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Biomes of the World (Part-III) Module 4: Biomes of the World (Part-III)

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Presentation on theme: "Biomes of the World (Part-III) Module 4: Biomes of the World (Part-III)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Biomes of the World (Part-III) Module 4: Biomes of the World (Part-III)

2 Biodiversity Hotspots dick.jpg

3 Diversity rich areas in the world Tropical rain forests Coral reefs Large tropical lakes…fishes…isolated productive habitat Deep sea…..age and stability Tropical shrublands Tropical grasslands Deserts Temperate shrublands

4 Marine systems contain 28 of 33 existing animal phyla 13 of these phyla are present only in marine environment Diversity rich areas in the world

5 Biodiversity Hotspots

6 Biodiversity hotspots The 34 biodiversity hotspots contain: at least 150,000 plant species as endemics, 50 percent of the world’s total. 29 percent of the world's freshwater fish species In only 2.3 percent of the planet's land area

7 What are these hotspots? Qualifying factors for hotspot designation: 1.Regions harbouring a great diversity of endemic species –Must have at least 1,500 endemic species (0.5% of the global total) 2.Significantly impacted and influenced by human activities –Must have lost at least 70% of its original habitat

8 Why hotspots rich in endemism? 1.Isolation over long period of geologic time –Island 2.Benign environments –Tropical and Mediterranean 3.Topographically diverse –Mountains Benign environments + varied topography + isolated for long geological time Presence of species not present anywhere else

9 Why hotspots rich in endemism? Isolation of hotspots: 1. Tropical island archepelagos –Caribbean island –Philippines 2.Large island –Caledonia 3.Combination of both –Sundaland 4.Continental islands –Isolation by surrounded deserts, mountains, seas –Indo-Burma, Western Ghats 5.Landlocked islands

10 Threats to hotspots 1.Fragile ecosystems 2.Loss of habitat: 1.Physical restriction of species 2.No other population of the same species…..global extinction 3.Species not prepared to compete with the exotics

11 Hottest of the hotspots 1.Madagascar & Indian Ocean Islands 2.Philippines 3.Sundaland 4.Atlantic Forest 5.Caribbean 6.Indo-Burma 7.Western Ghats & Sri Lanka 8.Eastern Arc Mountains & Coastal Forests

12 HotspotEndemic plants Endemics as a Percentage of World Total Madagascar & Indian Ocean Islands 11, Philippines 6,0912 Tropical Andes 15,0005 Southwest Australia Mediterranean Basin 11, Indo-Burma 7, Western Ghats & Sri Lanka 3,0491 Himalayas 3,1601.1

13 References Campbell, N.A Biology, 4th Edition. The Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Company, Inc., Menlo Park, California. Large Marine Ecosystems of the World Ecoregions of the World by WWF Hotspots in Context xt.aspx Norman Myers, Russell A. Mittermeier, Cristina G. Mittermeier, Gustavo A. B. da Fonseca & Jennifer Ken Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities. NATURE | VOL 403 | 24 FEBRUARY Roberts, et al Marine biodiversity hotspots and conservation priorities for tropical reefs. Science 295, Maps and resources: World Atlas on Biodiversity World Mangrove Atlas

14 -Which aspects of the biodiversity hotspot concept do you consider the most relevant for the conservation of marine and coastal sites? - Do you see any risk involved in using this concept for prioritizing conservation at global and national level? - Some areas harbor higher species richness than others – why is that so? Do you see ways of enhancing species richness in threatened or degraded areas? Food for Thought A difficult decision: imagine you were responsible for the management of your site: would you rather invest the restricted funds available in the maintenance / restoration of singular habitats and endemic species, or would you concentrate on broader conservation and outreach strategies? Think about your reasons – and potential strategies for covering both aspects.


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