THE 3 BASICS OF DESIGN IN ARCHITECTURE: Style Form Structure
STYLES & TIME PERIODS FOR AMERICAN ARCHITECTURE Colonial Architecture 1600-1820 Dutch Colonial French Colonial Spanish Colonial Georgian Colonial Romantic Architecture c.1820-1880 Greek Revival Gothic Revival Italianate Exotic Revival Octagon Victorian Architecture c. 1870-1900 Second Empire Stick Queen Anne Shingle Richardson Romanesque Folk Victorian ** Art Nouveau (1890-1914)** Early 20th-Century 1900-1920 Colonial Revival Neoclassical Tudor Chateauesque Beaux Arts French Eclectic International I Architecture Between Wars c. 1920-1940 Prairie Style Modernistic Craftsman Art Deco Style c. 1923-1940 ** Post WWII Architecture c. 1945-1965 Formalism International II Late Twentieth-Century 1965-present Late Modernism Post-Modernism
COLONIAL ARCHITECTURE Stately, Symmetrical appearance being rectangular shape with two stories. Gables on the side and an entry door at the center. To conserve heat, a massive chimney ran through the center. An orderly arrangement of windows around a central front door. Double-hung windows usually have many small, equally sized square panes or “candles” separated with “mutton-bars.” GEORGIAN COLONIAL
ROMANTIC ARCHITECTURE Elaborate wooden millwork after the Industrial Revolution fueled the construction. "Gothic" windows with distinctive pointed arches Exposed framing timbers Steep, vaulted roofs with cross- gables. Extravagant features may include towers and verandas. Ornate wooden detailing is generously applied as gable, window, and door trim. GOTHIC REVIVAL
VICTORIAN ARCHITECTURE Use of mass-produced ornamentation such as brackets, spindles, and patterned shingles. The last true Victorians were constructed in the early 1900s. These homes combine modern materials with 19th century details, such as curved towers and spindled porches. Elaborate exterior trim (“gingerbread”) and carved oak moldings. New machines made it possible to mass- produce ornamental features such as moldings, columns, and brackets. The expansion of the railroad meant that building parts could be sent to far corners of the country so people in remote rural areas could build fancier homes. VICTORIAN
ART NOUVEAU ** a world-wide movement Dynamic, undulating, and flowing, with curved 'whiplash' lines which characterized much of Art Nouveau movement. Conventional moldings seem to spring to life and 'grow' into plant-derived forms. http://upload.wikim edia.org/wikipedia/ commons/3/34/Fra nce_Paris_Grand_ Palais_Interieur_0 3.jpg GRAND PALAIS INTERIEUR PARIS FRANCE
EARLY 20 TH CENTURY ARCHITECTURE (contemporary) Exposed functional building elements, such as ground-to-ceiling plate glass windows, and smooth facades. The style was molded from modern materials--concrete, glass, and steel. Characterized by an absence of decoration. Interior and exterior walls merely act as design and layout elements, and often feature dramatic, but nonsupporting projecting beams and columns INTERNATIONAL
ARCHITECTURE BETWEEN WARS Boxy and symmetrical or low-slung and asymmetrical. Roofs are low-pitched, with wide eaves. Brick and clapboard are the most common building materials Rows of casement windows One-story porches with massive square supports. Stylized floral and circular geometric terra-cotta or masonry ornamentation around doors, windows, and cornices. PRAIRIE STYLE
ART DECO STYLE Echoed the Machine Age Geometric decorative elements & a vertically oriented design. This distinctly urban style was never widely used in residential buildings Towers and other projections above the roofline enhance the vertical emphasis of this style. Flat roofs, metal window casements, and smooth stucco walls with rectangular cut- outs mark the exteriors of Art Deco homes. Facades are typically flush with zigzags and other stylized floral, geometric, and "sunrise" motifs. By 1940 the Art Deco style had evolved into "Art Moderne," which features curved corners, rectangular glass-block windows, and a boat-like appearance. ART DECO
POST WWII ARCHITECTURE Two versions: the flat-roof and gabled types. The latter is often characterized by exposed beams. Both types tend to be one- story tall and were designed to incorporate the surrounding landscape into their overall look. CONTEMPORARY
LATE 20 TH CENTURY ARCHITECTURE SPLIT LEVEL The walls of the building create planes, which enclose the building. The walls tend to be very smooth with little interruption including windows that are level with the walls themselves. These smooth-surfaced buildings define a volume enclosed by the building. Symmetry is rejected in favor of regularity. Under these principals, the facade of buildings were designed with windows and doors spaced at regular intervals.
PROCEDURE… Plan… Draw a “blueprint” (top, sides, bottom) using theme that was inspired by the architectural styles you were exposed to. Make a paper pattern to use as a template to place on rolled slabs. Cut out slabs to use for walls and roof sections for the bird house. Allow slabs to become leather-hard before assembling them together. While slabs are becoming more firm, begin creating the “decorations” for the houses. (columns, dormers, portches,etc.) Once all pieces are ready, put the house together, make sure to sufficiently score and slip each and every piece. Allow the houses to dry slowly Fire houses and then paint and spray with acrylic clear sealant.
THINGS TO THINK ABOUT: 1. What type of bird are you making this for? Do you need to do some research for this assignment? 2. Birds are attracted to “boxes” that have a particular size opening. (use chart “Being the Best Nest Box Landlord for Songbirds in the West”) 3. Is this going to be a decoration or a functional box? 4. What impact will the architectural style(s) have on your planning and the construction of sculptural work? 5. Some birds need to have a clean box each spring in order for them to build a nest in them. So, you will need to have a way to clean out the box. 6. How will you bird box be mounted or hung? What steps do you need to do ahead of time to make it work once it is completed?