety Web site“Introduction to Designing for Construction Safety” presentationDesign for Construction Safety – 4 Hour CourseWashington Division of URS Case Study, "Washington Group International Designs and Builds a Mixed-Waste Treatment Facility." February 2007Fall Protection WorkgroupSafety Tips Sheets“Fall Protection” presentationToolbox TalksProducts of the Construction Roundtable:The Design for Safety Workgroup has met 12 times since the initial Alliance Program Construction Roundtable meeting on July 8, Following are products that the Design for Safety Workgroup has developed:Design for Construction Safety Web site. Through the Roundtable's Design for Safety Workgroup, members of CI-ASCE worked with other construction-related Alliances to develop a Design for Safety Web site that is designed to provide information on the barriers to designing for safety, and how to overcome the barriers. This site is hosted and maintained by Bucknell University.“Introduction to Designing for Construction Safety.” Through the Roundtable's Design for Safety Workgroup, a presentation was developed which informs the public about the process of addressing site safety and health in the design of a construction project.Design for Construction Safety 2-4 Hour Course. Through the Roundtable's Design for Safety Workgroup, a course was developed based on the “Introduction to Designing for Construction Safety” presentation. It provides technical information for those who are interested in learning more about designing for safety. The presentation is located in the “2-4 Hour DFCS Presentation” section on Design for Construction Safety Web site.Presentations addressing design for safety issues have been given by the workgroup’s representatives during a number of workshops and conferences including:- June 10, 2008: ASSE's 2008 Professional Development Conference. John Mroszczyk presented “Introduction to Designing for Construction Safety.”- May 15, 2008: 6th International Conference on Occupational Risk Prevention 2008, A Coruna, Spain: John Mroszczyk, ASSE, presented "The Future of the Safety Engineering Profession in the US."- March 7, 2008: American Society of Safety Engineers' (ASSE) St. Louis Chapter Professional Development Conference, St. Louis, Missouri. John Mroszczyk, ASSE, presented "Designing for Construction Safety 2-4 Hour Course."- February 12, 2008: 18th Annual Construction Safety Conference and Expo, Donald E. Stephens Convention Center, Rosemont, Illinois. John Gambatese, T. Michael Toole and Brad Giles presented "The Future of Design for Construction Safety."- January 16, 2008: Kentucky's Second Annual Conference on Construction Safety, Crowne Plaza Lexington-The Campbell House, Lexington, Kentucky. John Mroszczyk, American Society of Safety Engineers (ASSE), presented "Designing for Construction Safety" to 35 attendees.Case Study. "Washington Division of URS formerly known as Washington Group International Designs and Builds a Mixed-Waste Treatment Facility." OSHA. February This case study describes how the Washington Group International, Inc. incorporated its design for safety process into the construction of the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Facility in eastern Idaho.The Fall Protection Workgroup has met 11 times since the initial Alliance Program Construction Roundtable meeting on July 8, Following are products that the Fall Protection Workgroup has developed:Fall Protection Safety Tips Sheets for Employers and Employees. Through the Roundtable's Fall Protection Workgroup, IEC worked with other construction-related Alliances to develop Tips Sheets for employers and employees that describe general safety tips to help prevent fall-related injuries.“Fall Protection.” Through the OSHA Alliance Program Construction Roundtable's Fall Protection Workgroup, a presentation was developed by the SWR Institute addressing fall protection issues in construction industry including fall protection systems. The presentation is available in English and Spanish.Toolbox Talks Focusing on Ladder Safety. Through the Alliance Program Construction Roundtable's Fall Protection Workgroup, the Workgroup developed a series of toolbox talks focusing on ladder safety:- Choosing the Right Ladder Inspect Ladders Carefully!- Do's and Don'ts of Using a Ladder Set Up and Use of a Ladder- Extension Ladder Safety Using a Stepladder Safely* (All of these products can be found on the Alliance Program Construction Roundtable Web page on OSHA’s Web site.)Picture of Toolbox Talks: Ladder Safety6
