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©J.Tiberghien - ULB-VUB Version 2007 Première partie, chap. 5, page 1 Chapitre 1.5 Histoire de LInformatique.

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Presentation on theme: "©J.Tiberghien - ULB-VUB Version 2007 Première partie, chap. 5, page 1 Chapitre 1.5 Histoire de LInformatique."— Presentation transcript:

1 ©J.Tiberghien - ULB-VUB Version 2007 Première partie, chap. 5, page 1 Chapitre 1.5 Histoire de LInformatique

2 ©J.Tiberghien - ULB-VUB Version 2007 Première partie, chap. 5, page 2 Summary Early history of computing devices Commercial developments –First generation systems –Second generation systems –Third generation hardware –Third generation software –Fourth generation systems

3 ©J.Tiberghien - ULB-VUB Version 2007 Première partie, chap. 5, page 3 Summary Early history of computing devices Commercial developments –First generation systems –Second generation systems –Third generation hardware –Third generation software –Fourth generation systems

4 ©J.Tiberghien - ULB-VUB Version 2007 Première partie, chap. 5, page 4 Chinese Abacus

5 ©J.Tiberghien - ULB-VUB Version 2007 Première partie, chap. 5, page 5 Blaise Pascal

6 ©J.Tiberghien - ULB-VUB Version 2007 Première partie, chap. 5, page 6 Charles Babbage (1840)

7 ©J.Tiberghien - ULB-VUB Version 2007 Première partie, chap. 5, page Census & Herman Hollerith

8 ©J.Tiberghien - ULB-VUB Version 2007 Première partie, chap. 5, page Census & Herman Hollerith

9 ©J.Tiberghien - ULB-VUB Version 2007 Première partie, chap. 5, page 9 Punched Cards Data Processing Herman Hollerith founder of –Computing, Tabulating and Recording Company >International Business Machines (1924) –Industry leader in electromechanical data handling Competition: –Sperry Rand Corporation –Bull

10 ©J.Tiberghien - ULB-VUB Version 2007 Première partie, chap. 5, page 10 Early Electronic Data Processing In Europe : –Alan TURING : COLLOSSUS In the USA : –John V. Atanasoff & Clifford Berry –J.Presper Eckert & John W.Mauchly : ENIAC –John Von Neumann : EDVAC

11 ©J.Tiberghien - ULB-VUB Version 2007 Première partie, chap. 5, page 11 Alan TURING

12 ©J.Tiberghien - ULB-VUB Version 2007 Première partie, chap. 5, page 12 The Enigma

13 ©J.Tiberghien - ULB-VUB Version 2007 Première partie, chap. 5, page 13 Alan Bletchley Park

14 ©J.Tiberghien - ULB-VUB Version 2007 Première partie, chap. 5, page 14 John Atanasoff & Clifford Berry

15 ©J.Tiberghien - ULB-VUB Version 2007 Première partie, chap. 5, page 15 The Atanasoff-Berry Computer

16 ©J.Tiberghien - ULB-VUB Version 2007 Première partie, chap. 5, page 16 Eckert & Mauchly : ENIAC Moore School of Electrical Engineering First large scale electronic calculator Build between 1943 and 1946 Complexity : radio valves Electrical power : Watt Mean time between failure : 6.5 Hours Capabilities : those of a pocket calculator...

17 ©J.Tiberghien - ULB-VUB Version 2007 Première partie, chap. 5, page 17 J.Presper ECKERT

18 ©J.Tiberghien - ULB-VUB Version 2007 Première partie, chap. 5, page 18 John W. MAUCHLEY

19 ©J.Tiberghien - ULB-VUB Version 2007 Première partie, chap. 5, page 19 Eckert, Mauchly & Von Neumann

20 ©J.Tiberghien - ULB-VUB Version 2007 Première partie, chap. 5, page 20 Eckert, Mauchly & Von Neumann John Von Neumann –signs the EDVAC project –publishes paper setting the foundations of modern computers Eckert & Mauchly –get patents on ENIAC design –found a company to build commercial computers : UNIVAC

