Presentation on theme: "The average distance from Earth to the sun is"— Presentation transcript:
1The average distance from Earth to the sun is 1 ly1 million km1 million mi.1 billion km1 AU
2A typical galaxy like our Milky Way galaxy contains primarily planets.gas onlystars (some with planets), gas and dusta single star and planets.
3Which is the greatest distance? Earth to the moon.Earth to the sun.Earth to the Asteroid Belt.Earth to the Kuiper Belt
4In the diagram below, what is the diameter of Jupiter? about 350,0about 350,000 kmabout 700,000 kmabout 14,000 kmabout 140,000 km
5If we say that an object is 1,000 light-years away we see it as it looked 1,000 years ago.as it would appear to our ancestors 1,000 years ago.as it looked 1,000 light-years ago.as it is right now, but it appears 1,000 times dimmer.
6Which sequence is correct when ordered by increasing size? Earth, Solar System, Milky Way Galaxy, clusters of galaxiesSolar System, Earth, galaxy clusters, Milky Way GalaxyEarth, Milky Way Galaxy, Solar System, galaxy clustersGalaxy clusters, Solar System, Milky Way Galaxy, Earth
7How is a planet different than a star? Planets are larger than stars.Planets reflect light while stars produce light.Stars move faster in the sky than planets.Planets are brighter than stars.
8The celestial equator is the path that the sun appears to follow on the celestial sphere as Earth orbits the sun.the dividing line between the north and south celestial hemispheres.a line around the sky directly above Earth's equator.a and b.b and c.
9The ____ is the point on the celestial sphere directly above an observer who can be at any point on the Earth..north celestial polenadirzenithcelestial equator
10The apparent visual magnitude of a star is a measure of the star's size.intensity.distance.color.temperature.
11The wobbling precession of the rotation axis of Earth is caused by the force of gravity from the sun and moon on Earth's equatorial bulge.the force of gravity from the sun and Jupiter on the Earth-moon system.the magnetic field of Earth.the formation and subsequent melting of glaciers during the ice-ages.the impact of asteroids.
12You visit a latitude of 28° N You visit a latitude of 28° N. What is the angle between the northern horizon and the north celestial pole? ANSWER 262°28°40°23°5°126.96.36.199.5.
13straight north straight east straight south straight west An observer in the Northern Hemisphere at our lattitude takes a time exposure photograph of the night sky. If the illustration below depicts the photograph taken by the observer, which direction was the camera pointing?straight northstraight eaststraight southstraight west
14straight north straight east straight south straight west An observer in the Northern Hemisphere takes a time exposure photograph of the night sky. If the illustration below depicts the photograph taken by the observer, which direction was the camera pointing?straight northstraight eaststraight southstraight west
15The lower the number the greater the apparent visual magnitude The lower the number the greater the apparent visual magnitude. (negative numbers are greater than positive numbers) The star Vega has an apparent visual magnitude of 0.03 and the star HR 4374 has an apparent visual magnitude of It has been determined that both stars are at the same distance from Earth. Thus, Vega MUST _____________.be closer to Earth than HR 4374.be farther from Earth than HR 4374.produce less energy/second than HR 4374.produce more energy/second than HR 4374.
16Table 2-1 [Table] Refer to Table 2-1 Table 2-1 [Table] Refer to Table 2-1. Which star in the table would appear the SECOND brightest to an observer on Earth?a Ceta CMaNimr Perd DraStar NameApparent Visual Magnituded Dra3.07a Cet2.53r Per3.98Nim8.07a Cma-1.46
17Table 2-1 [Table] On Earth, the unaided eye can see apparent visual magnitudes < Refer to Table 2-1. Which star in the table would not be visible to the unaided eye of an observer on Earth?a Ceta CmaNimr Perd Dra
18How much of the night sky is NORTH of the celestial equator? Less than one-half, because of the tilt of the equator to the ecliptic plane.More than one-half, because of the precession of the poles.Exactly one-half.Depends on the season.
