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By Chunyan Shao (Shandong University). Next Lesson William Faulkner A Rose for Emily Presentation: William Faulner.

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Presentation on theme: "By Chunyan Shao (Shandong University). Next Lesson William Faulkner A Rose for Emily Presentation: William Faulner."— Presentation transcript:

1 By Chunyan Shao (Shandong University)

2 Next Lesson William Faulkner A Rose for Emily Presentation: William Faulner

3 The next lesson Disappearing through the skylight Picasso, John Miro, Dada, Surrealism, etc. Cars: Ford, Volkswagon, etc.

4 1. Presentation: Funerals in different cultures Presentation: Funerals in different cultures 2. Introduction: Exposition Introduction: Exposition 3. Text Organization Text Organization 4. Pre-Discussion: Four words that sum up the text Pre-Discussion: Four words that sum up the text 5. Text Analysis and Language Points Text Analysis Language Points 6. Text Appreciation and Writing Strategies Text Appreciation and Writing Strategies 7. Discussion Discussion 8. Exercises Exercises 9. Assignment(s) Assignment(s)

5 George Orwell Marrakech Colonialism The Jews The Muslims The Arabs The funeral in different cultures (Traditional Chinese, Islamic, Christian, Buddhist, Hindus))

6 Purpose: To inform or explain A thesis: the statement of the central thought Organization: ---Thesis first---supporting ideas --- presenting facts---conclusion of the thesis Methods: comparison, contrast, analogy, identification, illustration, analysis, definition, etc..

7 Part I (1-3) The life and death of the colonial people Part II (4-7) The gazelle and the Arab navvy Part III (8-15) The plight of the Jews Part IV (16-18) The invisibility of the people Part V (19-21) The firewood bearing woman and the donkey Part VI (22-24) The Negro soldier Part VII (25-26) The reflection of a white manman

8 Pick out FOUR KEY WORDS which you think best generalize the text and explain why these words can summarize the thesis.

9 Poverty, misery, invisibility, reflection Colonial empire, backbreaking, invisibility, sorry Nameless, invisibility, plight, cattle Disrespect, misery, colonization, unfair Rags, invisibility, colonial, cattle Suffer, obedient, discrimination, egoism Backward, unfairness, discrimination, religionreligion

10 Poor, Jews, overloading, invisible Poverty, conflict, invisibility, ignorance Flies, ghetto, invisibility, kidding Shabby, poverty, invisibility, enslavement Nameless, prejudice, apathy, miserable Poor, misery, invisibility, corruption Poverty, invisibility, discrimination, slavishness slavishness

11 One sentence opening paragraph. Why does the author mention the flies in particular? What do flies imply here? The unsanitary condition? Back to the table? The dead body with the flies The value of a human being??

12 How do people bury the dead? Little crowd of mourners, thread their way, wail a short chant over and over again, the flies, coffin, merely wrapped in a piece of rag, carried on a rough wooden bier, the burying ground, hack an oblong hole a foot or two deep, dump the body, fling over it a little of the dried up, lumpy earth, gravestone, name, identifying mark, a huge waste of hummocky earth, derelict building lot What do these words reveal about the people there?

13 Mourn--To feel or express grief or sorrow Thread their way across--To make one's way cautiously through Pomegranates--[ ] Wail--To lament over; bewail Chant--A canticle or prayer sung or intoned in this manner Appeal to: To be attractive or interesting Coffin--An oblong box in which a corpse is buried

14 Bier--A stand on which a corpse or a coffin containing a corpse is placed before burial. Hack--To cut or chop with repeated and irregular blows Oblong--Having the shape of or resembling a rectangle or an ellipse Foot--0.3048 meter Hummocky--A low mound or ridge of earth; a knoll. Derelict--Deserted by an owner or keeper; abandoned. Lot--A piece of land used for a given purpose, parking lot

15 Burying ground = verbal noun (verb+-ing) + noun Drinking fountain, carving knife, fitting room, cooking oil, baking needs, frying pan, swimming pool, dining hall Gravestone = noun + noun Window pane, river bed, sunbeam, book worm, torch light.

16 How many you, your or yourselves does the author use in this paragraph? How many they, their, them or themselves does the author use? Is he dividing people into you and them? Are you standing opposite to them? What does the choice of pronouns imply?

17 It is always difficult to believe that you are walking among human beings. Why? All colonial empires are in reality founded upon this fact. All the imperialists build up their empires by treating the people in the colonies like animals. What do the rhetorical questions indicate? What does the last sentence mean?

