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APA STYLE In-Text Citations and Reference Lists Gavilan College Writing Center.

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Presentation on theme: "APA STYLE In-Text Citations and Reference Lists Gavilan College Writing Center."— Presentation transcript:

1 APA STYLE In-Text Citations and Reference Lists Gavilan College Writing Center

2 Presentation Overview Introductions APA: What and why? Crediting Sources: What and why? Formatting In-Text Citations Formatting Reference Lists Resources

3 APAWhat and why? Different professional communities use different style guides, that include rules for crediting sources, organization, style, and formatting. Ask your instructor which style guide you should use. Modern Language Association (MLA) Style Guide English Studies - Language and Literature Foreign Language and Literatures American Psychological Association (APA) Style Guide Social Sciences Nursing Chicago Style Literature, history, and the arts Sciences Social sciences

4 Giving Credit: Why, What, and When Why?Give authors credit for their ideas Increase credibility and transparency Avoid plagiarism What?Any information that you learned from another source including facts, statistics, opinions, theories, photographs, and charts EXCEPTION: Information that is common knowledge Barack Obama is the president of the United States. The Declaration of Independence was signed July 4, When?Cite sources immediately after mentioning their information in any way (quotations, summaries, paraphrases). Crediting Sources gives an author or resource credit for original information.

5 Crediting Sources Crediting Sources includes two parts: In-Text Citations: These are in-text, meaning in body of your paper. When you present information, you briefly identify its source. Reference List: On a separate page at the end of your paper, you write a detailed list of the sources cited in your paper. The in-text citations and reference list should credit the exact same sources.

6 IN-TEXT CITATIONS

7 Purpose of In-Text Citations To acknowledge the source of the information right where it is written To allow the reader to look up the full reference at the end of the paper

8 In-Text Citation Format An in-text citation usually includes the following information: Authors last name (no first name or initial) Publication date (year onlyeven for electronic sources) Page number (required for quotations; optional for paraphrases) The rest of the information about the source appears in the reference list.

9 In-Text Citations with Paraphrases 1.Authors name and publication year at end of sentence People with bipolar disorder often have lower wages, higher unemployment, work absenteeism, reliance on workmens compensation, higher rates of divorce, lower levels of educational attainment, higher arrest rates, and hospitalization (Leahy, 2007). 2.Authors name in the sentence immediately followed by year According to Leahy (2007), people with bipolar disorder often have lower wages, higher unemployment, work absenteeism, reliance on workmens compensation, higher rates of divorce, lower levels of educational attainment, higher arrest rates, and hospitalization.

10 In-Text Citations with Quotations (under 40 words) 1. Authors name, year, and page number immediately following quotation Genres are abstract, socially recognized ways of using language (Hyland, 2003, p. 21). 2. Authors name in the sentence immediately followed by year Page number immediately following quotation According to Hyland (2003), genres are abstract, socially recognized ways of using language (p. 21).

11 Lets Practice! Authors last name: Gee Year of publication: 2005 Page number: 8 Another viewpoint is that the meaning of language is inherently social. Another viewpoint is that language has meaning only in and through social practices. The recent theory that language has meaning only in and through social practices lends support for social learning theories. Gee believes that the meaning of language is inherently social. Gees theory that language has meaning only in and through social practices lends support for social learning theories.

12 Lets Practice! Authors last name: Gee Year of publication: 2005 Page number: 8 Another viewpoint is that the meaning of language is inherently social (Gee, 2005). Another viewpoint is that language has meaning only in and through social practices. The recent theory that language has meaning only in and through social practices lends support for social learning theories. Gee believes that the meaning of language is inherently social. Gees theory that language has meaning only in and through social practices lends support for social learning theories.

13 Lets Practice! Authors last name: Gee Year of publication: 2005 Page number: 8 Another viewpoint is that the meaning of language is inherently social (Gee, 2005). Another viewpoint is that language has meaning only in and through social practices (Gee, 2005, p. 8). The recent theory that language has meaning only in and through social practices lends support for social learning theories. Gee believes that the meaning of language is inherently social. Gees theory that language has meaning only in and through social practices lends support for social learning theories.

14 Lets Practice! Authors last name: Gee Year of publication: 2005 Page number: 8 Another viewpoint is that the meaning of language is inherently social (Gee, 2005). Another viewpoint is that language has meaning only in and through social practices (Gee, 2005, p. 8). The recent theory that language has meaning only in and through social practices (Gee, 2005, p. 8) lends support for social learning theories. Gee believes that the meaning of language is inherently social. Gees theory that language has meaning only in and through social practices lends support for social learning theories.

15 Lets Practice! Authors last name: Gee Year of publication: 2005 Page number: 8 Another viewpoint is that the meaning of language is inherently social (Gee, 2005). Another viewpoint is that language has meaning only in and through social practices (Gee, 2005, p. 8). The recent theory that language has meaning only in and through social practices (Gee, 2005, p. 8) lends support for social learning theories. Gee (2005) believes that the meaning of language is inherently social. Gees theory that language has meaning only in and through social practices lends support for social learning theories.

16 Lets Practice! Authors last name: Gee Year of publication: 2005 Page number: 8 Another viewpoint is that the meaning of language is inherently social (Gee, 2005). Another viewpoint is that language has meaning only in and through social practices (Gee, 2005, p. 8). The recent theory that language has meaning only in and through social practices (Gee, 2005, p. 8) lends support for social learning theories. Gee (2005) believes that the meaning of language is inherently social. Gees (2005) theory that language has meaning only in and through social practices (p. 8) lends support for social learning theories.