19If the Sun passes directly overhead on at least one day per year, then you are within 23½° latitude of the equator.you are within 66½° latitude of the equator.you must be exactly on the equator.you could be anywhere because this occurs at least once per year at any location on the Earth.
20Stars in the same constellation probably formed at the same time.must be part of the same cluster of stars in space.must have been discovered at about the same time at the same location in space.may actually be very different distances away from the observer and from each other.
21If the Earth's period of rotation doubled, but the period of revolution stayed the same each night would betwice as long and the number of days per year would reduce in halfhalf as long and the number of days per year would double
22The diagram below shows three approximate locations of the sun along the western horizon. Which number indicates the location of the sun at on June 21st for an observer in the Cleveland Ohio area?123
23The diagram below shows three approximate locations of the sun along the western horizon. Which number indicates the location of the sun at sunset on the vernal equinox and autumnal equinoxes(respectively) for an observer at a latitude of 48° S?1,32,33,22,12,2
24Northern Hemisphere winters are colder than Northern Hemisphere summers because Earth is closer to the sun during the summer than it is during the winter.the snow that falls in the northern latitudes cools Earth during the winter.the light from the sun shines more directly on the Northern Hemisphere during the summer.the period of sunlight is longer during the summer than during the winter.c and d
25______________ is the point in Earth's orbit where Earth is closest to the sun. AphelionPerihelionPrecessionThe winter solstice
26The planet of our solar system that are never visible to the naked eye are Pluto.Mercury and Venus.Mars, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune.Neptune
27On the autumnal equinox the sun is on the celestial equator and moving north with respect to the equator.on the celestial equator and moving south with respect to the equator.
28When Earth passes between the Sun and the Moon, which occurs? a lunar eclipsea solar eclipsean annular eclipsea terrestrial eclipse
29A solar eclipse that occurs when the moon's umbra reaches Earth's surface and blocks out all of the sun’s light is called a(n) ____ eclipse.total solarpartial solarannular solarpenumbral solar
30A totally eclipsed moon glows coppery red because the moon' surface is made of iron ore which is red in color.red light is cooler than blue light.during a lunar eclipse the sun is cooler than normal and its light is more red.only red light is able to pass completely through Earth's atmosphere and reach the moon.
31The lowest amount of solar energy per square meter upon the surface of Earth in the northern hemisphere is on or aboutDecember 21, the winter solstice.March 21, the vernal equinox.September 21, the autumnal equinox.June 21, the summer solstice.
32Newton concluded that a force from the Earth had to act on the moon because the moon moved at a constant velocity in a straight line.a force is needed to pull the moon outward.a force is needed to accelerate the moon toward Earth away from straight-line motion.
33The age of the moon is approximately: 4.5 billion years2.5 million years15 billion yearsunknown
34The phase of the Moon on a particular night is determined by the season of the year.speed of the Moon in is orbit.relative positions of the Sun, Earth, & Moon.distance from the Earth to the Moon.
35Which phase of the Moon occurs between the first quarter and full moon? new moonwaxing gibbouswaning crescentwaning gibbous
36On a clear night when an observer in Los Angeles sees a first quarter Moon an observer in London would seea full moon.a first quarter moon.a new moon.a third quarter moon.
37Earth’s core Earth’s mantle Earth’s crust Mars The composition of the Moon most closely resembles _____ leading to the theory that the moon was formed from a huge collision of an object with the Earth after it accreted and differentiated during formation.:Earth’s coreEarth’s mantleEarth’s crustMars
38The periods of the Moon’s rotation and revolution are equal The periods of the Moon’s rotation and revolution are equal. This results in:lunar eclipseslunar phasesneap tidesthe same side always facing earth
39Retrograde motionis observable for planets located between Earth and the sun.is observable for planets more distant from the Sun than is Earth.
40Galileo's telescopic observations of a complete set of phases of Venus proved that Venus orbited the sun.that Earth orbited the sun.that all of the planets orbited the sun.that Venus had an atmosphere.