7Design for Construction Safety Web Site Through the Roundtable's Design for Safety Workgroup, members of CI-ASCE worked with other construction-related Alliances to develop a Design for Safety Web site that is designed to provide information on the barriers to designing for safety, and how to overcome the barriers. This site is hosted by Bucknell University.This site provides links to Design for Safety-Related products and resources including:Introduction to Designing for Construction Safety PowerPoint® presentation. Through the Roundtable's Design for Safety Workgroup, a PowerPoint® presentation, "Designing for Construction Safety," was developed to inform the public about the process of addressing site safety and health in the design of a construction project. The presentation is located in the "Intro to DFCS Presentation" section on the Design for Construction Safety Web site.Design for Construction Safety 2-4 Hour Course PowerPoint® presentation. Through the Roundtable's Design for Safety Workgroup, the "Design for Construction Safety 2-4 Hour Course," was developed. The course is based on the Design for Construction Safety slide presentation and provides technical information for those that are interested learning more about Designing for Safety. The presentation is located in the "2-4 Hour Course DFCS Presentation" section on the Design for Construction Safety Web site.Case Study. "Washington Group International Designs and Builds a Mixed-Waste Treatment Facility." OSHA. February This case study describes how the Washington Group International, Inc. incorporated its design for safety process into the construction of the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Facility in eastern Idaho.An additional resource of this site is a link to the Construction Industry Institute website that offers (for sale) a report and database containing over 400 design suggestions that could be used by design professionals to minimize or eliminate safety hazards in their designs.”Screen Capture of Design for Construction Safety Web site7
8Alliance Program Construction Roundtable In 2004, OSHA recognized that a number of Alliance Program participants shared a common interest in construction-related topics and issues and that the participants' expertise could be leveraged by bringing them together to discuss these topics and develop related compliance assistance tools and resources. As a result, the Agency formed the OSHA Alliance Program Construction Roundtable to provide participants with the opportunity to share construction-related information about Alliance-related activities and successes and network with others in the Program. As an outcome of the Roundtable, the Fall Protection and Design for Safety (DFS) Workgroups were established. The Workgroups are meeting regularly and developing and disseminating construction-related compliance assistance tools and other resources to employers and employees in the workplace. We anticipate the Workgroups will meet again in September 2008.Products of the Alliance Program’s Construction Roundtable Design for Safety Workgroup include:Design for Construction Safety Web site“Introduction to Designing for Construction Safety”Design for Construction Safety 2-4 Hour CourseCase Study from the Washington Division of URS CorporationProducts of the Alliance Program’s Construction Roundtable Fall Protection Workgroup include:Fall Protection Safety Tips Sheets for Employers and Employees“Fall Protection slide presentation”Toolbox Talks Focusing on Ladder SafetyChoosing the Right LadderInspect Ladders Carefully!Electrical Ladder SafetyDo's and Don'ts of Using a LadderSet Up and Use of a LadderUsing a Stepladder SafelyAll of these products can be viewed from the Alliance Program’s Construction Roundtable Web page seen here.Screen Capture of OSHA’s Alliance ProgramConstruction Roundtable Web Page8
9U.S. Construction Accident Statistics1 Nearly 200,000 serious injuries and 1,226 deaths each year5.5% of workforce but 21.5% of fatalitiesConstruction has one of the highest fatality rates of any industry sectorSIGNIFICANCE: NEARLY 100 DEATHS PER MONTH1 Bureau of Labor Statistics-2006Unfortunately, as many of us know, construction is one of the most dangerous industries to work in. In the U.S., construction typically accounts for just under 200,000 serious injuries and 1200 deaths each year. That’s about 100 deaths per month, every month, every year. The fatality rate is disproportionally high for the size of the construction workforce. But statistics like these do not tell the whole story. Behind every serious injury, there is a real story of an individual who suffered serious pain and may never fully recover. Behind every fatality, there are spouses, children and parents who grieve every day for their loss.Because we all recognize that safety is an inherently dangerous business, all of us—including architects , engineers, and contractors--must do what we can to reduce the risk of injuries on the projects we are involved in.