18 Two hundred thousand inhabitants of whom at least twenty thousand own literally nothing except the rags they sand up in Inhabit--To live or reside in Inhabitant--One that inhabits a place, Literally--Really; actually. especially as a permanent resident --There are people in the world who literally do not know how to boil water. Yesterday, I have met all those students to whom this novel appeals.

19 Undifferentiated--not having any distinguishing features Coral--, Mound--A pile of earth, gravel, sand, rocks, or debris heaped for protection or concealment. Break your way through Prickly--Having prickles. Bumpy--Covered with or full of bumps Underfoot1) Below or under the foot or feet; against the ground; 2)Hindering progress; in the way

20 Gazelle--[ ] Hindquarter--The posterior portion of a side of beef, lamb, veal, or mutton, including a hind leg and one or two ribs. Hindquarters--The posterior part of a quadruped, adjacent to the hind legs Nibble--To eat with small, quick bites or in small morsels Butt--To hit or push against with the head or horns; ram

21 One can hardly look at their hindquarters without thinking of a mint sauce. It is hard for one not to think of the sauce with which one eats gazelle when one sees the hind legs (which indicate the meat) of the gazelle.

22 Probably the idea was that if it could drive me away the bread would somehow remain hanging in mid-air. The gazelle did not like me. It might be thinking that even if it drove me away, the bread would still be there. That might be why it was pushing me with its head. Mid-air: half-brother, grandmother, darkroom, double check, supermarket

23 The navvy: sidle, quiet amazement, shyly Amazement: a phenomenon that one has never seen. I could eat some of that bread. Navvy--A laborer, especially one employed in construction or excavation projects Hoe-- Sidle--To move sideways

24 How did the navvy store the bread? --stow, gratefully, secret place Stow--To store for future use Municipality--A body of officials appointed to manage the affairs of a local political unit What about the people who have no jobs?

25 What was the Jews living environment like? Medieval ghetto, restricted area, overcrowding, less than six feet wide, completely windowless, sore-eyed children, cluster, unbelievable numbers, clouds of flies. Generally running a little river of urine

26 After centuries of this kind of treatment they have ceased to bother about overcrowding. The Jews were forced to live in such environment for so many years that they expected nothing better and have got used to this kind of situation.

27 Ghetto--A section or quarter in a European city to which Jews were formerly restricted Moor--A member of a Moslem people of mixed Berber and Arab descent, now living chiefly in northwest Africa. Restrict--To keep or confine within limits Overcrowd-To crowd together excessively Overload (p. 20) Sore-eyed--having sore eyes; suffering from pinkeye or conjunctivitis Cluster-To gather or grow into bunches Urine--The waste product secreted by the kidneys

28 What is their working environment like? Dark fly-infested booths, caves The carpenter? At his side his grandson, aged six, already starting on the simpler parts of the job. What does this indicate?

29 Bazaar--A market consisting of a street lined with shops and stalls, especially one in the Middle East. Skull-cap--A light, close-fitting, brimless cap sometimes worn indoors Infest--To inhabit or overrun in numbers large enough to be harmful, threatening, or obnoxious Booth--A small enclosed compartment with a window, used to separate the occupant from others Lathe- Work-To cause to operate or function; actuate, use, or manage Chisel-- Thanks to--On account of; because of Warp--To turn or twist (wood, for example) out of shape

30 Dark holes, all around, frenzied rush, old grandfather, flowing grey beard, a blind man, back, crawling out, groping, use up The contrast between the work and the cigarette More than 12 hours, cigarette a luxury that they could not afford.

31 Coppersmith--One that works or manufactures objects, especially utensils, in copper Instantly--At once Frenzy--A state of violent mental agitation or wild excitement Clamour--To make a loud, sustained noise or outcry Look on as--To regard in a certain way as

32 A good job Hitler wasnt here. It was lucky for the Jews that Hitler did not come to their place. If he had, he would have exterminated them as he did to the Jews in other places. What do the quotations indicate about other peoples attitude towards the Jews?

33 The Jews were condemned in the same way as some poor old women who could not get themselves a decent meal by performing witchcraft were condemned and burnt.

34 Self-contained--Constituting a complete and independent unit in and of itself Potter, silversmiths, tailor, beggar Acre--6.070 Witchcraft-Magic; sorcery; Wicca.

