Presentation on theme: "Society for Conservation Biology Auburn University Chapter Check us out at www.auburn.edu/scb WHEN?TUESDAY Aug. 31 6:00-7:00 PM 2010-2011 Kickoff Meeting."— Presentation transcript:
Society for Conservation Biology Auburn University Chapter Check us out at www.auburn.edu/scb WHEN?TUESDAY Aug. 31 6:00-7:00 PM 2010-2011 Kickoff Meeting Joint Meeting with AU Marine Biology Club Guest Speaker: Dr. Ken Halanych “2010’s Gulf Oil Spill” Also: Info on upcoming Tailgate, Aquatic Biodiversity Workshop, North Alabama Cave Field Trip! WHERE? 112 Rouse Life Sciences FOOD? Free Pizza Provided!
Chapter 2: What is Biological Diversity? The Delhi Sands Flower-Loving Fly: First fly on the Federal Endangered Species List! NatureServe Explorer Alabama Natural Heritage Program Biological Abstracts
What is Biological Diversity? 1) Species diversity –Provides resources 2) Genetic diversity –Allows species to survive and adapt (evolve!) 3) Community diversity –Supports ecosystem function –Provides human benefits: ecological services (filter water/air, flood/erosion control, etc.).
Competition: Organisms both need resource in limiting supply (-,- interaction) Predation: One species consumes another (+,-) Mutualism: Organisms benefit one another (+,+) Commensalism: One benefits, other unaffected (+,0) Amensalism: One harmed, other unaffected (-,0) What you know: species interactions (BIOL 3060)
Primary producers: Do photosynthesis Primary consumers: Herbivores Secondary consumers: Carnivores Parasites/pathogens: Cause disease Decomposers/detritivores: Break down non- living materials You also know this: trophic levels (BIOL 3060)
Interactions and trophic levels contribute to community diversity Communities
Keystone species/guilds Guild: group species with similar ecological function in community –Ex, frugivorous (fruit-eating) birds Keystone: species/guild affects community more than expected based upon abundance/biomass (has disproportionate impact) Lollipop guild Who am I?
Keystone types (4): 4. Ecosystem engineers Modify habitat to favor many species Ex, Who am I? Burrows provide refuge Fifth??
Keystone Resources Critical physical or structural resources Examples: –Deep pools in streams –Salt licks –Hollow trees Keebler Elf Habitat
Ch. 3: Where (in the world) is Biological Diversity?
Where is Biological Diversity? Global “hotspots” (Myers et al. 2000) –1) Endemic species (found only there) numerous At least 1500 endemic species vascular plants (>0.5% world total) –2) Habitat destruction critical >70% habitat destroyed “Hotspots Revisited” (Mittermeier et al. 2005) Foreword by Harrison Ford Extends list from 25 to 34
Where is Biological Diversity? Conservation International: private group 50% plant/animal species: 16% Earth’s surface Average: 10% habitat left these places!
Hotspots Tour See pdf link on class webpage for downloadable map!
Asia-Pacific (13) 13) SW China mountains Rich temperate forest Giant panda Map of temperate Forest areas Boyd panda
Asia-Pacific (13) 12) Himalaya Grasslands to forest to alpine >3000 endemic plants, 50 endemic reptiles Mt. Everest (Sagarmatha) Western Tragopan
Asia-Pacific (13) 11) Indo-Burma Tropical rainforest 6 new species large mammals found in last 16 years! Leaf deer: described 1997 High freshwater turtle diversity
Asia-Pacific(13) 10) East Melanesia 1600 islands Tropical rainforest >12 threatened species flying fox
Asia-Pacific (13) 5) New Zealand (temperate) –All mammals, amphibians, reptiles endemic –50 bird species extinct by humans Kiwi (endemic bird) Who am I? Revenge of the moa (extinct) Stephens Island Wren (extinct)
Asia-Pacific (13) 4) Sundaland (western 1/2 Malaysia-Indonesia) Tropical rainforest Who am I?
Asia-Pacific(13) 3) Wallacea (eastern 1/2 Malaysia-Indonesia) “Wallace’s Line”: Zoogeographical boundary Australasian and SE Asian faunas Tropical rainforest Alfred Russell Wallace Who am I?
North/Central America 2) Mesoamerica Tropical forests (dry to moist to montane) 70% amphibians, 70% fishes endemic Golden toad of Costa Rica, extinct since 1989
North/Central America 1) Caribbean Islands Rainforests to cactus scrub 6,500 endemic plants (25% on Cuba alone) Many endemic reptiles (93%), amphibians (100%) Barbados thread snake (smallest!) Caribbean monk seal (declared extinct 2008) Pirates!
South America 5) Tumbes-Chocó- Magdalena Moist to dry forests 25% plants, 30% reptiles, 15% amphibians endemic Golden poison frog Chocó rain forest Galapagos tortoise
South America 4) Tropical Andes Most diverse place on Earth! 10% Earth’s plants (50% endemics) 70% amphibians, 45% reptiles endemic 250 endemic species Eleutherodactylus frogs
South America 3) Chilean Winter Rainfall-Valdivian Forests Coastal fog desert, temperate forest 66% reptiles, 71% amphibians endemic Male Darwin’s frog (endemic) carries froglets in vocal sac Fog desert
South America 2) Atlantic Forest Tropical forests (dry to moist to montane) 8000 endemic plants Golden lion tamarin
South America 1) Cerrado Savanna and woodland/savanna Fires in dry season 50% plants endemic Giant worm lizard