3Earth in Motion 2. rotation- Earth spinning around on its axis 1. axis- imaginary line drawn from the north to south pole2. rotation- Earth spinning around on its axis-causes day and night3. revolution- Earth traveling around the sun-elliptical pattern is an orbit-causes seasons-not a whole # of days (365 ¼)4. tilt degree angle-hemispheres have opposite seasons-regions near equator have equal hours of day and night all year
4-sun is highest in the sky at noon -longest day of the year for us Solstice- sun reaches it’s greatest distance north or south of the equator directly over the Tropic of Cancer or Tropic Capricorna) Summer Solstice-sun is highest in the sky at noon-longest day of the year for us-June 21st in the N. hemisphere-Dec. 21st in the S. hemisphereb) Winter Solstice-sun is lowest in the sky at noon-shortest day of the year for us-Dec. 21st in the N. hemisphere-June 21st in the S. hemisphere
5Equinox- sun is directly over equator -length of day and night are equal all over the worlda) Spring Equinox-March 21st in the N. Hemisphereb) Fall Equinox-Sept. 21st in the N. Hemisphere
7Moon’s Surface Features 1. Maria- dark colored areas that look like oceans formed by lava flows2. Lunar Highlands- higher than the maria3. Craters- depressions formed from meteorites striking the surface
8Layers of the Moon1. Crust2. Rigid Mantle3. Non-rigid Mantle4. Small, densecore
9Motions of the Moon-the moon always keeps the same side facing the Earth-27.3 days to orbit the Earth-27.3 days to rotate once on its axis
10D. Moon phases 1. New Moon 2. Waxing…grows in size 3. Full Moon (refer to worksheet)1. New Moon2. Waxing…grows in size3. Full Moon4. Waning…decreases in size
11E. EclipsesDefinition- shadows cast by Earth or the moon onto each other-only occur when the sun, moon, and Earth are perfectly lined upSolar Eclipse-moon blocks sun from reaching a portion of the Earth’s surface-occurs during a new moonLunar Eclipse-Earth blocks sun from reaching the moon-moon appears deep red
17F. Origin of the moonCo-formation- Earth and Moon formed at the same time from the same materialCapture- Earth and moon formed at different locations, then Earth’s gravity captured the moonFission- moon formed from a large mass of material thrown off of a rapidly spinning EarthCollision- a huge space object collided with Earth, throwing large amounts of gas and debris into orbit around Earth….condensed to form moon
19A. Solar system Sun Planets Asteroids Comets Moon stars May have formedfrom a cloud ofrotating ice gasesand dust calleda “nebula”
20B. Astronomical unit (au) 1. Distance between Earth and Sun 2. Used to measure distances between objects within the solar system
21C. SunThe sun is a star.It produces energy by fusing hydrogen into helium in it’s core.It contains more than 99% of all matter in our solar system.
22D. Other objectsAsteroids- small, rocky objects that lie in a belt between Mars and JupiterComets- made of rock particles and ice-as they approach the sun, parts of comets vaporize and form tails that point away from the sunMeteoroids- pieces of comets or asteroids that travel through the solar systema. Meteoroid- rock in spaceb. Meteor- rocks entering Earth’s atmospherec. Meteorites- rocks fall and land on Earth
25E. Planets My Very Excited Mother Just Served Us Nachos! Mercury - solid Venus - solid Earth - solid Mars - solid Jupiter - gaseous Saturn - gaseous Uranus - gaseous Neptune - gaseousMy Very Excited Mother Just Served Us Nachos!