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Biblical References to “Eretz Israel” Eretz Israel “The Land of Israel” Promised by G-d (Yahweh) to Jews in Covenant “Behold, I will make a covenant:

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Presentation on theme: "Biblical References to “Eretz Israel” Eretz Israel “The Land of Israel” Promised by G-d (Yahweh) to Jews in Covenant “Behold, I will make a covenant:"— Presentation transcript:



3 Biblical References to “Eretz Israel”
Eretz Israel “The Land of Israel” Promised by G-d (Yahweh) to Jews in Covenant “Behold, I will make a covenant: before all thy peoples I will do marvels” (Exodus 34:10) “For I will cast out the nations before thee, and enlarge thy borders” (Exodus 34:24) “Thou (Israel) shall worship no other G-d: for the Lord, whose name is Jealous, is a jealous G-d” (Exodus 34:14) “Unto thy seed have I given this land, from the river of Egypt (now Wadi el Arish in the Sinai) unto the great river (the river Euphrates)” (Genesis 15:18)

4 Biblical References to “Eretz Israel”
According to Genesis, 15:18 – “from the river of Egypt to the great river, the river Euphrates”

5 Israel/Palestine Early History
Jews a nomadic people till about 1250 BCE-conquest of Canaan Jerusalem founded by King David c BCE First Temple established c. 950 BCE by King Solomon 586 BCE Conquered by Babylonians under Nebuchadnezzer Jews exiled to Babylon, Temple destroyed 539 BCE Persian control – allowed Jews return and rebuild Temple 333 BCE: Alexander the Great brings Jerusalem under Greek rule 323 BCE: Alexander dies: alternating rule by Egypt and Syria 165 BCE: Maccabees revolt, establish independent state 63 BCE Under Roman rule

6 Israel/Palestine Early History
0-36 CE-Birth and Death of Jesus Christ under continuing Roman Rule 66 CE Jewish revolt 2nd Temple destroyed (Western Wall still standing) Jews forbidden in Jerusalem Diaspora 2 main branches: Ashkenazic (German) – of Central and E. Europe – spoke Yiddish - European beliefs (e.g. Socialism) Sephardic (Mediterranean) - Spain, later Arab Countries.

7 Israel/Palestine Early History
C Emperor Hadrian builds new pagan city on ruins of Jerusalem Palestine under Byzantine rule: Emperor Constantine: Christianity spreads 630-Death of Muhammad/spread of Islam 638: Arabs capture Jerusalem : Palestine administered from Damascus, Syria. Dome of the Rock and Al Aqsa mosque constructed

8 Spread of Islam

9 Jerusalem

10 Dome of the Rock/ Al Quds

11 Al Aqsa Mosque

12 Al Aqsa Mosque

13 Israel/Palestine Early History
: Palestine administered from Baghdad (Iraq) with brief periods of control by rulers from Egypt and other areas : Crusades, establishment of “Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem” Crusaders vanquished: Jerusalem administered out of Cairo : Palestine incorporated into Ottoman Empire and administered from Istanbul Recognition of 3 religions They protected the different religious sites/kept them alive


15 Zionism as a 19th century nationalist movement
Rejection of Torah as “symbolic land” – as moveable land - Jews need territory like other nations. Theodor Herzl (Poland) “Der Judenstaat”Jewish State as a result of increased pogroms etc in E. Europe : First wave of Zionists (25,000) enter Palestine 1st Zionist Congress – Basel, Switzerland, 1897

16 Europe makes promises it can’t keep
“Lawrence of Arabia” Europe defeats Ottoman Empire in World War I by promising independence to Arab supporters. 1916 “Sykes Picot Agreement” Arab territory divided between England and France England: Palestine, Iraq, Jordan France: Syria, Lebanon


18 Establishment of Israel and Changing Borders- 1918-1948
1917 Balfour Declaration – British support for Jewish settlement in Palestine --Seen as conflicting with the Hussein-McMahon Correspondence ( ) promising independence to Arabs in the Ottoman region 1919- Palestinian National Conference rejects Balfour Dec. British Mandate for Palestine -During this time approximately 225,000 Jewish immigrants arrive from Europe Growth of US influence in Middle East after 1945 US Pressure on UN in 1947 to partition Palestine UN partition – 1947 – planned to create state with Jewish state with ½ Jewish and ½ Arab population

