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HRM A – G. Grote ETHZ, WS 06/07 HRM A: Work process design Overview.

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Presentation on theme: "HRM A – G. Grote ETHZ, WS 06/07 HRM A: Work process design Overview."— Presentation transcript:

1 HRM A – G. Grote ETHZ, WS 06/07 HRM A: Work process design Overview

2 HRM A – G. Grote ETHZ, WS 06/07 Assumptions underlying work and organizational design (from Ulich, 1998)

3 HRM A – G. Grote ETHZ, WS 06/07 Assumptions underlying work and organizational design (from Ulich, 1998)

4 HRM A – G. Grote ETHZ, WS 06/07 The five principles of Taylorism 1.Separation of planning and doing – Responsibility for planning at management level; implementation as sole shopfloor responsibility 2."one best way" of task execution – Definition of the more efficient way of task execution based on scientific methods; every worker executes only one step in the overall task 3.Selection of the best person – Definition of qualification profile for each task step, selection of the appropriate person 4.Reduction of training – Training for the more efficient way of executing each task step, workers are easily replaced 5.Control – Surveillance of adherence to the prescribed work methods and of achievement of required results

5 HRM A – G. Grote ETHZ, WS 06/07 Assumptions underlying work and organizational design (from Ulich, 1998)

6 HRM A – G. Grote ETHZ, WS 06/07 Discovery of social man: Human Relations movement Hawthorne Studies (1)Study on the relationship between lighting and performance based on tayloristic rationalization -> performance increases throughout the study, even when lighting is reduced again to "moon light quality" (2)Study on the relationship between breaks and performance based on tayloristic rationalization -> Performance increases independent of design of breaks äHawthorne effect: Social factors are crucial for behavior, e.g. social attention through being studied (3)Systematic support for group cohesion influences performance through formation of group norms

7 HRM A – G. Grote ETHZ, WS 06/07 Assumptions underlying work and organizational design (from Ulich, 1998)

8 HRM A – G. Grote ETHZ, WS 06/07 Criteria for humane work tasks (from Ulich, 1998)

9 HRM A – G. Grote ETHZ, WS 06/07 Objectives of job design Autonomy: Self-determination regarding goals and rules for goal achievement. Control: Influence on situations in order to achieve goals which can be self-determined or determined by others. Prerequisite for effective use of control: Transparency and predictability of work situation.

10 HRM A – G. Grote ETHZ, WS 06/07 Assumptions underlying work and organizational design (from Ulich, 1998)

11 HRM A – G. Grote ETHZ, WS 06/07 Considering individual differences in job design Participative und differential-dynamic job design: Involvement in organizational change decisions and offer of choices regarding job design options allows for consideration of indiviual needs and competencies Job crafting: Opportunities for self-determined adaption of work tasks according to changing individual needs and competencies Management by Objectives (MbO): Systematic furthering of individual motivation through tailored goals and ways for goal achievement General objective: no fixation of individual differences, but individually tailored support

12 HRM A – G. Grote ETHZ, WS 06/07 Assumptions about human nature (Schein, 1988)

13 HRM A – G. Grote ETHZ, WS 06/07 Case: Work organization in an insurance company

14 HRM A – G. Grote ETHZ, WS 06/07 Goal setting theory Motivation through self-determined achievement of goals. Goals have to be clear and specific,... very difficult without being unrealistic... accepted and longer-term. There hase to be continuous feedback on goal achievement.

15 HRM A – G. Grote ETHZ, WS 06/07 Practical implementation of goal setting theory: Management by objectives (Drucker, 1954) Systematic alignment of individual and organizational goals – Breaking down strategic goals to each level of the organization – Spezific, measurable, achievable, realistic goals for each employee – Participative decision making – Clearly definied time frame for goal achievement – performance evaluation and feedback But: MbO is just another tool, it is not the great cure for management inefficiency. It works if you know the objectives, 90% of the time you don´t.

16 HRM A – G. Grote ETHZ, WS 06/07 Formerly Firm $ t Employee Legal and psychological contracts Job security Hard Work Loyalty Employee Firm Today Employee t + Goal achievement Firm $ + Goals Hard Work Loyalty Employability Employee Firm Work flexibility, Downsizing Legal contract Psychological contract

17 HRM A – G. Grote ETHZ, WS 06/07 Flexible working: Change from a tradtional to a new contract? (Raeder & Grote, 2001)

18 HRM A – G. Grote ETHZ, WS 06/07 Fit between expectations and offers – Employee perspective

19 HRM A – G. Grote ETHZ, WS 06/07 (Non-)Fit of employer offers and employee expectations (Wittekind, Raeder & Grote, 2005)

20 HRM A – G. Grote ETHZ, WS 06/07 (Non-)Fit of employee offers and employer expectations (Wittekind, Raeder & Grote, 2005)

21 HRM A – G. Grote ETHZ, WS 06/07 Career orientations in Switzerland (Swiss HR-Barometer 2006, Grote & Staffelbach) Traditional career Independent career Disengaged career

22 HRM A – G. Grote ETHZ, WS 06/07 Career orientations in Switzerland (Swiss HR-Barometer 2006, Grote & Staffelbach) Traditional career - 39% more men, lower education level, longer tenure more participation, more personnel development more employer offers (especially job security, loyalty, career opportunities) higher commitment, higher life satisfaction, higher work-life balance Independent career - 36% younger, higher education level, higher income, shorter tenure, more in insurance and banking, higher employability more work flexibility, less personnel development more expectations regarding interesting work, learning opportunities, and taking on responsibility lower commitment, lower job satisfaction, higher intention to quit Disengaged career - 13% more women, older, lower education level, lower income less participation, less personnel development lower expectations lower motivation, lower job satisfaction, lower life satisfaction

23 HRM A – G. Grote ETHZ, WS 06/07 Swiss HR-Barometer 2006: Factors influencing intention to quit

24 HRM A – G. Grote ETHZ, WS 06/07 Psychological contract as leadership instrument Psychological contracts... …complement and super- impose legal contracts. …contain reciprocal, though not necessarily correspon- ding expectations and offers between employee and employer. …are derived from verbal agreements as well as from behaviors of contract partners and other members of the organization. The more corresponding and the more explicit the agreement the sounder the psychological contract.


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