17 In-Text Citations: Variations in Author BasicAuthor Names in Sentence 2 Authors(Verhaak & de Haan, 2007)Verhaak and de Haan (2007) 3-5 Authors first citation (Zandt, Prior, & Kyrios, 2006) subsequent citations (Zandt et al., 2006) first citation Zandt, Prior, and Kyrios (2006) subsequent citations Zandt et al. (2006) 6+ Authors(Storch et al., 2006)Storch et al. (2006) Group as Author (University of Texas, 2007)University of Texas (2007) No Author(Study Finds, 2007) (College Bound Seniors, 2008) Study Finds (2007) College Bound Seniors (2008)

18 In-Text Citations: Other Variations BasicAuthor Name(s) in Sentence No Publication Date(Basham, n.d.)Basham (n.d.) Multiple Pages(Gee, 2005, pp. 8-9)Gee (2007)…(pp. 8-9) No Page Numbers(Brown, 2007, para. 6)Brown (2007)…(para. 6) Multiple works by the same author in the same citation (Gogel, 1990, 2006)Gogel (1990, 2006) Multiple works by different authors in the same citation (Minor, 1999; Shafranske & Mahoney, 1998) N/A

19 In-Text Citations: Secondary Sources Often sources cite other sources that interest you. If you can, locate the original material and cite the original source. You can look up the reference information in the reference list of the source you are reading. If you cannot easily access the original source, use: 1. Authors name of original source in your sentence 2. The source you read in parentheses 3. Only the source you read in your reference list

20 In-Text Citations: Secondary Source Example In Ferris and Hedgcock (2005) you read: That is, not all writers need to execute direct planning strategies by writing ideas, plans, or outlines on paper or on a computer screen (Matsuda, 2003). In your paper you write: According to Matsuda, not all students use written plans in preparation for writing (as cited in Ferris & Hedgcock, 2005, p. 259). In your reference list you include an entry for Ferris & Hedgcock (not Matsuda).

21 REFERENCES

22 The Purpose of a Reference List To show where you found the information you used To give others a reliable way of finding the same sources you used

23 Reference List Format Starts on a new page Title: References Centered No other changes to type ½ inch hanging indent Double spaced Alphabetized by author last name

24 Alphabetical Order Reference Entry Basic: By last name Basham, C. (n.d.). Gee, J. P. (2005). Multiple entries by same author: Earliest first Kaplan, R. B. (1966). Kaplan, R. B. (1988). Different authors with same last name: By first intital Light, L. (2008). Light, M. (2006). No author: By titleOffice of institutional research. (n.d.)

25 Four Parts of a Reference Entry A reference entry generally includes the following four elements in this order: 1. Authors name 2. Date of publication 3. Title of the work 4. Publication information

26 1. Authors Name Reference Entry 1 AuthorGee, J. P. 2 AuthorsVerhaak, L., & de Haan, E. 3-7 AuthorsYoshida, T., Taga, C., Matsumoto, Y., & Fukui, K. 8+ AuthorsGilbert, D. G., McClernon, J. F., Rabinovich, N. E., Sugai, C., Plath, L. C., Asgaard, G., … Botros, N. Group as AuthorUniversity of Pittsburgh. No AuthorSix sites meet for comprehensive anti-gang initiative conference.

27 2. Publication Date Reference Entry Book, Journal Article (2005). Magazine, Newspaper (2008, June 5). (2008, June). (2008, June/July). (2008, Summer). No Publication Date (n.d.).

28 3. Title of Work Reference Entry Article or ChapterPeer victimization in children with obsessive- compulsive disorder: Relations with symptoms of psychopathology. Periodical (Journal, Newspaper, Magazine) British Journal of Psychology. BookDiscourse analysis: Theory and method. The history of the Supreme Court.

29 4. Publication Information Reference Entry BookNew York, NY: McGraw-Hill. Pretoria, South Africa: Unisa. Journal, MagazineBritish Journal of Psychology, 97(1), volume number(issue number)

30 Reference Entry Examples Book Website Newspaper Articleprint and online Journal Articleprint and online

31 Book Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of work. Location: Publisher.

32 Website Author, A. A. (Publication Year, Month Day). Title of document. Retrieved from address of home page

33 Newspaper Article: Print Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Title of article. Title of Newspaper, pp. x, x.

34 Newspaper Article: Online Author, A. A. (Publication Year, Month Day). Title of article. Title of Newspaper. Retrieved from address of newspaper homepage

35 Journal Article: Print Author, A., & Author, B. (Year of publication). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume number(issue number), x-xx.

36 Journal Article: Online Do not include database retrieval date or other database information Most online journals are identified with a DOI (digital object identifier) instead of a URL Before the DOI write: The DOI can be found on the database retrieval page or on the first page of the electronic article

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39 Journal Article: Online Author, A., & Author, B. (Year of publication). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume number(issue number), x-xx.

40 Journal Article: Online without DOI If DOI is not available, include journal homepage URL

41 Lets Practice You find an article by searching on EBSCO Host and this is the page that comes up…

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43 Lets Practice Your reference entry should look like this: Bickel, W. K. (2012). The emerging new science of psychopathology. Addiction, 107(10),

44 Resources: APA Manual (6 th Edition)

45 Rules of ThumbA Writers Reference Purdue OWL Gavilan College Writing Center Gavilan Library

46 Gavilan College Writing Center Writing Assistants trained to guide you through citing sources and formatting a reference list Computers available to access research databases Helpful advice for APA reference books and websites Schedule an appointment or drop in Hours:Monday thru Thursday 8:00 AM – 5:00 PM Friday 8:00 AM-1:00 PM

47 Join Us at Upcoming Workshops!


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