2Zwei Gesichter der Arbeit (Lewin, 1920) Arbeit ist einmal Mühe, Last, Kraftauf-wand. Wer nicht durch Renten oder Herrschaft oder Liebe versorgt ist, muss notgedrungen arbeiten, um seinen Lebensunterhalt zu verdienen. Arbeit ist unentbehrliche Voraus-setzung zum Leben, aber sie ist selbst noch nicht wirkliches Leben. Darum Arbeit so kurz und so bequem wie möglich! Wenn die Arbeit dazu gleich-förmiger und einseitiger werden muss, so schadet dies nichts, solange es ihrer Produktivität keinen Abbruch tut. Denn aller positiver Wert kommt dieser Arbeit nur indirekt zu, nur durch die wirtschaftlichen Vorteile, die sie dem Arbeitenden bietet.Die Arbeit ist dem Menschen unentbehr-lich in ganz anderem Sinn. Nicht weil die Notdurft des Lebens sie erzwingt, sondern weil das Leben ohne Arbeit hohl und halb ist. Dieses Bedürfnis nach Arbeit, die Flucht vor dauernden Müssiggang, die bei zu kurzer Arbeitszeit zur Arbeit ausserhalb des Berufs treibt, beruht nicht auf blosser Gewohnheit zu arbeiten, sondern gründet sich auf den 'Lebenswert' der Arbeit. Weil die Arbeit selbst Leben ist, darum will man auch alle Kräfte des Lebens an sie heran-bringen und in ihr auswirken können. Darum will man die Arbeit reich und weit, vielgestaltig und nicht krüppelhaft beengt. Der Fortschritt der Arbeitsweise gehe also nicht auf mögliche Verkürzung der Arbeits-zeit, sondern auf Steigerung des Lebens-werts der Arbeit, mache sie reicher und menschenwürdiger.
3Psychosocial functions of work (Jahoda, 1984) material means of existenceactivity / competencestructuring of timecooperation / social contactsocial approvalsense of personal identity
4Job design as crucial measure for personnel development Design of humane work tasks in order to furtherhealthcompetenciespersonalitybased on the psychosocial functions of work
5Beginnings of modern job design Hawthorne Studies, see also:
7Criteria for humane work tasks (from Ulich, 1998)
8Motivation through the design of work (Hackman & Oldham, 1976) Core job dimensionsCritical psychological statesPersonal and work outcomesSkill varietyTask identityTask significanceExperiences meaningfulness of workExperienced responsibility for outcome of workKnowledge of actual results of work activitiesHigh internal work motivationHigh quality work performanceHigh satisfaction with workLow absenteeism and turnoverAutonomyFeedbackEmployee growth need strength
9Core characteristics of humane work: Complete tasks sequential completenessCycle of goal setting, planning, execution, control and correctionhierarchical completenessdemands on action regulation at different levels of complexity (skill-, rule- und knowledge-based actions)Reversal of tayloristic principles
10The five principles of Taylorism Separation of planning and doingResponsibility for planning at management level; implementation as sole shopfloor responsibility"one best way" of task executionDefinition of the more efficient way of task execution based on scientific methods; every worker executes only one step in the overall taskSelection of the best personDefinition of qualification profile for each task step, selection of the appropriate personReduction of trainingTraining for the more efficient way of executing each task step, workers are easily replacedControlSurveillance of adherence to the prescribed work methods and of achievement of required results
11Objectives of job design Autonomy: Self-determination regarding goals and rules for goal achievement.Control: Influence on situations in order to achieve goals which can be self-determined or determined by others.Prerequisite for effective use of control: Transparency and predictability of work situation.
