Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Decentralized Sanitation for Rural Areas Univ. Prof. Dr.-Ing. Ralf Otterpohl Director Institute of Wastewater Management and Water Protection Chair, Specialist.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Decentralized Sanitation for Rural Areas Univ. Prof. Dr.-Ing. Ralf Otterpohl Director Institute of Wastewater Management and Water Protection Chair, Specialist."— Presentation transcript:

1 Decentralized Sanitation for Rural Areas Univ. Prof. Dr.-Ing. Ralf Otterpohl Director Institute of Wastewater Management and Water Protection Chair, Specialist Group Resources oriented Sanitation

2

3 Water misused: Brussels, 2004

4 What type of system? (cost-comparison!!) On-Site? Community plant? Connect?

5 On-Site is now accepted as long term solution in Germany What type of system? (cost-comparison!!) On-Site? Community plant? Connect?

6 Bad examples from Eastern Germany Why: Very good business, bribery, lack of knowledge Real costs up to 50/m³ Brandenburg 2008: Police enforces usage of sewers despite reuse system

7

8 High quality treatment: MBR Busse, Germany

9

10 Avoiding health risks? On-Site sanitation conventional: Septic tank, often no further treatment: nitrate and pathogens can pollute groundwater Sludge is unusable, trucked away Further treatment: very rarely nutrient removal, still nitrate in groundwater, still pathogens (but less)

11 Volume l/(P*year) Urine ~ 500 Feaces ~ 50 (option: add biowaste) Greywater Yearly Loads kg/(P*year) Flushwater can be saved

12 Volume l/(P*year) Urine ~ 500 Feaces ~ 50 (option: add biowaste) Greywater N~ 4-5 ~ 3 % ~ 87 % ~ 10 % ~ 34 % K ~ 1,8 ~ 54 % ~ 12 % P~ 0,75 ~50 % ~ 40 % ~ 10 % COD~ 30 ~ 41 % ~ 12 % ~ 47 % Reuse / Water Cycle Treatment Fertiliser Biogas-Plant Composting Treatment Yearly Loads kg/(P*year) Soil-Conditioner S, Ca, Mg and trace elements Geigy, Wiss. Tabellen, Basel 1981, Vol. 1, LARSEN and GUJER 1996, FITSCHEN and HAHN 1998 Flushwater can be saved

13 Volume l/(P*year) Greywater N~ 4-5 ~ 3 % ~ 87 % ~ 10 % ~ 34 % K ~ 1,8 ~ 54 % ~ 12 % P~ 0,75 ~50 % ~ 40 % ~ 10 % COD~ 30 ~ 41 % ~ 12 % ~ 47 % MOST PATHOGENS! Yearly Loads kg/(P*year) DANGER! do not mix Feaces ~ 50

14 Ecosan principles: Containment, sanitisation, reuse (Ecosan is not a technology but following these principles) Full REUSE ZERO Emissions…

15 Desiccation toilet ++ Desiccation for hot climates Low/Non-diluting toilets are the key for new sanitation concepts

16 Vacuum-Biogas-System: 32 houses in Sneek, The Netherlands

17 Sorting-Toilet ( Gustavsberg, Sweden) Waterless Urinal (Keramag)

18 Pilot Project Lambertsmühle Initiative and Finance: Wupperverband and Verein Lambertsmühle Development of the Sanitation Concept Otterwasser GmbH, Lübeck Scientific consultation TUHH Inst. of Wastewater Management Elements of the Sanitation Concept: Urine-sorting Toilets and waterless Urinals Storage Tank for Yellow Water Pre-Composting Tank (2 chambers, Filter Bags) Constructed Wetland for filtered Grey- and Brownwater

19 Sawdust or ashes are used to flush squat-urine- diversion-toilet WECF: Women in Europe for a Common Future (Holland) in co-operation with TUHH

20 Ecosan Toilets, Romania (TUHH / WECF)

21 New school toilet, Ukraine ( TUHH/WECF)

22 Custom-made Urine-tank (GRP)

23 Sevastopol-Workshop

24

25 Volume l/(P*year) Greywater N~ 4-5 ~ 3 % ~ 87 % ~ 10 % ~ 34 % K ~ 1,8 ~ 54 % ~ 12 % P~ 0,75 ~50 % ~ 40 % ~ 10 % COD~ 30 ~ 41 % ~ 12 % ~ 47 % MOST PATHOGENS! Yearly Loads kg/(P*year) DANGER! do not mix Feaces ~ 50

26 Additional remarks Development of innovative sanitation can go together with local employment (production and operation) Simple urine diversion solves the problem of nitrogen emissions to water - but proper reuse is required Ecosan is maturing very fast, better products Greywater treatment can be combined with reuse Operation and maintenance are crucial issues that have to be assured

27 Conclusions On-Site sanitation is a proven, cost efficient and accepted solution Conventional systems are usually not resouce efficient and still spread nitrogen and pathogens Innovative systems are proven, reuse and low emissions go together with local employment Awareness campaigns on all levels are crucial Cheapest solution is often dry UD-toilets with added value and water efficiency


Download ppt "Decentralized Sanitation for Rural Areas Univ. Prof. Dr.-Ing. Ralf Otterpohl Director Institute of Wastewater Management and Water Protection Chair, Specialist."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google