35 Peoples attitude towards an European labourer and a black or brown laborer The contrast ---In northern Europe: fairly conspicuous; When ploughing, a second glance ---In hot countries, do not even see him. The contrast between the things one sees ---Everything except human beings ---Dried-up soil, prickly pear, palm tree, distant mountain ---The peasants

36 Conspicuous--Easy to notice; obvious Chances--The likelihood of something happening; possibility or probability --If Greg is alive then the chances are Paula is alive too --The chances are high that the trouble stems from a false assumption. Take in--To look at thoroughly; view

37 It is only because of this that the starved countries of Asia and Africa are accepted as tourist resorts. The reason for the Asia and Africa are chosen as tourist resorts is that the starving people in these places are ignored.

38 No one would think of running cheap trips to the Distressed Areas. No one would think of organizing cheap trips for the tourists to visit the slums. People go to Asia and Africa because they just ignore the poor people there and the place seem to be without poor people.

39 Resort--A place frequented by people for relaxation or recreation Grove--A small wood Legionnaire--A member of a legion Bandit--A robber, especially one who robs at gunpoint Wring-To twist, squeeze, or compress, especially so as to extract liquid Erode--To wear (something) away by or as if by abrasion

40 Does this paragraph has a topic sentence? How does the author develop that topic and how does he organize the paragraph? Pls. draw the outline of this paragraph. Desolate: animal, treeless waste, soil, cultivation (labour, hand, women bent, the ploughing, donkey vs. cow) Water conservation

41 animals treeless soil oblong patches water rare rainstorm channel (30/40ft) tiny trickles Hand tools animals Tearing weeds plough harrow donkey cow gathering lucerne Desolate and frightful labor

42 Desolate--Devoid of inhabitants; deserted Invert--To reverse the position, order, or condition of Work their way across Tear up--To tear to pieces Lucerne-- Fodder--Feed for livestock, especially coarsely chopped hay or straw Wretched--Of very inferior quality frail--Physically weak; delicate; Not strong or substantial; slight

43 Spike--A long, thick, sharp-pointed piece of wood or metal; A heavy nail Inch--2.54 centimeters Yoke--To fit or join with a yoke Harrow-- Furrow--A long, narrow, shallow trench made in the ground by a plow Conserve--To protect from loss or harm; preserve Trickle--To flow or fall in drops or in a thin stream Subsoil--The layer or bed of earth beneath the topsoil Submarine, subtitle, subordinate, submerge.

44 The analogy between the old woman and the children The womans reaction to the five-sou piece. She accepted her status as an old woman, that is to say as a beast of burden. --She took it for granted that as an old woman, she was the lowest in the society and that her only role was to do heavy work like an animal.

45 File--A line of persons, animals, or things positioned one behind the other Mummify--To cause to shrivel and dry up Sou--One of several coins formerly used in France, worth a small amount Farthing--A coin formerly used in Great Britain worth one fourth of a penny Shrill--Producing a sharp, high-pitched tone or sound Gratitude--The state of being grateful; thankfulness

46 Topic sentence? The firewood or the women beneath it? What does the image of the donkey tell us? Overloading, infuriated, damnably treated, most willing, follows the master like a dog, dead, ditch, guts torn out The contrast between the donkey and the people

47 Hobble--To walk or move along haltingly or with difficulty; limp Register--To make an impression; be recorded in the mind Infuriate--To make furious; enrage Damnable--in a detestable manner Packsaddle--A saddle on which loads can be secured Bridle--A harness Halter--A device made of rope or leather straps Tip--To dump (rubbish, for example Gut--The bowels

48 Plight--A situation, especially a bad or unfortunate one Gall--To make (the skin) sore by abrasion; chafe Owing to--because of Stork-- Infantry--The combat arm made up of units trained to fight on foot Screw-gun Clump--A clustered mass; a lump Clatter--To make a rattling sound

49 How was the Senegalese dressed? What verbs does the author choose to describe their dressing? Uniform, boot, hat? What does the Negros look indicate? Ignorance of their situation? Subordinate to the white?