10U.S. Construction Fall Fatality Statistics1 Total FallsFrom roof edgeFrom scaffold, stagingFrom laddersTo lower levelThrough floor opening, floor surface,ground to lower levelFrom structural steelThrough skylightFrom non-moving vehicleThrough roof surface, roof opening1Bureau of Labor Statistics-2006Nearly 1/3 of construction fatalities result from falls. This chart provides a breakdown of the fall statistics. Concentrating on fall accidents, therefore can have a significant impact on construction fatalities. Architects, engineer, and contractors can provide guidance and direction to reduce these statistics. Design professionals (architects and engineers) can specify building features eliminate fall hazards. Contractors can implement fall protection when these building features are either not in place, or are not practical.Need HISP Data
11Fall Speed vs. Reaction Time In 1 second your bodywill fall 16 feetGood body reactiontime= 0.5 secondsTravel distance in0.5 seconds = 4 feetThis slide indicates why fall prevention is so important. A body accelerating under the force of gravity will travel a distance (S) equal to ½ g t2 where “g” is the acceleration of gravity. A realistic reaction time for a human is 1 second. Under the force of gravity, a body will fall 16 feet in one second. Using a reaction time of .5 seconds, which is on the higher side, your body center of gravity will travel 4 feet downward. The worker has moved a substantial distance downward before he/she even realizes what has happened. Beyond that, even if a worker had something to grab onto, it is doubtful a human would be able to grab and maintain a grip with enough force to arrest a fall.By the time you react your body will be4 feet below where you were standing
12When Do You Need Fall Protection? OSHA’s Regulation 29 CFR (b) under Subpart M requires fall protection wherever the potential to fall six feet or more exists.Fall protection is required when you are:Near an unprotected roof edge;Working in a unguarded mezzanine and balcony edges;While the potential for an injury exists from any height, OSHA requires fall protection whenever the potential to fall is six feet or more.
13When Do You Need Fall Protection? Fall protection is also required in the followinglocations:Working off aerial lift;Unguarded scaffolding 10 feet or higherFall protection is also required when working on an aerial lift or scaffolding.
14Reducing Fall Fatalities and Injuries Design Professionals – Design Professionals’ need to be cognizant to design with health and safety in mind. Design permanent building features so that fall protection is not needed. This eliminates the chance of an accident if fall protection is not provided, provided but not used, or not used properlyContractors – It is the contractor’s responsibility to enforce compliance with safety practices with regard to ladders, scaffolds, and instances where fall protection is necessaryWorkers – It is the worker’s responsibility to apply the safety practices with regard to ladders, scaffolds, and instances where fall protection is necessaryReducing fall fatalities and injuries requires a team effort between design professionals, contractors, and workers. Designers need to design buildings with worker safety and health in mind. Buildings should be designed so that fall protection is not required. This eliminates the chance that either fall protection is not used or not used properly.Contractors need to train workers in fall protection and enforce fall protection safety measures.Workers had to apply fall safety practices and comply with their training.
15Types of Fall Prevention and Protection Systems Passive Systems prevent falls by placing a physical barrier between the worker and the hazard (e.g. guardrails).Active Systems protect workers by limiting the fall to a specified distance and also limit the amount of force the worker is subjected to in the event of a fall (e.g. personal fall arrest systems).There are two types of systems when it comes to preventing and protecting workers from falls. Passive systems prevent falls by placing a physical barrier between the worker and the fall hazard. Examples of passive systems are parapet walls and guardrails. Active systems protect workers that have already fallen by limiting the fall to a specified distance and also limiting the force that the worker is subjected to. Examples of active systems are personal fall-arrest systems.
16Personal Fall-Arrest Systems A Personal Fall-Arrest System is a system used to arrest an employee in a fall from a working level.Any person ordered to work with at height who has an increase risk of falling off of structures/buildings should wear a personal fall arrest system.Personal fall arrest systems will be mentioned in the next few slides because it provides a basis for anchor points and other features that are addressed later in the presentation.A personal fall arrest system is a system used to arrest an worker in a fall. A personal fall arrest system consists of an anchorage, a body support, and the connecting means. Any person that has to work at height should wear a personal fall arrest system, unless there are other measures in place such as guardrails.
17Personal Fall-Arrest Systems Personal Fall-Arrest Systems, whenstopping a fall shall be rigged such thata worker can neither free fall more thansix feet, nor contact any lower level.Must have a minimum breaking strength of 5,000 pounds.A personal fall arrest system should be rigged such that a workers cannot free fall more than six feet, or, contact any lower level. The personal fall arrest system must have a minimum breaking strength of 5000 pounds.