21 ©J.Tiberghien - ULB-VUB Version 2007 Première partie, chap. 5, page 21 The Honeywell vs. Sperry-Univac Lawsuit Eckert and Mauchly did not themselves first invent the automatic electronic digital computer, but instead derived that subject matter from one Dr.John Vincent Atanasoff. Judge LARSON October 19, 1973

22 ©J.Tiberghien - ULB-VUB Version 2007 Première partie, chap. 5, page 22 John Vincent Atanasoff Thelegal inventor of the digital computer

23 ©J.Tiberghien - ULB-VUB Version 2007 Première partie, chap. 5, page 23 Summary Early history of computing devices Commercial developments –First generation systems –Second generation systems –Third generation hardware –Third generation software –Fourth generation systems

24 ©J.Tiberghien - ULB-VUB Version 2007 Première partie, chap. 5, page 24 First Generation Systems Control Unit & ALU : Vacuum tubes Central memory : inadequate technologies –Mercury delay lines : slow and error prone –Manchester storage tubes : low capacity >Capacity : a few kilobytes >Access time : tens of microseconds Software : mainly scientific calculations –Cost of hardware >> cost of programmers –Programs written in machine language by scientists. –Main concern : efficient use of small memory

25 ©J.Tiberghien - ULB-VUB Version 2007 Première partie, chap. 5, page 25 First generation ALU module

26 ©J.Tiberghien - ULB-VUB Version 2007 Première partie, chap. 5, page 26 Summary Early history of computing devices Commercial developments –First generation systems –Second generation systems –Third generation hardware –Third generation software –Fourth generation systems

27 ©J.Tiberghien - ULB-VUB Version 2007 Première partie, chap. 5, page 27 Bardeen, Bratten & Shockley Invent the transistor at Bell Labs in 1948 and receive the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1955

28 ©J.Tiberghien - ULB-VUB Version 2007 Première partie, chap. 5, page 28 The first Transistor Revolutionary replacement for electronic vacuum valves

29 ©J.Tiberghien - ULB-VUB Version 2007 Première partie, chap. 5, page 29 Ferrite Memory Fast, low cost technology for central memories 1024 bit (128 bytes) 2 S

30 ©J.Tiberghien - ULB-VUB Version 2007 Première partie, chap. 5, page 30 Second Generation Systems Control Unit & ALU : Transistors Central memory : Ferrite cores Spectacular improvement of price/performance >Much larger systems become affordable Software : –Both scientific and administrative applications –Programmer productivity becomes important. >High level programming languages Scientific applications : FORTRAN Business oriented applications : COBOL

31 ©J.Tiberghien - ULB-VUB Version 2007 Première partie, chap. 5, page 31 First Scientific Supercomputer The IBM 7030 Stretch

32 ©J.Tiberghien - ULB-VUB Version 2007 Première partie, chap. 5, page 32 Grace Hopper (US Navy) Promoter of COBOL (Common Business Oriented Language)

33 ©J.Tiberghien - ULB-VUB Version 2007 Première partie, chap. 5, page 33 John Backus (IBM) Designer of FORTRAN (FORMULA TRANSLATOR)

34 ©J.Tiberghien - ULB-VUB Version 2007 Première partie, chap. 5, page 34 Summary Early history of computing devices Commercial developments –First generation systems –Second generation systems –Third generation hardware –Third generation software –Fourth generation systems

35 ©J.Tiberghien - ULB-VUB Version 2007 Première partie, chap. 5, page 35 The First Integrated Circuit

36 ©J.Tiberghien - ULB-VUB Version 2007 Première partie, chap. 5, page 36 Integrated circuits Several orders of magnitude improvement of price/performance ratio for electronic equipment

37 ©J.Tiberghien - ULB-VUB Version 2007 Première partie, chap. 5, page 37 Third Generation Computers Control Unit & ALU : Integrated Circuits Central memory : Ferrite cores Enormous improvement of price/performance >Very large systems become affordable Software : –Multiprogramming to keep systems busy –Second generation software technology appears inadequate for such large and complex systems. –Operating systems and application programs hard or even impossible to debug. =THE SOFTWARE CRISIS !!!

