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Society for Conservation Biology Auburn University Chapter Check us out at WHEN?TUESDAY Aug. 31 6:00-7:00 PM 2010-2011 Kickoff Meeting.

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Presentation on theme: "Society for Conservation Biology Auburn University Chapter Check us out at WHEN?TUESDAY Aug. 31 6:00-7:00 PM 2010-2011 Kickoff Meeting."— Presentation transcript:

1 Society for Conservation Biology Auburn University Chapter Check us out at WHEN?TUESDAY Aug. 31 6:00-7:00 PM 2010-2011 Kickoff Meeting Joint Meeting with AU Marine Biology Club Guest Speaker: Dr. Ken Halanych “2010’s Gulf Oil Spill” Also: Info on upcoming Tailgate, Aquatic Biodiversity Workshop, North Alabama Cave Field Trip! WHERE? 112 Rouse Life Sciences FOOD? Free Pizza Provided!

2 Chapter 2: What is Biological Diversity? The Delhi Sands Flower-Loving Fly: First fly on the Federal Endangered Species List! NatureServe Explorer Alabama Natural Heritage Program Biological Abstracts

3 What is Biological Diversity? 1) Species diversity –Provides resources 2) Genetic diversity –Allows species to survive and adapt (evolve!) 3) Community diversity –Supports ecosystem function –Provides human benefits: ecological services (filter water/air, flood/erosion control, etc.).

4 3. Community diversity

5 Competition: Organisms both need resource in limiting supply (-,- interaction) Predation: One species consumes another (+,-) Mutualism: Organisms benefit one another (+,+) Commensalism: One benefits, other unaffected (+,0) Amensalism: One harmed, other unaffected (-,0) What you know: species interactions (BIOL 3060)

6 Primary producers: Do photosynthesis Primary consumers: Herbivores Secondary consumers: Carnivores Parasites/pathogens: Cause disease Decomposers/detritivores: Break down non- living materials You also know this: trophic levels (BIOL 3060)

7 Interactions and trophic levels contribute to community diversity Communities

8 Keystone species/guilds Guild: group species with similar ecological function in community –Ex, frugivorous (fruit-eating) birds Keystone: species/guild affects community more than expected based upon abundance/biomass (has disproportionate impact) Lollipop guild Who am I?

9 The Keystone Concept

10 Keystone types (4): 1. Control potential dominants BIOL 3060: Paine & seastars in intertidal zone (keystone predator) Trophic cascade: Influence of higher levels on lower

11 Keystone types (4): 2. Resource Providers Provide critical resource –Ex, tree in tropical forest: fruits when most others don’t –Allow frugivore guild to survive yearlong

12 Keystone types (4): 3. Mutualists Flying foxes: Mutualist bats (Old World Tropics and Pacific Islands) Pollinate flowers & disperse seeds

13 Keystone types (4): 4. Ecosystem engineers Modify habitat to favor many species Ex, Who am I? Burrows provide refuge Fifth??

14 Keystone Resources Critical physical or structural resources Examples: –Deep pools in streams –Salt licks –Hollow trees Keebler Elf Habitat

15 Ch. 3: Where (in the world) is Biological Diversity?

16 Where is Biological Diversity? Global “hotspots” (Myers et al. 2000) –1) Endemic species (found only there) numerous At least 1500 endemic species vascular plants (>0.5% world total) –2) Habitat destruction critical >70% habitat destroyed “Hotspots Revisited” (Mittermeier et al. 2005) Foreword by Harrison Ford Extends list from 25 to 34

17 Where is Biological Diversity? Conservation International: private group 50% plant/animal species: 16% Earth’s surface Average: 10% habitat left these places!

18 Hotspots Tour See pdf link on class webpage for downloadable map!

19 Asia-Pacific (13) 13) SW China mountains Rich temperate forest Giant panda Map of temperate Forest areas Boyd panda

20 Asia-Pacific (13) 12) Himalaya Grasslands to forest to alpine >3000 endemic plants, 50 endemic reptiles Mt. Everest (Sagarmatha) Western Tragopan

21 Asia-Pacific (13) 11) Indo-Burma Tropical rainforest 6 new species large mammals found in last 16 years! Leaf deer: described 1997 High freshwater turtle diversity

22 Asia-Pacific(13) 10) East Melanesia 1600 islands Tropical rainforest >12 threatened species flying fox

23 Asia-Pacific (13) 9) Polynesia-Micronesia (4,500 tropical islands) Hawaiian honeycreepers (type speciation?)

24 Asia-Pacific (13) 8) New Caledonia (size of NJ!) 77% flora endemic (2,400 spp.) Only parasitic conifer! Many endemic Araucaria species (conifers) Kagu (endemic forest bird)

25 Asia-Pacific (13) 7) Japan 3000 islands Subtropics to boreal zone 75% amphibians endemic Japanese macaque (snow monkey) 25% mammals endemic Japanese giant salamander

