Presentation on theme: "The Victorian House (1837 - 1901). The Victorian period is the time when Queen VictoriaQueen Victoria ruled Britain."— Presentation transcript:
The Victorian House ( )
The Victorian period is the time when Queen VictoriaQueen Victoria ruled Britain.
Victorian Housing grew in reaction to the increase of population which doubled between 1841 and The middle classes who wanted to own fashionable villas rejected the back to back terraced housing popular in the industrial areas. The poorer factory workers stayed in the cramped housing within the cities but the aspiring middle classes moved to the suburbs to larger properties with gardens.
There were three styles of Victorian housing that were prominent: ClassicalClassical: Inspired from the earlier Georgian period. Heavily influenced by ancient Rome and Greece with symmetrical façade designs with columns, pediments and stucco walls. GothicGothic: A revival from medieval times, most recognisable by the popular pointed arch used for windows and doors. Theses houses were asymmetrical with the design being based around the internal layout. Olde EnglishOlde English: Picturesque and quaint style. Built to a smaller scale than other Victorian houses, often found in villages rather than towns. Steep pitched tiled roofs or thatched. Pointed gables with lots of carved bargeboards and roof finials.
Gable Ends The Gable is the triangular end section of a pitched roof. Throughout the different housing periods builders have chosen to decorate this area with a wide range of styles and materials. From roughcast to simple timbering, popular in 1920's and 1930's, to elaborate carved woodwork from the Victorian.
Balconies and Verandas Ironwork was also seen in outside rooms called verandas which were often found in larger houses or villas. Ironwork continued to be used in the Victorian properties with balconies on the first floor in front of the popular french windows.Victorian
Canopies, Door Entrances & Porches Stone PorchTimber PorchPlastered enclosed porches A canopy or porch can provide protection and shelter from the weather as well as create a decorative feature that draws the eye to the main entrance of the house. The porch can be inside the main front wall or protrude from the building.
Tile Hung Walls
Windows: Sash & Casement Sash windows have been the popular choice of window from the Georgian period right through to the late 1920's.Georgian Late Victorian sash arch Italianate Window English HeritageEnglish Heritage carried out a survey of Estate Agents which revealed that 82% of agents believed sash windows added value to your house and 78% believed sash windows helped to sell you house more quickly.
Stained & Leaded Glass in the Home Evidence of stained glass can be found back to the 10th Century. In the mid 1800's the interest in Gothic architecture created a revival in the use of stained glass. Small pieces of coloured glass were held together with lead. Scenes and details were painted (stained) onto the glass with black and brown paint. Victorian Geometric Victorian Floral
Front Doors Victorian houses tended to have narrow hallways and entrances. The front door was often made of softwood and painted, stained or grained to look like hardwood. The doors would have been panelled, divided into four or six sections with some panels filled with glass.
With the rise in the middle classes, social mobility created a new generation that wanted to show off their possessions. The Victorians loved collecting and displaying their new found wealth. Walls were covered in paintings; display cabinets were full of vases, ornaments and other treasures. Entertaining was important to the Victorian house owner. Furniture was crammed into rooms in anticipation of guests. A card table, drinks cabinet and a piano was on most Victorian homes wish list. The Victorians loved strong colours and bold patterns. The walls would have had large carved skirting and picture rails, heavy patterned wallpaper and topped with large ornate coving. Traditionally the Victorian house style had a heavy, cluttered, dark interior that was not afraid to mix patterns and colours.
Gothic featuresItalianate windows Victorian Villa 1893 Steep pitch roofs
The skirting board like the coving was a decorative feature that covered up the joints. The skirting was used to bridge the gap between the wall and floor. It was more practical to make the skirting out of wood due to the wear and tear it would receive. Mouldings, skirting and architraves In Victorian times it was fashionable to leave the chairs round the table so the dado rail disappeared and the wooden picture rail remained to provide a feature that pictures could be hung from. In later Victorian period the picture rail tended to be found level with the top horizontal part of the door frame.
Plaster cornicing and coving In early Victorian times the cornices were larger and ornate buts towards the end of the period the moulding became simplier which gathered less dust. Designs became available that were pre made off site.
Floor Tiles: Encaustic, Geometric & Quarry Encaustic tiles Encaustic tiles are a ceramic tile where the pattern is inlaid into the body of the tile. The patterns were made up of different colours of clay, heated into a liquid (slip) and poured into a mould and fired. Encaustic tiles were first developed and used in the medieval period. It was in the Gothic Revival of the Victorian age that brought them back into popular demand.
Geometric tiles Geometric tiles are small plain tiles set in a repetitive pattern of two or more colours, using a very fine grout line between.
Quarry tiles Traditionally red or grey made from hard unglazed clay. Found in kitchens and other areas that receive heavy wear and tear.
Candle, Paraffin and Gas Lighting Candle and oil lamps continued to be the homes main light source right through the Georgian and Victorian period.
The size of a Victorian fireplace depended on the size of the room. Areas that received guests such as the front parlour would have had the grandest fireplace and mantel. Main bedrooms would have had a simpler design and smaller bedrooms and servant quarters would have had the most basic cast iron model. The Victorians preferred coal instead of wood. The coals were set into small tight baskets that angled the fire into the room. The grate style constantly changed in design to increase heat and reduce smoke. In the later part of the Victorian period grates had a hinged register that controlled the draw up the chimney and a hood to reduce the smoke entering the room.Victorian Fireplaces
Marble 1873Oak Arts & Craft Oak 1890 Painted Victorian Single piece cast iron
Wallcoverings: Wallpaper Evidence of wall covering can be found right back in 200BC in China where paper was invented. Wall coverings were not only used as a decorative medium but as a way of insulating the walls. Wallpaper was a cheaper substitute to panelling and tapestries and became popular in the wealthy households of the 1500's. The Victorians loved strong colours decorating bold patterns of flowers or arabesque designs. Artists look upon nature and Art Nouveau designs were popular at this time.Art Nouveau
Wooden Flooring Most Victorian houses used wooden floorboards. They were laid onto joists and nailed down. The floor boards created a suspended floor, where the air-gap helped to prevent damp.Victorian
Victorian Furniture The Victorians desired elaborately decorated furniture. Styles ranged from delicate inlay to ornate carved pieces. The Victorians loved nature and crammed every space with carved birds, animals, flowers and leaf motifs. Popular furniture found in a Victorian room such as the dining, drawing, morning or parlour room were mahogany dining tables, open bookcases and writing tables. Entertaining was important to the Victorian house owner, a drinks cabinet, a piano, games and card tables would of been found. Collecting and displaying ornaments was a popular hobby and sideboards with open shelves to display the crockery and glass fronted corner cabinets to display their treasures.