38 ©J.Tiberghien - ULB-VUB Version 2007 Première partie, chap. 5, page 38 New powerful computers: The IBM 360 series

39 ©J.Tiberghien - ULB-VUB Version 2007 Première partie, chap. 5, page 39 Summary Early history of computing devices Commercial developments –First generation systems –Second generation systems –Third generation hardware –Third generation software –Fourth generation systems

40 ©J.Tiberghien - ULB-VUB Version 2007 Première partie, chap. 5, page 40 The Cost of Software

41 ©J.Tiberghien - ULB-VUB Version 2007 Première partie, chap. 5, page 41 Software Engineering Facts: –Software development is usually much more expensive than the computer to run the software. –75% of software cost result from testing and making small changes. Logical conclusions: –Except when hardware cost is dominant, Software should be designed to be easily tested and modified rather than to be small or fast. >Software should be simple and clearly written

42 ©J.Tiberghien - ULB-VUB Version 2007 Première partie, chap. 5, page 42 Third Generation Software Structured programming New programming languages : –Pascal : initially for teaching structured programming –Ada : derived from Pascal, for reliable software –C : kind of high-level assembly language, initially intended for systems programming Extensions to existing languages : –Structured FORTRAN –Structured COBOL New operating system : UNIX –Simple, well structured multiprogramming system –written in C.

43 ©J.Tiberghien - ULB-VUB Version 2007 Première partie, chap. 5, page 43 Niklaus Wirth One of the founders of Software Engineering, and designer of new programming languages to support and teach software engineering: Pascal, Modula, Oberon

44 ©J.Tiberghien - ULB-VUB Version 2007 Première partie, chap. 5, page 44 Ken Thomson With Denis Ritchie designed UNIX, to support advanced text processing at the patent office of Bell Labs

45 ©J.Tiberghien - ULB-VUB Version 2007 Première partie, chap. 5, page 45 Summary Early history of computing devices Commercial developments –First generation systems –Second generation systems –Third generation hardware –Third generation software –Fourth generation systems

46 ©J.Tiberghien - ULB-VUB Version 2007 Première partie, chap. 5, page 46 VLSI Technology (Very Large Scale Integration) Progress in integrated circuits manufacturing –Number of components doubles every 18 months –Smaller components result in higher speed –Price/performance doubles in less than 18 months Technology milestones –1971: the first microprocessor = an entire CPU in one VLSI circuit. –1970: integrated circuit memories become cheaper than ferrite memories.

47 ©J.Tiberghien - ULB-VUB Version 2007 Première partie, chap. 5, page 47 The founders of INTEL Andy Grove Robert Noyce Gordon Moore

48 ©J.Tiberghien - ULB-VUB Version 2007 Première partie, chap. 5, page 48 VLSI memory chips

49 ©J.Tiberghien - ULB-VUB Version 2007 Première partie, chap. 5, page 49 Ted Van tHoff Designer of the first microprocessor at INTEL

50 ©J.Tiberghien - ULB-VUB Version 2007 Première partie, chap. 5, page 50 The First Microprocessor Prophetic advertisement published in the November 15, 1971 issue of Electronics

51 ©J.Tiberghien - ULB-VUB Version 2007 Première partie, chap. 5, page 51 Fourth Generation Systems 1970-now Control Unit & ALU : Integrated Circuits Central memory : Integrated Circuits Diversified computers: –Low cost Personal Workstations –Multi-processor supercomputers –Embedded systems Networking and distributed processing Software : –Graphical User-interfaces –Application oriented programming. –Object oriented design & programming.

52 ©J.Tiberghien - ULB-VUB Version 2007 Première partie, chap. 5, page 52 Chip - Cards


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