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Driving Under the Influence

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1 Driving Under the Influence
Chapter 18

2 An average drunk driver has driven 80 times before their first arrest
This year, one person every 50 minutes will die in drunk-driving crashes 1 in 3 people will be involved in an alcohol-related crash in their lifetime STATISTICS

3 18-1 Alcohol and Other Drugs
Alcohol is the most widely abused drug Most often linked to motor-vehicle collisions Traffic crashes are the leading cause of death among people younger than 25 years of age, and more than half of those are alcohol- related Many are not under the influence themselves Each year, an estimated 4 million innocent people are injured or have their vehicles damaged in drunk-driving crashes DON’T DRINK & DRIVE! 18-1 Alcohol and Other Drugs

4 Types of Alcohol Variety of forms of Alcohol Concentration of Alcohol
Beer Wine Spirits (whiskey, vodka, rum, tequila) Concentration of Alcohol Beer – 3% for light beer, 12% Microbrews Wine – 12%-14% Spirits or “Hard Liquor” – 20%-95% Types of Alcohol

5 Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC)
The amount of alcohol in your body at a given time Measure of the percent of alcohol in your bloodstream For example, if you have a BAC of 0.10%, it means your bloodstream contains 1% alcohol Can be measured using chemical test that analyze breath, blood, or urine Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC)

6 BAC Level Affect on Body 0.02% Reactions start to slow and the first signs of poor judgment appear 0.05% Driving skills begin to noticeably deteriorate. Reasoning is less reliable muscles are too relaxed, and coordination is decreased 0.08% Judgment and inhibitions are affected, as are coordination, balance, vision, hearing, and speech 0.10% All mental and physical skills are extremely affected. Performing ay task with your hands or feet, including walking without stumbling, is difficult 0.30% Pass out, coma, or death

7 What Determines a Person’s BAC
The amount of alcohol consumed The amount of time over which the alcohol was consumed The amount of food in your stomach Your body weight Whether the alcohol is mixed with a carbonate beverage Whether you are a man or a woman What Determines a Person’s BAC

8 How the Body Gets Rid of Alcohol
Liver turns alcohol into oxygen and carbon dioxide through oxidation It takes 1 hour to oxidize 1 ounce drink Some people think you can “sober up” by: Taking a cold shower Drinking coffee Exercising These may make you feel more alert but will not lower your BAC – only time will! After some time has passed, you may feel as though you are good to go – this is a delusion because you are comparing your peak feeling of impairment with the return of only some of your physical or mental abilities How the Body Gets Rid of Alcohol

9 The Physiological Effects of Alcohol
Vision Alcohol relaxes the fine, delicate muscles that move the eyes and allow them to focus Double Vision An uncontrollable rapid vibration of the eye that makes it virtually impossible to see at all Alcohol distorts your: Depth perception – stopping distance, speed of oncoming vehicles Peripheral vision – tunnel vision reduces field of vision by 70% Night vision – impairs vision by 25% The Physiological Effects of Alcohol

10 The Physiological Effects of Alcohol
Physical Reflexes and Coordination Reaction time is decreased The brain works less efficiently, and instruction to muscles are delayed The effect of alcohol on your muscles is to decrease coordination Muscles react more slowly to commands from your brain and function with less control Tendency to oversteer, understeer, brake late, overbrake, or not brake at all The Physiological Effects of Alcohol

11 How Alcohol Affects Judgment
Decision-making ability is decreased Inhibitions Elements of your personality that stop you from behaving without regard to possible consequences Take chances you wouldn’t normally take Magnify emotions How Alcohol Affects Judgment

12 Alcohol is a drug, but what other people think of as “drugs” can affect the mind and body differently than alcohol OTC drugs such as aspirin and other pain relievers, cold and allergy remedies, and medicines for back pain and arthritis can cause drowsiness, dizziness, slower reaction times, reduced coordination Prescription drugs usually have more powerful effects on the body, with higher dosages of the same active ingredients found in OTC drugs Most OTC and prescription drugs come with warnings not to drive Other Drugs

13 Other Drugs (cont.) Illegal Drugs
Depressants produce side effects similar to alcohol, including irritability, confusion, drowsiness, dizziness, and poor eye-hand coordination Narcotics can slow reaction time, impair motor skills, cause dimness of vision. Stimulants make people more aggressive and overconfident (caffeine & nicotine) Hallucinogens can make a person confused or unable to think clearly or concentrated and can have an altered sense of direction, space, and time Marijuana can impair ability to see, steer, brake, and make correct driving decisions. Can cause drowsiness, fragmented thought patterns, and problems evaluating spatial relationships and the passage of time Other Drugs (cont.)

14 Mixing any drug with another or with alcohol can lead to serious impairment
Synergistic Effect - The enhancement of a drug’s side effects caused by mixing it with alcohol and other certain drugs When drugs are combined with alcohol, you body focuses on getting rid of the alcohol first Because a normal dosage assumes your body will eliminate part of the drug, the effects of the drug are multiplied Other Drugs (cont.)