41were the same kind of object. were not perfect spheres. Galileo's telescopic discoveries of mountains on the moon and spots on the sun were controversial because they suggested that the sun and moonwere the same kind of object.were not perfect spheres.were inhabited.orbited each other.
42The force of gravity from one object extends to infinity never going to zero and works for atomic level observations, planetary motion, black holes and dark matter hypothesis. When we say that gravitation is universal we mean thatthe Earth exerts gravitational force on objects on its surfacethe Earth exerts a gravitational force on its moon and vice versathe Earth, moon and sun exert gravitational forces on each otherall material objects in the universerse exert gravitational forces on one another.
43ellipse epicycles terraforms gravity loops The diagram below illustrates a portion of the model for the universe described by Ptolemy. The small circular paths the planets travel as they orbit the sun are referred to asellipseepicyclesterraformsgravity loops
44In pre-Copernican astronomy, it was almost universally believed that the planets traveled in elliptical orbits about the Earth.the center of the universe was the Sun with the Milky Way representing other distant planets.the Sun was at the center of the universe.the Earth was at the center of the universe.
45The orbit of the planet Jupiter is ellipse with the Sun at one focus The orbit of the planet Jupiter is ellipse with the Sun at one focus. What is located at the other focus?NothingEarthSaturnJupiter
46A which labeled interval of its orbit would the planet move with the greatest velocity since Kepler's second law states plantary orbits are not a constant speed, thus a planet should move at its greatest speed when closest to the sun?ABCD
47Which correctly identifies the location of the asteroid belt?
48Which correctly identifies the location of the Kuiper belt?
49Astronomers build telescopes on tops of mountains because there is less air to dim light.the seeing is better.a and b
50A ____ has a few million light sensitive diodes in an array typically about a half-inch square that allows images to be digitized and computerized.photometercharge-coupled devicespectrograph
51Photons of red light have a longer wavelength, a lower frequency and thus less energy than photons of blue light. The apparent spectral color shift of the stars in the sky suggest the expanding universe as objects appear to be going away from the central point of the big bang is supported bya red shifta blue shift
52Which of the following sequences of electromagnetic radiation is correct in order of increasing energy?Gamma rays, X-rays, infrared, radioRadio, microwave, gamma rays, UVVisible, UV, X-rays, gamma raysVisible, microwave, radio, infrared
53A telescope whose objective is a lens and contains bent glass lenses and no mirrors is a(n) ____ telescope.RefractingReflectingDeflectingCompoundRetracting
54In a reflecting telescope the objective is a ____. prismmirrorlensdiffraction grating
55Observation that supernovae appear fainter than expected at large redshifts.has prompted astronomers to ponder the possible existence of dark energy.TrueFalse
56Observation that the universal law of gravitation equation does not allow for sufficient mass to explain some motions have led scientists to ponder the possible existence of dark matter.TrueFalse
57Which of the following is the hottest type of star? blue supergiantred dwarfred giantwhite dwarf
58nuclear fission nuclear fusion Which process tha throws atoms together to make new atoms of larger elements releases huge amounts of energy that causes a star to shine?nuclear fissionnuclear fusion
59A theoretical celestial object that has such strong gravitational attraction, light is prevented from escaping its surface is ablack holepulsarnebulasunspot
60Accretion isthe adding of material to an object an atom or molecule at a time.the adding of material to an object by collection of solid particles.the release of gas from rocks as they are heated.
61Which one of the following IS a characteristic of Jovian planets? low average densityvery few satellitescraters in old surfacessmall diameters
62asteroid meteor comet planetesimal A(n) ____ is a solar system object that enters Earth's atmosphere and becomes very hot due to friction between the object and Earth's atmosphere and does not survive to reach the surface.asteroidmeteorcometplanetesimal
63Wrong! interior stays solid Once a terrestrial planet had formed from a large number of planetesimals, heat could have melted it and allowed it to differentiate into metallic core of ____density and a rocky mantle or crust of ______ density.higher; lowerlower; higherWrong! interior stays solid
64The large planetesimals would have grown faster than the smaller planetesimals because they were moving faster in their orbits than the smaller planetesimals.their stronger gravity would pull in more material.there was more material located near them that could be accreted.the smaller planetesimals were covered by a layer of material that was lost during collisions.