26 Asia-Pacifi (13) 6) Philippines (>7,100 tropical islands!) 6000 endemic plants, many endemic birds & amphibians 7% forests left! Philippine eagle

27 Asia-Pacific (13) 5) New Zealand (temperate) –All mammals, amphibians, reptiles endemic –50 bird species extinct by humans Kiwi (endemic bird) Who am I? Revenge of the moa (extinct) Stephens Island Wren (extinct)

28 Asia-Pacific (13) 4) Sundaland (western 1/2 Malaysia-Indonesia) Tropical rainforest Who am I?

29 Asia-Pacific(13) 3) Wallacea (eastern 1/2 Malaysia-Indonesia) “Wallace’s Line”: Zoogeographical boundary Australasian and SE Asian faunas Tropical rainforest Alfred Russell Wallace Who am I?

30 Asia-Pacific (13) 2) Southwest Australia Mediterranean climate 80% plants endemic (3000 species) Banksia

31 Asia-Pacific (13) 1) Western Ghats/Sri Lanka Mostly forests 3000 endemic plants, many fish, reptiles, amphibians 2003: New frog family (Nasikabatrachidae) discovered Western Ghats

32 Europe-Central Asia 4) Mediterranean basin Climate: Mediterranean! Vegetation: Was forest, after 8000 yr civilization mostly scrub 22,500 endemic plant spp.

33 Europe-Central Asia 3) Irano-Anatolian Mountainous forest Many endemic plants (2500 spp.) Turkish orchids: bulbs ingredient (salep) for ice cream (endangering many species)

34 Europe-Central Asia 2) Caucasus (incl. the Other Georgia) Deserts, savannas, mountain forests Many endemic plants (1600 spp.) Endemic tur (mountain goat) Prez. of Georgia!

35 Europe-Central Asia 1) Mountains Central Asia “Home of the -stans” Arid: deserts, steppes, forests on mountains 1500 endemic plant spp. Who am I?

36 Africa (8) 8) Guinean Forests of West Africa Tropical rainforest >25% African mammals >150 endemic fish High primate diversity Diana monkey Chimp (armed) Lowland gorilla

37 Africa (8) 7) Horn of Africa Arid: grasslands/desert 50% plants endemic, 90 endemic reptiles Source frankincense and myrrh in Bible Boswellia: frankincense source Harvesting myrhh (resin)

38 Africa (8) 6) Eastern Afromontane Moist & dry tropical forests >600 endemic fish Who am I? Cichlids: 10% Worlds’ Freshwater Fish species!

39 Africa (8) 5) East Africa Coastal Forests Moist & dry tropical forests 1700 endemic plants Who am I?

40 Africa (8) 4) Maputoland-Pondoland-Albany Warm temperate forests, grasslands Many endemic plants Bird of paradise (endemic)

41 Africa (8) 3) Cape Floristic Region Mediterranean scrub (fynbos) 6200 endemic plants

42 Africa (8) 2) Succulent Karoo: Desert Richest succulent flora in world 20 endemic scorpions Halfmens

43 Africa (8) 1) Madagascar/Indian Ocean Islands Tropical rainforests, arid forests 11,600 endemic plants (90% flora) Many endemic birds (>60%), mammals (90%), amphibians (99%) Lemurs (15 extinct!) The extinct giant lemur Who am I?

44 North/Central America 4) California Floristic Province Mediterranean climate 61% plants endemic 50% amphibians endemic Big tree (Sequoia) Who am I?

45 North/Central America 3) Madrean Pine-Oak Woodlands Pine-oak forests 4000 endemic plants Monarch butterfly overwintering

46 North/Central America 2) Mesoamerica Tropical forests (dry to moist to montane) 70% amphibians, 70% fishes endemic Golden toad of Costa Rica, extinct since 1989

47 North/Central America 1) Caribbean Islands Rainforests to cactus scrub 6,500 endemic plants (25% on Cuba alone) Many endemic reptiles (93%), amphibians (100%) Barbados thread snake (smallest!) Caribbean monk seal (declared extinct 2008) Pirates!

48 South America 5) Tumbes-Chocó- Magdalena Moist to dry forests 25% plants, 30% reptiles, 15% amphibians endemic Golden poison frog Chocó rain forest Galapagos tortoise

49 South America 4) Tropical Andes Most diverse place on Earth! 10% Earth’s plants (50% endemics) 70% amphibians, 45% reptiles endemic 250 endemic species Eleutherodactylus frogs

50 South America 3) Chilean Winter Rainfall-Valdivian Forests Coastal fog desert, temperate forest 66% reptiles, 71% amphibians endemic Male Darwin’s frog (endemic) carries froglets in vocal sac Fog desert

51 South America 2) Atlantic Forest Tropical forests (dry to moist to montane) 8000 endemic plants Golden lion tamarin

52 South America 1) Cerrado Savanna and woodland/savanna Fires in dry season 50% plants endemic Giant worm lizard

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