18Personal Fall-Arrest Systems A personal fall-arrest system shall consist of the following:Anchorage points, Full body harness, Shock Absorbing Lanyard, Lifeline, Rope-grabs, ConnectorsAll components of the fall arrest system shall be fully compatible.A personal fall-arrest system consists of an anchorage system, a full body harness, a shock absorbing lanyard, a lifeline, rope grab, and connections. Each of these components will be discusses.
19Full Body Harness Must be the right size for you. The attachment point of a bodyharness shall be located on the:Rear D-ring between shoulders when working from a suspended scaffold or an aerial lift Front D-ring when working from a bosun’s chair.Harness must be adjusted snugly starting with leg straps, then waist, shoulders and chest.A full body harness should be the right size for the worker. The harness distributes the arresting forces over the seat and shoulders. The attachment point on the harness should be on the rear between the shoulders when working from a suspended scaffold or an aerial lift.The harness must be adjusted snuggly starting with the leg straps, then the waist, then the shoulders and the chest.
20Lanyards Used to connect a body harness to a lifeline, rope-grab, or anchorage point.Shall be the appropriate length:Bosun’s chair – 2 feet or lessSuspended scaffold – 3 to 4 feetAerial lift – 4 to 6 feetAttach to:Rear D-ring on harness between shoulderswhen working on suspended scaffolds andaerial lifts.Front D-ring when working from a bosun’s chair.Be protected against being cut or abraded.The lanyard connects the body harness to a lifeline, a rope-grab, or an anchorage point. . The lanyard should be of the shock absorbing type.
21LifelinesVertical - connected to an anchorage at one end to hang vertically.Horizontal - connected to anchorages at both ends to stretch horizontally.A vertical lifeline extends away from the anchorage point to which a lanyard is attached using a grab device. A horizontal lifeline is anchored between two fixed points.
22LifelinesAre used as a means of connecting other components of a Personal Fall-Arrest System.Shall be protected from contact with any surface that may abrade, weaken, damage or sever it.Shall be removed from service as recommended by the manufacturer.This slide discusses some of the other aspects of lifelines
23Falls From Roof EdgeFalls from roof edge is the number 1 cause of fall fatalities. This photo shows a worker too close to the edge without fall protection. Design professionals can have an influence on falls from foot edge by designing and specifying permanent features so that fall protection is not required, or, is easier to use. Contractors need to comply with OSHA regulations and use proper fall protection such as fall arrest systems.
24Falls From Roof Edge-Specify Parapets IBC paragraph requires that a parapet wall be at least 30 inches highOSHA 1926 Subpart M requires a inch guardrail or other fall protectionIf the design professional specifies a inch high parapet wall, fall protection would not be requiredThe leading cause of construction fatalities from fall is fall from roof edge.Design professionals can play an important role here. By specifying 39 to 45 inch high parapet wall, fall protection under OSHA 1926 would not be required. This passive system eliminates the chance of a fall occurring because a worker didn’t have a personal fall arrest system, didn’t use it, or didn’t use if properly.
25Falls From Roof EdgeOther features that Design Professionals should consider:Locate mechanical equipment away from the roof edge or on the groundAnother way that design professional can reduce falls from rood edge is to specify the location of mechanical equipment, such as HVAC units, away from the edge of the roof.
26Design Permanent Anchorage Points Design Professionals can design fixed anchorage points so that workers will have a convenient, safe point to tie off when personal fall arrest systems are needed.The idea of identifying anchorage points on construction drawings is in accordance with Appendix C to Subpart M (Fall Protection) from the federal OSHA standards for Construction:(h) Tie-off considerations (1) “One of the most important aspects of personal fall protection systems is fully planning the system before it is put into use. Probably the most overlooked component is planning for suitable anchorage points. Such planning should ideally be done before the structure or building is constructed so that anchorage points can be incorporated during construction for use later for window cleaning or other building maintenance. If properly planned, these anchorage points may be used during construction, as well as afterwards.”Designing in anchorage points gives workers someplace to tie off on, rather than picking something that may not be structurally sound.
