Presentation on theme: "Ch2-2. On Cultures Lecturer: Prof. I-wen Su CC 3.0 The Work under the Creative Commons Taiwan 3.0 License of BY-NC-SA."— Presentation transcript:
ch2-2. On Cultures Lecturer: Prof. I-wen Su CC 3.0 The Work under the Creative Commons Taiwan 3.0 License of BY-NC-SA.
What is culture? -the cumulative deposit of -knowledge, -experience, -beliefs, values, attitudes, -meanings, concepts of the universe, -hierarchies, roles -religion, -notions of time, -spatial relations -material objects and possessions acquired - by a group of people -in the course of generations -through individual and group striving
Culture is shared knowledge Culture is the systems of knowledge shared by a relatively large group of people. cultivated behavior: - the totality of a person's learned, accumulated experience which is socially transmitted - behavior through social learning
Culture is communication; Communication is culture. Culture is symbolic communication. Some of its symbols include a group's skills, knowledge, attitudes, values, and motives. The meanings of the symbols are learned and deliberately perpetuated in a society through its institutions.
The essential core of culture traditional ideas and especially their attached values; Culture systems - as products of action - as conditioning influences upon further action
Culture is a collective programming of the mind that distinguishes the members of one group or category of people from another Culture is the sum of total of the learned behavior of a group of people that are generally considered to be the tradition of that people and are transmitted from generation to generation.
Manifestations of Culture Cultural differences manifest themselves in different ways and differing levels of depth. the most superficial: Symbols heroes and rituals the deepest: values
Manifestation of Culture at Different Levels of Depth Hofstede, Geert. 1997 Practices Symbols Heroes Rituals Values
Symbols Symbols are words, gestures, pictures, or objects that carry a particular meaning recognizable only by those who share a particular culture New symbols easily develop, and old ones disappear Symbols from one particular group are regularly copied by others the outermost layer of a culture
Rituals Rituals are collective activities, sometimes superfluous in reaching desired objectives, but are considered socially essential. They are carried out most of the times for their own sake ways of greetings, paying respect to others, religious and social ceremonies, etc.
Values broad tendencies for preferences of certain state of affairs to others ( good-evil, right-wrong, natural- unnatural ). many unconscious to those who hold them – often cannot be discussed, nor can they be directly observed can only be inferred from the way people act under different circumstances The core of a culture
The tangible and the intangible The practices of a culture is tangible or visual in: symbols heroes rituals The true cultural meaning of the practices is intangible: revealed only when the practices are interpreted by the insiders
Levels of Culture: layers of mental programming The national level The regional level: asso w/ ethnic, linguistic, or religious differences within a nation The gender level: female vs. male The generation level The social class level: asso w/ educational opportunities and differences in occupation The corporate level: organizational culture
Male Gender Translator Poking fun at what verse what the translation really means.
Female Gender Translator Female Gender Translator Poking fun at what women say verse what the translation really means.
Measuring Cultural Differences Hofstede (1997) Power distance index: inequality in a society Uncertainty avoidance index: the extent to which a society feels threatened by uncertain/ambiguous situations Individualism index: Individualistic Collectivistic Masculinity index: Achievement: assertiveness, money and thing as dominant values; not caring for others or quality of life Relationship: femininity
Individualism vs. Collectivism Individualism: a loosely knit social framework in a society in which people take care of themselves and their immediate families only. Collectivism: a tight social framework in which people distinguish between in-groups and out- groups; they expect their in-groups (relatives, clans, organizations) to look after them in exchange for absolute loyalty.
Copyright Declaration WorkLicensingAuthor/Source Peirces categories of sign-types. John Fiske, Introduction to Communication Studies, p.47. (1982) and used subject to the fair use doctrine of the Taiwan Copyright Act Article 50 by GET Manifestation of Culture at Different Levels of Depth. Hofstede, Geert. 1997. Cultures and organizations: Software of the mind. New York, NY: McGraw Hill. and used subject to the fair use doctrine of the Taiwan Copyright Act Article 50 by GET
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