65The oxygen in Earth's atmosphere was manufactured inside stars.was added to the atmosphere by plant life.has increased since Earth’s origin.all of these
66Earth possesses few visible craters and the moon possesses many Earth possesses few visible craters and the moon possesses many. This is becauseEarth formed later than the moon and, therefore hasn't encountered as many meteoroids.the moon doesn't have an atmosphere that could burn up many of the meteorites before impacting.erosion and plate tectonics have slowly removed evidence of past cratering on Earth.only b and c
67In the giant impact theory of the Moon's origin, the Moon broke from a rapidly spinning Earththe Earth and its Moon formed from the same cloud of matterthe Moon formed elsewhere in the solar nebula and was later captured by Earth.the Moon formed when a very massive planetesimal smashed into the young Earth.
68The greenhouse effect keeps Venus hot and the increasing levels of this same gas in Earth’s atmosphere suggests the beginning a global warming. because bothatmospheres contains free oxygen.atmospheres are predominently carbon dioxide.surfaces convert infrared into gamma radiation.surfaces are free of sulfur compounds.
69The flow patterns found on the surface of Mars and the number of craters on top of them suggest that Mars is today a liquid water-rich world.the climate on Mars was different billiond of years ago.volcanism is occurring on Mars.
70Which of the solar system objects listed below is most similar to Earth in terms of mass and density?MercuryMoonVenusMarsDeimos
71only CO2 only NH3 CO2, NH3, and O2 H2 and He The graph below plots the escape velocity of each planet along the vertical axis and its surface temperature along the horizontal. The lines plotted in the figure are the speeds of the fastest gas particles as a function of temperature for various gases. Which of the gases plotted in the diagram could be retained in the atmosphere of Mars perhaps suggesting it could be warmed up and support humans if terra-formed?only CO2only NH3CO2, NH3, and O2H2 and He
72The greenhouse effect produces excess heat in a planet's atmosphere by trapping infrared radiation from escaping into space.clouds blocking the surface from receiving any infrared radiation.trapping light gases from escaping into space.trapping ultraviolet light in the upper atmosphere of the planet.
73Which of the terrestrial planets has the most difficult time retaining an atmosphere because it is too hot?MercuryVenusEarthMars
74Jupiter does not have a hot interior. convection occurring in its atmosphere.crustal plates on its surface.a dynamo effect.
75Small bodies that orbit planets are called comets.moons.planetesimals.protoplanets.
76the Kuiper Belt. the outer atmosphere. the asteroid belt. the TNO. A region of the solar system that starts just beyond Neptune’s orbit, which contains dwarf planets and other small bodies made mostly of ice, is calledthe Kuiper Belt.the outer atmosphere.the asteroid belt.the TNO.
77solar nebula. supernova. solar eclipse. satellite. A rotating cloud of gas and dust from which Earth’s solar system formed is called a (and 99% of the matter from this nowcontained in the sun)solar nebula.supernova.solar eclipse.satellite.
78Neptune’s Great Dark Spot and Jupiter’s Great Red Spot are vast canyons.raging storms.frozen oceans.massive volcanos.
79The planet with the most complex set of rings is Neptune.Saturn.Jupiter.Uranus.
80Meteors are often called long-period comets.shooting stars.meteorites.
81What kind of bodies do scientists monitor, hoping to predict and avoid future collisions? satellitesplanetesimalsnear-Earth asteroids
82The terrestrial planets are all made of hydrogen only.Helium only.Hydrogen, Helium only.mostly rock, metal.
83From which of these planets do we have known samples of material? MercuryVenus.MarsAll of the above
84The planets in part A of this diagram have more moons than the planets in part B. TrueFalse