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2.2 Major changes over time Learning objective: to become aware of the long-term impacts of society on sanitation systems and origins of change Urbanisation.

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Presentation on theme: "2.2 Major changes over time Learning objective: to become aware of the long-term impacts of society on sanitation systems and origins of change Urbanisation."— Presentation transcript:

1 2.2 Major changes over time Learning objective: to become aware of the long-term impacts of society on sanitation systems and origins of change Urbanisation and manufacturing are independent factors underlying most changes of our sanitation systems Source: Rathnabharathie and Kariyawasam, 2007

2 Was the strong link between the water and sanitation in the 20 th century a brief detour in human history? All ruralEssentially urban agriculture + sanitation water + sanitation agriculture + sanitation Most common Parenthesis? What will come next ? Jan-Olof Drangert, Linkoping University, Sweden

3 Urine-diverting toilet in the 1860s and sanitation footprints 1910 Stock- holm 60km urine bowl (broken) faeces urine collector urine funnel vent pipe Jan-Olof Drangert, Linkoping University, Sweden

4 How pipes gradually took over waste transport Period Solid street- waste kitchen- faeces urine Wastewater Earth pits for all household waste and content emptied in garden or on nearby farm Disposed of in streets or in yard Urine and greywater to a septic tank/waste pit or straight to water body Container for solid waste Black (WC)- and greywater in pipe to water body without any treatment Solid waste incinerated Some garbage sorted Wastewater treatment plants being built Some sludge applied on farmland Sorting of garbage and reuse Scenario 1: grinder for kitchen waste, increased mixing of waste and incineration Scenario 2: garbage sorted in more fractions, which are treated separately and used in production of new products Solid waste Excreta Latrine buckets of metal Jan-Olof Drangert, Linkoping University, Sweden

5 The history of management of water and used water over the 20 th century and beyond Supply Management Demand Management Reuse Management Priority 1: provide water no longer the only concern Priority 1: reduce water volume and emerging interest in wastewater Pri 1: wastewater quality Jan-Olof Drangert, Linköping University, Sweden

6 Mexico City now has 20+ million people MC Latest opened water source 100 KM 1 KM Next? 200 km 2 KM Jan-Olof Drangert, Linköping University, Sweden Courtesy of Ian Adler, International Renewable Resources Institute, Mexico

7 What we have seen so far ….. More pipes and more mixing of various flows has been the mantra for a long period But of late, there is a slow shift in focus from supply issues to what happens to water and waste materials after they are used New focus: to improve the way we deal with excreta, organic solid waste and wastewater in order to treat and use these resources again The future sources of water and nutrients will come from reusing water and waste materials Jan-Olof Drangert, Linköping University, Sweden


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