1 Open Schooling: A viable solution for education of Persons with Disabilities (PwDs) Presentation by S K Prasad, System Analyst, NIOS
National Policy on Education (1986) states “Future emphasis shall be on distance and open learning systems to provide opportunities and access to all the major target groups, especially the disadvantaged, viz., women, scheduled castes and scheduled tribes, the adult working class, and people serving in the far-flung remote area”
Open Learning is an approach rather than a system or technique; it is based on the needs of individual learner and the characteristics of a learning community. Open learning gives the learner control over what, where, when and how they learn. The focus of attention is the learner and the learning process. Elimination of fixed time (daily classes) and a fixed space (school) enables learners with disabilities to learn at their own convenience and pace. 3 Open Learning : The NIOS Approach
4 Potentiality of open learning through distance mode of education for disabled is far greater; it is more cost effective and may cover large number of disabled at a time. The optimum application of ICT and media technologies may cover a large number of learners with acceptable standard of academic and vocational programmes. Distance mode of learning package may reach a learners’ doorstep, sitting in a remote and tribal village where formal school system could not reach. Reaching the unreached : The NIOS Way
5 Features of Open Schooling Flexibility in deciding course, place and space of study Self-paced learning; Freedom to choose subjects,according to one’s needs,interest & abilities; Integration of academic with vocational courses; Continuous assessment through Tutor Marked Assignments(TMA), Credit accumulation facility over a period of 5 years; Provision of re-admission after 5 years of validity of the admission; Facility of transfer of credits from other Boards of school Education; These characteristics of NIOS go in favour of disabled learners and may prove to be most suitable learning strategies for them.
6 National Institute of Open Schooling The Largest Open School in the World Providing Alternative Schooling System 1.95 Million students on roll 2.10 Million students certified since 1989 1.2342 Academic study centres 2.1167 Vocational study centres 3.401 Centres for Open Basic Education Prog. 23 Study Centres in Middle East & Nepal 16 Regional Centres: Kolkata, Hyderabad, Pune, Guwahati, Chandigarh, Allahabad, Delhi, Patna, Kochi, Jaipur, Bhopal, Dehradun, Bhubaneswar, Gandhinagar, Bangalore & Imphal 2 Sub-Centre : Darbhanga & Visakhapatnam
Disability Wise Enrolment Sno Disability2010-112009-102008-092007-08 1Loco Motor1303133776953136 2Visually Impaired49196283388 3Hearing Impaired609842601657 4Leprosy Cured204181133140 5Mentally Retarded229566710806 6Mental Illness150107133196 7Multiple Disabilities25433812601146 8Cerebral Palsy4126282615761050 9Learning24061199992770 Total 93307592133838289 No study-centre can deny admission to or compel withdrawal of a child on the ground of disabilities.
Facilitating PwDs To cater to the special needs of people who are physically, mentally challenged, socially and geographically isolated marginalized and are from disadvantaged sections such as street children, working children, rural women, NIOS has special accredited institutions called Special Accredited Institutions for Education of the Disadvantaged (SAIED). There are 84 such SAIED study centres all over India. To name a few are The Spastic Society of Tamilnadu Amar Jyoti Rehablitation & Research Centre, Delhi Asha Kiran Special Needs School Bangalore IndianInstitute of Cerebral Palsy, Kolkata Spastic Society of Karnataka National Association For The Blind, Delhi Uttar Pradesh Mook Badhir Vidyalaya, Allahabad 8
Facilitating PwDs There is Fee concession to the extent of 50% for PwDs A distance learner is registered for a period of five years in which a candidate gets nine chances to appear in a given course / programme. A candidate may appear in one/two subjects at a time, as per his/her preparation. Credit is accumulated till a candidate successfully completes the requirement of a course. Study-centres are taken as examination centre so that a candidate with disability may appear in the familiar environment. General and Specific Relaxations (Disability wise) During NIOS Examination. Disability wise Amanuensis are given at the time of examination. 9
10 ICT Support Online Admission under NIOS-Online. On Line Student Information System. –Admission details, Tutor Mark Assignment (TMA) –Online Course Material, Syllabus & Sample Question –Performance chart Learner Support Centre IVRS on the pattern of Call Centre with Tollfree no. 1800 180 9393. On Line Counselling through - Ask your Teacher Use of Mobile Technology for advocacy and information. ICT based On-Demand Examination System : –Freedom to appear in examination as and when feels ready and prepared for the exam. –Flexibility in selecting examination dates The walk-in-exam has been proved to be of great convenience for disabled candidates.
Success Stories Jithin Jose suffering from haemophilia. Due to the flexibility of the NIOS system, he could do his Secondary and Senior Secondary Course and further studied CA. Manas Harith Swaroopa suffering from Aspergers Syndrome secured 97% in Economics in class X Exam. Charu Jain, hearing impaired, could complete her Secondary and is doing her Sr.Secondary from NIOS. Vatsal Gupta, mentally retarded, could complete his Secondary and is doing his Sr.Secondary from NIOS. Archana, suffering from learning disability, could complete his Secondary and Sr.Secondary from NIOS. 11
Proposed USOF support Setting up of ICT Centres equipped with appropriate Ats for PwDs in the NIOS Regional Centres. Public/learners access to ICT facilities in selected NIOS SAIED study centres dealing with PwDs. Support to make NIOS portal truly “accessible” with WCAG compliant. 12