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Module 4: Biomes of the World (Part-III)

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Presentation on theme: "Module 4: Biomes of the World (Part-III)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Module 4: Biomes of the World (Part-III)

2 Biodiversity Hotspots

3 Diversity rich areas in the world
Tropical rain forests Coral reefs Large tropical lakes…fishes…isolated productive habitat Deep sea…..age and stability Tropical shrublands Tropical grasslands Deserts Temperate shrublands

4 Diversity rich areas in the world
Marine systems contain 28 of 33 existing animal phyla 13 of these phyla are present only in marine environment

5 Biodiversity Hotspots

6 Biodiversity hotspots
The 34 biodiversity hotspots contain: at least 150,000 plant species as endemics, 50 percent of the world’s total. 29 percent of the world's freshwater fish species In only 2.3 percent of the planet's land area

7 What are these hotspots?
Qualifying factors for hotspot designation: Regions harbouring a great diversity of endemic species Must have at least 1,500 endemic species (0.5% of the global total) Significantly impacted and influenced by human activities Must have lost at least 70% of its original habitat

8 Why hotspots rich in endemism?
Isolation over long period of geologic time Island Benign environments Tropical and Mediterranean Topographically diverse Mountains Benign environments + varied topography + isolated for long geological time Presence of species not present anywhere else

9 Why hotspots rich in endemism?
Isolation of hotspots: Tropical island archepelagos Caribbean island Philippines Large island Caledonia Combination of both Sundaland Continental islands Isolation by surrounded deserts, mountains, seas Indo-Burma, Western Ghats Landlocked islands

10 Threats to hotspots Fragile ecosystems Loss of habitat:
Physical restriction of species No other population of the same species… extinction Species not prepared to compete with the exotics

11 Hottest of the hotspots
Madagascar & Indian Ocean Islands Philippines Sundaland Atlantic Forest Caribbean Indo-Burma Western Ghats & Sri Lanka Eastern Arc Mountains & Coastal Forests

12 Madagascar & Indian Ocean Islands 11,600 3.9 Philippines 6,091 2
Hotspot Endemic plants Endemics as a Percentage of World Total Madagascar & Indian Ocean Islands 11,600 3.9 Philippines 6,091 2 Tropical Andes 15,000 5 Southwest Australia 2948 1 Mediterranean Basin 11,700 Indo-Burma 7,000 2.3 Western Ghats & Sri Lanka 3,049 Himalayas 3,160 1.1

13 References Campbell, N.A Biology, 4th Edition. The Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Company, Inc., Menlo Park, California. Large Marine Ecosystems of the World Ecoregions of the World by WWF Hotspots in Context Norman Myers, Russell A. Mittermeier, Cristina G. Mittermeier, Gustavo A. B. da Fonseca & Jennifer Ken Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities. NATURE | VOL 403 | 24 FEBRUARY 2000. Roberts, et al Marine biodiversity hotspots and conservation priorities for tropical reefs. Science 295, Maps and resources: World Atlas on Biodiversity World Mangrove Atlas

14 Food for Thought -Which aspects of the biodiversity hotspot concept do you consider the most relevant for the conservation of marine and coastal sites? - Do you see any risk involved in using this concept for prioritizing conservation at global and national level? - Some areas harbor higher species richness than others – why is that so? Do you see ways of enhancing species richness in threatened or degraded areas? A difficult decision: imagine you were responsible for the management of your site: would you rather invest the restricted funds available in the maintenance / restoration of singular habitats and endemic species, or would you concentrate on broader conservation and outreach strategies? Think about your reasons – and potential strategies for covering both aspects.

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