19 Galilee Original UN partition plan for Palestine 1947 Samaria Judea


21 Developments in Palestine/Israel 1948-1993
1949: War of Independence – Neighboring states attack Israel. After war, borders expanded – ethnic cleansing of Arabs and Arab flight to refugee camps Establishment of the “Green Line” (Borders at 1948/49) defeat of Arab armies Rest of Palestine grabbed by Jordan and Egypt Arab Refugees to surrounding areas: Arab population mostly in Galilee Creation of Palestinian nationalism in camps 1964: PLO founded

22 Developments in Palestine/Israel 1948-1993
1956: Suez crisis: Israel invades Egypt (with secret support from Britain and France) to recapture nationalized Suez Canal “Six Day War” 1967 – Israel occupied West Bank, Gaza,Golan Heights, and Jerusalem, Sinai Peninsula U.N. Resolution 242 – creation of Palestinian homeland on West Bank and Gaza 1967 – Jewish Settlements in Judea and Samaria 3 kinds – military (nahal), suburban Jerusalem and religious (Gush Emunim) Expanded dramatically after Likud in power 1977


24 West Bank –Jewish Settlements

25 Developments in Palestine/Israel 1948-1993
1973 Yom Kippur war with Arab states 1979 Camp David agreements – return of Sinai to Egypt Jewish Occupation of S. Lebanon Cold War- close ally of US; USSR supporting Arabs 1st Intifada by Palestinians 1988-Hamas created 1992: Israel Labor Party wins elections: 1993/4: Oslo peace accords Palestinian Authority created


27 Israeli Palestinian Socio-economics
1/5 of Israeli pop/ ½ of the poor Most are Sunni Muslims, 10% are Christian 50% are under 15 years old History of high education: currently 30 professors (out of 6000) Inequality of state welfare Increasingly unwelcome in Israeli army, institutions

28 Palestinian Diaspora Israeli Citizens: 1.2 million (1/5 Israeli Pop)
Palestinians in West Bank and Gaza: 2/3 million (under Israeli military control) Palestinians in UN Refugee Camps in Syria, Jordan, Lebanon: 2.3 million Rest of Middle East/US/etc.: million

29 Palestinian Diaspora

30 Israeli Politics – 2 main parties and 1 ultra-religious tradition
Labor party: Zionists (David Ben-Gurion, Golda Meir, etc) Ashkenazic tradition – elites -Kibbutzim (socialist), want multi-ethnic state with Jewish dominant 2) Likud bloc: (Ariel Sharon) Mitzrahim (Sephardic tradition) – major immigration in 1960s from Arab states – pop. Change – larger families– won Knesset elections 1977 “hard liners” 3) Haredim (ultra-Orthodox) –Religious groups – dominant in Jerusalem – religious parties – balance of power in Knesset after early 1980s

31 Knesset is all splinters
Sharon Barak

32 Current Status: 1995: Rabin (Labor/Peace) assassinated by Israeli 1996: Likud/Netanyahu come to power Jewish Fundamentalists rise in power 1998: Clinton tries to reach peace accords between Netanyahu and Arafat (Wye River talks) very lukewarm 1999/2000: Talks between PM Barak and Arafat fail

33 Things really heat up 2000: Sharon goes to Temple Mount, visits Al Aqsa mosque, establishes home in Arab part of Jerusalem with Israeli flag Second Intifada 2000/1: Barak resigns, Sharon comes to power. 2002: Sharon launches ‘Operation Defensive Shield” 2003: “The Quartet” (UN, EU, US, Russia) “Road Map” 2003: Arafat turns over negotiating power to Mahmoud Abbas, as Prime Minister

34 Political Archipelagoes On the West Bank 2000

35 New Concepts for Peace Post-Zionism: equalize power Shared territories
Upgrade Palestinian power Downgrade Jewish power (no longer automatic right of Israeli citizenship to diaspora No Jewish work week Shared territories N. Ireland Model Internationalization of Holy Sites Limited Right of Return for Palestinians Geographic Link between Gaza and West Bank

36 New Concepts for Peace- TABA Plan

37 Taba details

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