15 18-2 Preventing Drunk Driving
The best way to prevent driving under the influence is to prevent people impaired by alcohol or other drugs from getting on the road Everyone at a place or event where there is alcohol consumed is obligated to take an active role in keeping drinkers from driving 18-2 Preventing Drunk Driving

16 Resisting Peer Pressure
The influence that others of your own age have on you People do things they would never do on their own to impress friends, classmates, co- workers, or members of the opposite sex If others decide to act irresponsibly, do not participate If they don’t understand, they aren’t real friends Resisting Peer Pressure

17 Setting Limits On Yourself
Ideally, you shouldn’t have any alcohol in your system when driving If you do drink, consider the factors that can influence your BAC Most of us have some idea when we have had too much to drink Speech slurs Become overly friendly Voices get louder Dizziness Recognize these signs and stop drinking Listen to your friends if they try to stop you or take your keys Don’t try to match the drinking of others If you are afraid to admit you do not want to drink, make up an excuse for not participating Anything is better that drinking too much and later causing an injury or death on the road Stay active and mingle Setting Limits On Yourself

18 Alternatives to Drinking and Driving
Designated driver Call a friend for a ride Call a cab Refuse to be the passenger of a drunk driver Offer to drive if you are sober Stay the night Alternatives to Drinking and Driving

19 Avoiding Drunk Drivers on the Road
Depends on when you drive Alcohol involvement is 5 times higher at night than during the day Risk of colliding with a drunk driver is higher on weekends, holidays, and vacation periods Remember that drunk drivers are on the road at all times Avoiding Drunk Drivers on the Road

20 Avoiding Drunk Drivers on the Road
What to look for Driving at inconsistent speeds, too fast or too slow “Riding” the lane markers on the road or straddling the center line Weaving back and forth across the roadway Drifting into other lanes or opposing traffic Driving at the edge of the roadway Driving on or next to the shoulder Traveling in a turn lane Avoiding Drunk Drivers on the Road

21 Avoiding Drunk Drivers on the Road
What to look for: (cont.) Braking erratically or stopping without cause Stopping and starting suddenly Responding slowly to traffic signals Tailgaiting Driving at night without headlights Passing other vehicles recklessly Almost hitting another vehicle or object in the road Leaving turn signals blinking or signaling turns inconsistently Making wide or abrupt turns Avoiding Drunk Drivers on the Road

22 Other Indicators Drivers may also exhibit indications of being drunk
Tightly gripping the steering wheel Slouching in the seat Making strange or obscene gestures Driving with windows open in cold weather Sticking heads outside the vehicle Driving with face too close to the windshield Other Indicators

23 Avoiding Drunk Drivers on the Road
Keep your distance Do not try to pass Or Pull over to the side of the road Get the color, make, and model of the vehicle and direction of travel Get license plate number if possible Notify police Avoiding Drunk Drivers on the Road

24 You can be “legally impaired” without ever having a drink
Technology can prove if you are legally drunk even if your physical and mental capabilities appear in perfect working order You can be charged with a DUI even if your BAC is well under the legal limit Police can and do arrest people who they believe are under the influence of alcohol or other drugs before they start their cars or while they are sitting in a parked car 18-3 DUI and the Law

25 When you are arrested for drunk driving, you will be charged with either:
Driving under the influence (DUI) Driving while intoxicated (DWI) Average offender in Illinois is : male (78 percent arrested are men); age 34 (60 percent are under age 35); arrested between 11 p.m. and 4 a.m. on a weekend; and caught driving with a BAC of .16 — twice the illegal limit. — Illinois Secretary of State DUI and DWI

26 DUI Conviction Can be financially devastating
Fines and court costs Impoundment of vehicle Attorney’s fees DUI education programs Increase insurance premiums Can be devastating to families as well Parents may get sued or fined for negligently supervising your behavior Can jeopardize employment DUI Conviction

27 Any person driving a vehicle has given consent to have breath, blood, or urine tested for the presence of alcohol or drugs By driving a vehicle, you have already “agreed” beforehand to allow the testing of your BAC if requested Implied Consent

28 Tests for Intoxication
Breath Alcohol Test Simplest and most common Breath into a tube and your BAC is measured using infrared light Field Sobriety Test On the spot, roadside evaluation DUI convictions can be based on this alone Officer will conduct a series of tests that detect physical and mental impairment “Horizontal Gaze Nystagmus” test Divided Attention Impairment tests Combine mental and physical tasks to be performed at the same time Walk and Turn - walk a line, heel-to-toe, while counting off your steps Say the alphabet backwards Stand on one leg Close your eyes and touch your nose Tests for Intoxication

29 Tests for Intoxication
Urine and Blood tests Blood test is administered by medical personnel Potentially the most accurate Urine tests can be given by the law enforcement official Least accurate Refusal will result in a failed test! Tests for Intoxication

30 Beat the Breathalyzer? Can you beat a Breathalyzer test?
Breath mints? Onions? Denture cream? Mouthwash? Pennies? Answer: No, there is nothing you can do to “beat” a breathalyzer test, but there are things that can affect the outcomes Mouthwash Breath spray Beat the Breathalyzer?

31 Special roadside safety checks in which police officers stop drivers to determine whether any are impaired by drugs or alcohol If alcohol is suspected, a field sobriety test will follow Sobriety Checkpoints

32 Makes it illegal to have any kind of open container of alcohol in a motor vehicle unless it is kept out of the immediate control of the occupants, such as in the trunk Any alcoholic beverage transported in the passenger compartment of the vehicle, including glove box, must be full, sealed, and unopened Open Container Laws

33 Penalties for DUI Convictions
Will depend on whether it is your first offense or not Can lead to these: Revocation of your license Sentence to perform community service Installation of an ignition interlock device Confiscation of your vehicle Penalties can be enhanced Sentence enhancement can occur if: You were speeding You refuse a chemical test If a child under 16 was riding in the vehicle at the time There is property damage Injuries or death occurred, can be charged with a felony Felonies are punishable by a heavy fine, automatic jail term, and extended probation Zero Tolerance Laws Penalties for DUI Convictions

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