12Design rules regarding autonomy and control Control should be at a maximum.But: Management and staff positions can only provide indirect control via line employees.Control without autonomy is possible if strong identification with goals determined by others can be achieved.Autonomy without control contains high potential for frustration (e.g. staff functions without direct influence on the line of command)
14Design of complete tasks individual tasks:horizontal (job enlargement), i.e. adding tasks with the same qualification profile Usually neither improvement of sequential (= complete cycles of goal setting - planning - executing - controlling - correcting) nor hierarchical completeness (= different levels of task complexity)vertical (job enrichment), i.e. adding tasks with more complex qualification profiles Opportunity for improving both sequential and hierarchical completenessjob rotation, i.e. changes between tasks with same or different qualification profiles Opportunity for improving sequential and hierarchical completeness depending on taskscollective tasks:self-regulating teams, i.e. assignment of a complete task to a group Opportunity for improving both sequential and hierarchical completeness
15Work in self-regulating (="semi-autonomous") teams several people,working together for some time,in order to reach common goals,having a group identity."semi-autonomous": The team can decide or participate in decision-making on several of the following issues:production goals (amount and quality)task spectrumproduction methodswork schedulerepresentation of group in the organizationinternal management of the groupgroup membershipinternal distribution of tasksindividual work methods
16Example: Reorganizing production of medicinal instruments BeforeAfterProduction distributed across three departmentsScheduling per operationPlanner in different departments/locationInternal coordination by shift supervisorBoundary regulation by shift supervisorHigh specialization in individual tasksBonus based on department performanceProduction groups based on functional integration per product typeScheduling for whole jobsPlanner in same location as productionInternal coordination by production groupsBoundary regulation by shift supervisor (incl. Involvement in development of new production concepts)Increasing polyvalence, individual and group tasksBonus based on group performanceSignificant reduction in lead timeObjectively and subjectively better working conditionsStill tight and unrealistic scheduling
17Advantages of teams developing ideas discovering and compensating individual errorsfurthering systems viewsupporting shared task orientationoffering reciprocal supportalleviating individual work load"synergy"
18Disadvantages of teams frictionconformity and groupthinklevelling of individual performancediffusion of responsibilitydevaluation of other groups
19Prerequisites for good team work Adequate common taskComplexity higher than individual competenciesClear performance criteriaCollective decision competenceShared goal orientationPositive goal couplingGoal transparency and feedbackAdequate group compositionDifferent perspectives on the taskShared languageDevelopment of group rulesAdequate group sizeSupport for team development (form, storm, norm, perform)Explicit handling of conflicts between individual and collective autonomy
20Design of teams (Richardson & Carter, 2008) “Real teams”Clear objectivesNecessity of working togetherRegular meetings to discuss team effectiveness“Pseudo teams”No clear objectives and/or no necessity of working together and/or no regular meetings team work per se is not necessarily effective, only well-designed teams reported less work pressure and less work-related stress
21Design of teams (Hackman & Wageman, 2005) Facilitating team performance with regard to specific times in the task performance processBeginningsMidpointsEnds/End of cycleTask performance process of the team (t)Motivation-focused interventionsConsultative interventionsEducation-focused interventions
22And don't forget individual job design ... Empowerment better predicts company performance than technology-based management practices (Patterson et al., 2004)
23Considering individual differences in job design Participative und differential-dynamic job design:Involvement in organizational change decisions and offer of choices regarding job design options allows for consideration of individual needs and competencies„Job crafting“:Opportunities for self-determined adaption of work tasks according to changing individual needs and competenciesManagement by Objectives (MbO):Systematic furthering of individual motivation through tailored goals and ways for goal achievementGeneral objective: no fixation of individual differences, but individually tailored support
24Fundamental objective of job design Create conditions that support people in being capable (competence) and also wanting (motivation) to do their job well
25Stress at workStress = a situation with demands that cannot be met by personal resources28% of employees in 15 EU member countries suffer from work-related stress (survey responses 2002)Reported causes:Lack of control, e.g. regarding planning (35%), work duration (55%), time pressure (29%)MonotonyMobbingJob insecurityReported effects:Heart problems (Men:16%, women: 22%)Absenteeism (50-60%)Estimated costs 20 billion Euro
26Stress at workDuring the past 12 months, how many days did you work despite an illness or injury because you felt you had to?Presenteeism (Aronsson et al., 2000)… continuing to work while sick or distressedAssociated with (Caverly et al., 2007)Increased overtimeDecreased job security, career opportunities, trust in co-workers, supervisor support job satisfactionReasons:No back-ups, heavy workload, deadlines, strong work commitmentNo indication that employees who come to work while ill are any less sick than those who did not come
27Exp.: Stress in anaesthesia (Nyssen et al., 2003) Overall moderate levels of stress, but especially younger anaesthetists suffered from emotional exhaustion and reported lack of empowerment and supportMajor stressors in anaesthesia:Lack of control over workTime planning and risksLack of supervisionCommunication within the teamWhat do to?Improve formal work organizationPositive social climate („Psychological Safety“)Improve social support
28Effects of good job design: Stress reduction Interaction of job demands and decision latitude (Karasek, 1979)Appraisal of stressors & coping with stress (Lazarus, 1993)Important resources arecontrol (=means of influence): given (objective) and perceived (subjective)qualificationsocial support
29Stress and Job DesignJob Stress can impair well-being and performance, but can be reduced by appropriate job design.