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Urine Diversion Dehydrating Toilets (UDDTs) Rahul Ingle and Dr

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1 Urine Diversion Dehydrating Toilets (UDDTs) Rahul Ingle and Dr
Urine Diversion Dehydrating Toilets (UDDTs) Rahul Ingle and Dr. Elisabeth von Münch GIZ Sustainable sanitation – ecosan ( 16 July 2011, Bonn

2 The main question What should sanitation systems be like? (focus in development cooperation: pro-poor, sustainable) Foto: Florian Erzinger

3 Closing the loop between sanitation and agriculture
FOOD NUTRIENTS WATER NUTRIENTS WATER Treatment to destroy pathogens (sanitisation)

4 Sanitation should be seen as a system
Household toilets Part A Treatment and storage Treatment for faeces, greywater, urine Road-based transport and/or pipes Part B Part C Part D Reuse (e.g. agriculture) Sale of fertiliser, compost, irrigation water Part E Toilets, showers, baths, sinks, washing machines, … Crop grown with sanitation products (fertiliser, water)

5 What is the difference between sustainable sanitation and ecosan?
The difference is only very small Ecosan is sustainable sanitation with a particular emphasis on reuse of nutrients (and water and possibly biogas)

6 Ecological sanitation…
… is not a specific technology, but a new philosophy of dealing with what is presently regarded as waste and wastewater for disposal … applies the basic natural principal of closing the loop by using modern and safe sanitation and reuse technologies … employs up a wide range of sanitation options

7 Two principles are often applied in ecosan systems
flow streams with different characteristics are often collected separately (e.g. toilet wastewater separately from rest of the domestic wastewater (=greywater)) the unnecessary dilution of the flow streams is usually avoided (e.g. by using dry, low flush or vacuum) Example: waterless urinals

8 Sources… Blackwater Urine Yellow water Brown water
Toilette Faeces Blackwater Urine Yellow water Brown water Waschen Greywater Baden Küchen Domestic wastewater can be divided into a couple of different sources: urine: called yellowwater, faeces called brownwater Source: Gulyas, TUHH, 2008 8

9 Characteristics… Greywater ~ 500 l/(p*a) 25.000 -100.000 l/(p*a)
Large volume Low hygienic risk Few nutrients Easy to treat Urine ~ 500 l/(p*a) Small volume Low hygienic risk Nearly all nutrients Faeces ~ 50 l/(p*a) Small volume High hygienic risk Carefull treatment required Faeces: not very pleasant, but volume is small, easier to handle, but be careful, because of hygienic risk, the most dangerous flow. Some of you might ask yourself, now this girl is talking all the time about separation the flows and not mixing urine and faeces, but how can you do this? For these people I have the answer in my next slide. Source: Otterpohl, TUHH 9


11 Schematic diagram of Urine Diversion Dehydrating Toilet
(can be built as single or double chambered toilets) Source:

12 Film
This film shows the construction, use and functioning of the UDDT.

13 Examples of urine diverting toilets
Wost-Man, Sweden Roediger, Germany Dubletten, Sweden Urine-diversion dehydration toilet Urine-diversion flush toilet Urine-diversion flush toilet waterless: Urine-diversion dehydration toilet (UDDT) with area for anal washing Shital ceramics, India

14 Urine Diversion Dehydrating Toilet in a school in Lima, Peru
Photos: Heike Hoffmann (Rotaria), 2008 More Details:

15 School UDDT- built under the Ecosan Promotion Project, Kenya
(SIDA, EU, GTZ) Fotos: Hagen von Bloh, GTZ, 2008

16 Ecosan wants Safe reuse – but how?
Some slides were kindly provided by Blanca Jimenez (Treatment and Reuse Group , Institute of Engineering, UNAM-Mexico), 2007

17 WHO Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater, excreta and greywater (2006)
Volume 1, Policy and regulatory aspects Volume 2, Wastewater use in agriculture Volume 3, Wastewater and excreta use in aquaculture Volume 4, Excreta and greywater use in agriculture

18 Any Questions?

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