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ENGLISH LANGUAGE PROGRAM FALL 2014 Introduction to Research.

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1 ENGLISH LANGUAGE PROGRAM FALL 2014 Introduction to Research

2 Key Vocabulary Cite (v) – to give credit to the original author or speaker of a set of ideas or a quote  Citation (n) - the written form of credit given to an author that appears directly next to their original idea or quote “ To be or not to be, that is the question.” (Shakespeare, 1605) Eleanor Roosevelt (1932) said, “The future belongs to those who believe in the beauty of their dreams.” Source (n) – the material where you find information for your research or support for your argument; for example, a news article, a book, a journal, an interview, etc.  Reference (n) – another word for source; also refers to the complete information given about the original author, title, publication and date of an idea, usually included in a list form at the end of a written paper  Example reference page:

3 Key Vocabulary Summary (n) – written collection of all the main ideas in a reading, using one’s own words  A summary may consist of more than one sentence or paragraph  The summary of a two-page article will probably be 5-6 sentences in length  Verb: to summarize Paraphrase (n) – rewriting of a single idea from another author, using one’s own words  A paraphrase is usually only one or two sentences in length  The paraphrase may be similar in length to the original idea  Used in research  Verb: to paraphrase

4 Key Vocabulary Format/Formatting (n) – the general appearance of a written document, such a paper, magazine, etc. Publication (n) – a final published work (after all stages of writing and editing), such as a book, magazine, journal, etc.

5 Common Publication Manuals A publication manual outlines all the rules for formatting, style, and organization of any professional work or research that will be published or submitted to a higher institution, such as a university.  American Psychological Association (APA)  Modern Language Association (MLA)  Chicago Some university websites have a reference webpage that summarizes the manuals! 

6 Why should we study formatting & style? Professionalism  12 point Times New Roman font  1 inch (2.54 cm) margins  2.0 line spacing (also called “double-spaced”)  Indention on every paragraph Preparation for the university and Level 4/5 Avoiding plagiarism!

7 Publication Styles APA (American Psychological Association) MLA (Modern Literary Association) Chicago Manual of Style Who uses these different styles?  Depends on your major/professor  MLA: Humanities (art, philosophy, languages, religion)  APA: Social sciences (business, psychology, law, education)  Chicago: History

8 Similarities in the Styles Basic Formatting  12 point Times New Roman  1-inch margins  Double-spaced (2.0 line spacing)  Indention on paragraphs Authors in sources are generally cited by their last name only (not their first name) in parentheses, and last name only after the first reference. “To be or not to be, that is the question.” (Shakespeare, 1605) Eleanor Roosevelt (1932) said, “The future belongs to those who believe in the beauty of their dreams.” Roosevelt was a powerful speaker and woman of her time.  A citation for Ruth Harrold would just be “Harrold” (not Ruth Harrold or R. Harrold or Ruth)  What would a citation for you be?  What would a citation be for one of your books from the library?

9 The Omnivore’s Dilemma Title The Omnivore’s Dilemma Author Michael Pollen Publisher Penguin Group in New York, NY Year Published 2006

10 Differences in the Styles – Reference Lists MLA Pollan, Michael. The Omnivore’s Dilemma. New York: Penguin Group, Print. APA Pollan, M. (2006). The omnivore’s dilemma. New York, NY: Penguin Group. Chicago Pollan, Michael. The Omnivore’s Dilemma. New York: Penguin Group, 2006.

11 Differences in the Styles MLA Pollan, Michael. The Omnivore’s Dilemma. New York: Penguin Group, Print. APA Pollan, M. (2006). The omnivore’s dilemma. New York, NY: Penguin Group. Chicago Pollan, Michael. The Omnivore’s Dilemma. New York: Penguin Group, 2006.

12 Differences in the Styles MLA Pollan, Michael. The Omnivore’s Dilemma. New York: Penguin Group, Print. APA Pollan, M. (2006). The omnivore’s dilemma. New York, NY: Penguin Group. Chicago Pollan, Michael. The Omnivore’s Dilemma. New York: Penguin Group, 2006.

13 Differences in the Styles MLA Pollan, Michael. The Omnivore’s Dilemma. New York: Penguin Group, Print. APA Pollan, M. (2006). The omnivore’s dilemma. New York, NY: Penguin Group. Chicago Pollan, Michael. The Omnivore’s Dilemma. New York: Penguin Group, 2006.

14 Differences in the Style MLA Pollan, Michael. The Omnivore’s Dilemma. New York: Penguin Group, Print. APA Pollan, M. (2006). The omnivore’s dilemma. New York, NY: Penguin Group. Chicago Pollan, Michael. The Omnivore’s Dilemma. New York: Penguin Group, 2006.

15 Differences in the Styles – In-Text Citations MLA There has been a steady change in the American diet over the past 20 years (Pollan 27). APA There has been a steady change in the American diet over the past 20 years (Pollan, 2006).

16 Differences in the Styles MLA According to Pollan, there has been a steady change in the American diet over the past 20 years (27). APA According to Pollan (2006), there has been a steady change in the American diet over the past 20 years.

17 Other Useful Websites The OWL is not the only website with useful information on formatting  Here, you will find formatting examples for APA, MLA, and Chicago, as well as useful tips for researching.


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