Presentation on theme: "2.3 From Policy to Action Learning objective: become aquainted with regulations and how to interpret them and translate them into local action Who should."— Presentation transcript:
2.3 From Policy to Action Learning objective: become aquainted with regulations and how to interpret them and translate them into local action Who should decide what is permitted? On what grounds? Top-down vs. Bottom-up Jan-Olof Drangert. Linköping university, Sweden
Policies = stating aims and ideals No water body is to be degraded High protection of human health and ecosystems Cost recovery Pro-poor policies Water for All and Water is a human right Sanitation by All? No open defecation Recirculation of nutrients and zero emissions, etc Jan-Olof Drangert. Linköping university, Sweden The policy should be SMART = specific, measurable, achievable, realistic/resource-related/result-oriented, and time-bound.
Strategies connect policy with resources Do the right thing – effective Do the thing right - efficient Jan-Olof Drangert. Linköping university, Sweden Good governance is always helpful
Some ongoing strategic shifts Operation, maintenance Emphasis on hardware and infrastructure Emphasis on soft ware and local resources Demand-drivenSupply-driven approach Individual subsidies seen as drivers for change Market-based solutions Relatively high-cost tech recommendations Construction Local resources Jan-Olof Drangert. Linköping university, Sweden
Governance guided by principles Outcome-based regulation: The regulation is not prescriptive about the technology or process itself, but about the overall environmental outcomes of the process. Precautionary principle: Where there are threats of serious or irreversible environmental damage, lack of full scientific certainty is enough reason for postponement of the activity. Deal with pollution at the source: If a pollution situation is identified, the source of pollution should be addressed rather than the end-of-pipe result. Polluter pays: The polluter should in general bear the cost of pollution prevention, control and remediation. Recirculation: Recycling of waste products Risk assessment: A risk assessment of the pressure and impacts guide the actions to be taken and monitored Jan-Olof Drangert. Linköping university, Sweden
Sanitation arrangements from a management point of view Turn-key management where the utility (private or public) provides the service and the residents just pay the bill Own-key management where single households or housing associations initiate, build and control, while they put to use available skills, materials, and other local resources Turn-key Own-key WC & sewerage Dry urine- diverting toilet Dug latrine Aqua privy Jan-Olof Drangert. Linköping university, Sweden The key question is about control, not decentralisation. Two extremes:
Market-based sanitation strategy One stop shopping display at ring producer: visualising a pour-flush toilet with a septic tank Courtesy of Jeff Chapin, designer Odeo, USA Households Retailers Wholesalers Manufacturers (produce cement, brick, plastic pipes, steel, etc. ceramic...) Edu. & Marketing Services (e.g. health education, info on sanitation products & suppliers) Construction Services Credit Services (formal and informal) Transportation Services The Market
Social marketing - nothing strange Urban exhibition of toilet options in full scale and models in Trichy, India Plumbers sanitation shop in Sweden Jan-Olof Drangert. Linköping university, Swed en
Orangi sanitation project in Karachi, Pakistan Part of the Orangi area in Karachi in a flat, flood-prone area Digging for sewers in Orangi Ready underground sewer in a lane in Orangi constructed by self-help work under the guidance of the OPP project Source: Pervaiz, Rahman and Hassan, 2008
Guiding policy of a municipal council The council shall be generous in granting house connections to the communal water supply on the condition that the discharge system for wastewater from the premises is of good standard - all new building plans shall include a clause on urine to be discharged separately in new houses and in houses that are being rehabilitated - laying a separate urine pipe from the house to the border of the premises is the responsibility of the property owner - the municipality is responsible for the emptying, storing, and disposal of the urine Jan-Olof Drangert. Linköping university, Sweden
Decentralised water supply and sewerage Jan-Olof Drangert, Linkoping university, Sweden One policy and two strategies and their impacts in two cities and their rural hinterland Centralised water and sewerage
Managing sanitation through effective policies, strategies and sustainable arrangements Match policies with the level of governance Coordinate responsibilities for water, wastewater, stormwater, sanitation and solid waste Devolve responsibilities to the lowest level starting with what the household can do Make sure the resources are adequate to perform the tasks at the intended level Reuse recovered resources (water, urine, faeces, etc.) on soil, not in water Jan-Olof Drangert. Linköping university, Sweden
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