27Design of Anchorage Points An anchorage is a secure point of attachment for lifelines lanyards or deceleration devices;Must be independent of any anchorage being used for equipment tiebacks;Must be independent of the means ofsupporting or suspending the worker;Must be capable of supporting atleast 5,000 pounds per worker;Sound anchorages include certifiedroof anchors as well as structuralmembers.This slide shows some of the design requirements for anchorages. An anchorage is a secure point of attachment for lifelines or lanyards. An anchorage should be independent and capable of supporting 5,000 pounds per worker.
28Design Permanent Anchorage Points: Residential Fall Protection Many fall accidents occur in residential construction. By designing and installing tie-offs, roofers and construction workers have something to tie off on when working on a residential roof rather tying off on an unsafe structure.
29Falls From Scaffolds/Staging Falls from scaffolds are the second leading cause of fall fatalities. Contractors bear most of the responsibility here by complying with scaffold safety requirements.
30Falls From Scaffolds/Staging Scaffolds shall be fully plankedScaffolds shall have guardrails or personal fall arrest systemsScaffolds shall have a safe means of accessFalls from scaffolds and staging ranks as the second most cause of fatalities from falls. Contractors should make sure that the scaffold is fully planked. If the scaffold does not have guardrails, then personal fall arrest systems should be used. Scaffolds should have a safe means of access.
31Falls From Aerial Lifting Devices Aerial lift devices are another type of scaffold. This equipment has specific safety requirements.
32Falls From LaddersFalls from ladders is the third leading cause of fall fatalities. Designers and contractors can help here. Many times a contractor has to use a ladder to do his/her work. This is a contractor/worker responsibility
33Falls From Ladders-Specify Fixed Ladders or Stairways Specify fixed ladders or stairways whenever possibleFalls from ladders is the third highest cause of fatalities from falls. This is an area where design professionals and contractors can help. Design professionals can specify fixed ladders or stairways whenever possible. This would eliminate the need for personal fall arrest systems and/or the use of a ladder. Thus, the chance that a worker may not use fall protection, may use a defective ladder, or not use the ladder properly is eliminated.
34Falls From LaddersPosition portable ladders to the side rails to extend at least 3 feet above the landingSecure side rails at top or use a grab device when 3 foot extension is not possibleUse “3-point” contact rulePosition base of ladder one foot away from wall for every four feet of ladder lengthWhen ladders are necessary, contractors should follow OSHA regulations for ladder safety. Ladders should be positioned so that the side rails extend at least 3 feet above the landing. When this is not possible, the side rails should be secured at the top or a grab device should be used.Always climb a ladder using the “3-point” contact rule. Ladders should be positioned with the base one foot away from the wall for every four feet of ladder length.Always make sure the ladder is footed or the base is sufficiently anchored to prevent sliding.
35Falls From HeightFalls from height is the fourth leading cause of fall fatalities. Designers can help to prevent falls from height by designing buildings so that fall protection is not required and by designing buildings such that the time spent at height in minimized through modular construction.
36Falls From Height-Specify 39-45 Inch High Window Sills Falls from height is the fourth leading cause of fatalities from falls. Design professionals can eliminate the need for fall protection at window opening by designing upper story windows to be at least 39 in. above the floor level. Having the window sill at this height allows it to function as a guardrail during construction.
37Falls From Height-Specify Pre-Fabrication Building Components Concrete Wall PanelsDesign professionals can help reduce falls from height by reducing the time spent at elevation. Anything that can be built on the ground and lifted into place reduces the time that is spent at height, thereby reducing the likelihood of a fall. Here are some examples.Prefabricating stairways and railings not only reduces the time spent at height, but if put up early in the construction phase, will eliminated the need for fall protection because the floor opening guardrails and handrails will already be in place.This slide shows several other examples. Pre-fan wall panels and pre-fab bridge segments.Concrete Segmented BridgeSteel Stairs
38Falls From Height-Specify Pre-Fabricated Steelwork1 Here is another example of pre-fabrication. Any building component that can be built on the ground and lifted into place reduces the time spent at height.1
39Falls From Height-Specify Pre-Fabricated Service Risers1 1This is another example of how design professionals can use their design skills to reduce fall injuries from height. By designing pre-fan service risers that are built on the ground and lifted into place reduces the time spent at height.
40Falls from Floor Openings Falls through from floor openings is another cause of fall fatalities. Contractors have to ensure that floor openings are properly covered. This would include a secured, structurally sound cover.