50 Senegalese-- [ ] Whereabouts--Approximate location Khaki-- Squash--To beat, squeeze, or press into a pulp or a flattened mass; crush Slump--To droop, as in sitting or standing; slouch Glisten--To shine by reflection with a sparkling luster

51 Contemptuous--Manifesting or feeling contempt; scornful Sullen--Showing a brooding ill humor or silent resentment; morose or sulky. Inquisitive--Unduly curious and inquiring Wretched--In a deplorable state of distress or misfortune; miserable Scrub--To rub hard in order to clean Syphilis--[ ] Garrison--A military post, especially one that is permanently established Reverence--A feeling of profound awe and respect

52 The flock of cattle The great white birds

53 Connection--Reference or relation to something else; context In this connection Onlooker--One that looks on; a spectator Charger--A horse trained for battle; a cavalry horse Drift--To proceed or move unhurriedly and smoothly Glitter--To sparkle brilliantly Scrap--A small piece or bit; a fragment

54 Language in general Language Contrast Pronouns Metaphor and simile Figure-Ground Configuration Specific words

55 Six rules for writers Never use a metaphor, simile, or other figure of speech which you are used to seeing in print. Never use a long word where a short one will do. If it is possible to cut a word out, always cut it out. Never use the passive where you can use the active. Never use a foreign phrase, a scientific word, or a jargon word if you can think of an everyday English equivalent. Break any of these rules sooner than say anything outright barbarous. --Politics and the English Language (1946)(1946)

56 Short Concise Creative Easy Clear Objective Still the sympathy and the outrage, why??

57 Gazelle and an Arab navvy (ps. 4-7) Low status of the Jews and the Arab and poor Europeans prejudice against them (ps. 11-15) Laborer in Europe and hot country (p. 16) The back-breaking struggle of the people and their images in the eye of white people (p. 17) The old woman carrying baggage and the father and the son on the donkey (p.19) Wood-bearing women and donkeys (p. 20) --poverty, prejudice, struggle, low status and invisibility --poverty, prejudice, struggle, low status and invisibility

58 How many you, your or yourselves does the author use in this paragraph? How many they, their, them or themselves does the author use? Is he dividing people into you and them? Are you standing opposite to them? What does the choice of pronouns imply? --Gap, distance, separation, misunderstanding, prejudice… --Gap, distance, separation, misunderstanding, prejudice…

59 Figure: sth. of perceptual prominence Ground: sth. Vague, unstructured, shapeless and serves as the background

60 The author is skillful in describing a general background, then zooming in on a specific scene or person for detailed depiction. Examples? The dead (p.1) and the peoples life (p.3) The poor living (p. 8) and working condition for the Jews and a working carpenter (p.9) The rushed crowd for the cigarette and the blind man (p.10) Old women bearing wood (p. 19-20) and the woman I gave money to (p. 19) The marching army (p. 23) and the Negro boy (p.24) Effect: More vivid and penetrating…

61 The author is a genius in hiding his own feeling in the words. How do you tell that the author actually sympathizes with the people there and is outraged at colonialism? The specific words he uses? (p. 2) The adverbs and the phrases he chooses? (p.2) The figures or phenomena that he singles out for depiction? (p. 20)(p. 20)

62 The author mentions that All people who work with their hands are partly invisible, and the more important the work they do, the less visible they are. Do you agree or disagree? Do you know the vendor from whom you buy your breakfast? Do you who build our building? Do you also ignore those people who do manual work around you? who do manual work around you?

63 A siren wailed into the neighborhood and up the street. (loud, prolonged cries) I turned the faucet and tears flowed from my eyes. I wept into the basin. (shedding of tears) Sob: a catch in the voice and short gasping breath Whimper: frightened child Moan: A low, sustained, mournful cry

64 The city's art mania is also due in no small part to a handful of energetic collectors. (craze for sth) Meanwhile, the royal wedding frenzy grew. (state of excitement) His unhealed war wound was causing his fever and delirium. (extreme mental disturbance) Peggy wanted to laugh, but she knew if she gave way to it it might turn to hysteria. (uncontrolled feeling)

65 A bright light flashed before her eyes; then all was dark. (sudden, brief and brilliant light) The broad swath of the frozen Koyukuk River glistened under the morning moonlight. (reflection of light from a wet surface) An eye like a small black button glittered, fastening on them. (intermittent flash) The water's surface shimmered with a million moon- fragments. (soft reflection of light from disturbed water) The watch on her right arm sparkled with diamonds as she consulted it again. (bright, intermittent flash)

66 Please write a passage of about 200 words to analyze one or two points in the text which impress you most. Requirements: --There should be a topic sentence. --You should support your thesis with details, by drawing upon the text. --Each of the group members should read through the passage and correct any mistakes therein.

67 How the ideas flow How the text is organized How the main ideas are distributed throughout the text How the supporting ideas help illustrate the main point The very general idea and the details

68 Topic? Organization? General idea? Supporting ideas? Information from the text knitted together with your ideas, supporting your ideas

69 Thank you!

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