41Falls From Floor Openings-Guardrails Perimeter guarding shall consist of a mid-rail, top rail, toe-board system. The top edge height of the rail shall be 42+/-3 inches and the mid-rail should be between the top and the walking/working level.Falls through floors and floor openings is another major cause of fatalities from falls. Designers can be helpful here as well. Designers should specify guardrail systems along all elevated working/walking surfaces. Designers and contractors working together should strive to put permanent guardrails up as early as possible in the construction process so that workers are not exposed to unguarded heights.41
42Falls From Floor Openings-Specify Cast-in Sockets For Railings1 1Design professionals can also design features that make it easier for contractors to install temporary guardrails. By specifying cast-in sockets, for examples, contactors can easily install temporary railings by inserting the railing posts directly into the sockets. The sockets can then be used for permanent railings or filled in.
43Falls From Floor Openings Contractor can:Install temporary guardrails for temporary floor openingsInstall a cover for temporary floor openings and holesWith regard to temporary floor openings, contractors must be diligent in installing temporary guardrails or installing covers.
44Falls From Structural Steel Fall from structural steel is another cause of fall fatalities. Designers can specify features that make it easier for a contractor to install permanent or temporary guardrails. We will see some of these features in the next few slides.
45Falls From Structural Steel Avoid hanging connections; design to bear on columns instead using safety seatsRequire holes in columns for tie lines 21” and 42” above each floor slabSpecify shop welded connections instead of bolts or field welds to avoid dangerous positions during erectionConsider approximate dimensions of connection tools to prevent pinches or awkward assembliesFalls from structural steel is another contributor to fatalities from falls. This slide shows some of the design features that a design professional can specify on a drawing. By design safety seats, hanging connections can be avoided.Specifying holes in columns at 21 “ and 42” above each floor level gives contractors a convenient place to attached wire cables for temporary guardrails.Any work that can be done on the ground reduces that time spent at height. By specifying shop welded connections avoids potentially dangerous positions that may be required to field bolt connections.National Institute of Steel Detailing and Steel Erectors Association of America. Detailing Guide for the Enhancement of Erection Safety
46Falls Through Skylights Falls through skylights is the seventh cause of fall fatalities. One can only speculate what this worker was doing before he fell through the skylight shown in this photo. Note his/her hard hat remained on the roof.
47Falls Through Skylights-Specify Guards Falls through skylights is the seventh cause of fatalities from falls. Specifically, designers can:Design permanent guardrails to be installed around skylights.Design domed, rather than flat, skylights with shatterproof glass or strengthening wires.Design the skylight to be installed on a raised curb.
48Falls Through Roof Surface/Roof Opening Provide Dedicated Walkways to Access Equipment on RoofDesign roof structure so that it can carry stacks of roofing materialsHighlight hazardous and “no-walk” areas with red highlighting paint or other visual warnings.Design professional can help reduce falls though roof surfaces and roof openings by designing dedicated walkways for access to equipment on the roof.The roof structure should be designed so that if can safety support stacks of materials during construction.Hazardous areas and “no-walk” areas should be highlighted with red paint of other visual warnings.
49Falls From Non-Moving Vehicles When a truck is on the road, it is controlled by DOT regulations. However, when parked on a construction site, the manner in which it is used may require fall protection measures. If porta-johns are positioned on a flat bed for workers to use, then the flat bed now becomes a working/walking surface and requires a safe means of access such as a stairway with guardrails, and, guardrails around the exposed edges or the trailer.
50Falls From Non-Moving Vehicles- Trailer Access Platform When motor vehicles are stopped for loading or unloading, the truck bed is in effect, a working-walking surface. The safety precautions that would be implemented for opened sided floors would apply here. The truck bed should have a safe means of access. This slide shows an example of fabricated platforms including guardrails and stairways that can be used when unloading or loading flatbed trailers.1
51Fall Prevention Resources OSHAAlliance Program Construction Roundtable Web PageFall Protection Safety and Health Topics PageOSHA’s Construction Pocket GuideOtherDesign for Construction Safety Web SiteNIOSH Prevention Through Design Web PageSafety in DesignThis slide lists many of the resources that are available.Picture of OSHA's Construction Pocket Guide